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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735739/genome-wide-bisulfite-sensitivity-profiling-of-yeast-suggests-bisulfite-inhibits-transcription
#1
Romulo Segovia, Veena Mathew, Annie S Tam, Peter C Stirling
Bisulfite, in the form of sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite, is used commercially as a food preservative. Bisulfite is used in the laboratory as a single-stranded DNA mutagen in epigenomic analyses of DNA methylation. Recently it has also been used on whole yeast cells to induce mutations in exposed single-stranded regions in vivo. To understand the effects of bisulfite on live cells we conducted a genome-wide screen for bisulfite sensitive mutants in yeast. Screening the deletion mutant array, and collections of essential gene mutants we define a genetic network of bisulfite sensitive mutants...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731201/a-technological-and-regulatory-outlook-on-crispr-crop-editing
#2
Rea Globus, Udi Qimron
Generating plants with increased yields while maintaining low production and maintenance costs is highly important since plants are the major food source for humans and animals, as well as important producers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Gene editing approaches, particularly the CRISPR-Cas system, are the preferred methods for improving crops, enabling quick, robust, and accurate gene manipulation. Nevertheless, new breeds of genetically-modified crops have initiated substantial debates concerning their biosafety, commercial use, and regulation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730970/healthy-diet-and-reduction-of-chronic-disease-risks-of-night-shift-workers
#3
Giovanni M Ferri, Domenica Cavone, Graziana Intranuovo, Linda Macinagrossa
BACKGROUND: The large increase in epidemiological studies on night shift work is due to the important effects of night shift work on workers' health and psychophysical wellbeing. The short-term effects-insomnia, difficulties in managing work and private life, lower work performance, and more work and extra-work accidents-are easily studied. However, there are several long-term effects that are difficult to study because of the need for detailed exposure assessment and the long latency periods of these diseases...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#4
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720347/transgenesis-affects-endogenous-soybean-allergen-levels-less-than-traditional-breeding
#5
Ryan C Hill, Brandon J Fast, Rod A Herman
The regulatory body that oversees the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), uniquely requires that endogenous allergen levels be quantified as part of the compositional characterization of GM versions of crops, such as soybean, that are considered to be major allergenic foods. The value of this requirement for assessing food safety has been challenged for multiple reasons including negligible risk of altering allergen levels compared with traditional non-GM breeding...
July 15, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702330/neonatal-glp1r-activation-limits-adult-adiposity-by-durably-altering-hypothalamic-architecture
#6
Andrea V Rozo, Daniella A Babu, PoMan A Suen, David N Groff, Randy J Seeley, Rebecca A Simmons, Patrick Seale, Rexford S Ahima, Doris A Stoffers
OBJECTIVE: Adult obesity risk is influenced by alterations to fetal and neonatal environments. Modifying neonatal gut or neurohormone signaling pathways can have negative metabolic consequences in adulthood. Here we characterize the effect of neonatal activation of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R) signaling on adult adiposity and metabolism. METHODS: Wild type C57BL/6 mice were injected with 1 nmol/kg Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP1R agonist, for 6 consecutive days after birth...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702325/the-human-digestive-tract-has-proteases-capable-of-gluten-hydrolysis
#7
Sergio Gutiérrez, Jenifer Pérez-Andrés, Honorina Martínez-Blanco, Miguel Angel Ferrero, Luis Vaquero, Santiago Vivas, Javier Casqueiro, Leandro B Rodríguez-Aparicio
OBJECTIVE: To identify, purify, and characterize the proteins responsible for glutenase activity in the feces of healthy subjects and patients with celiac disease (CD). METHODS: Sixteen subjects were included in this study; 8 were healthy with no known food intolerances, and 8 were treated CD patients on a gluten-free diet. Fecal samples were homogenized, and precipitated proteins were purified by chromatography. Glutenase activity was evaluated by bioassays, zymography, and high-performance liquid chromatography with immunogenic 33-mer, 19-mer, and 13-mer gliadin peptides...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695286/the-roles-of-mhc-class-ii-genes-and-post-translational-modification-in-celiac-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ludvig M Sollid
Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4(+) T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686700/rates-of-return-to-sorghum-and-millet-research-investments-a-meta-analysis
#9
Yacob A Zereyesus, Timothy J Dalton
Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674844/current-perspectives-on-genetically-modified-crops-and-detection-methods
#10
REVIEW
Madhu Kamle, Pradeep Kumar, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Vivek K Bajpai
Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667635/genetically-modified-phytase-crops-role-in-sustainable-plant-and-animal-nutrition-and-ecological-development-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Tanushri Kaul
Globally, plant-derivatives especially cereals and legumes are the major staple food sources for animals. The seeds of these crops comprise of phytic acid, the major repository form of the phosphorus, which is not digestible by simple-stomached animals. However, it is the most important factor responsible for impeding the absorption of minerals by plants that eventually results in less use of fertilizers that ultimately cause eutrophication in water bodies. Although abundant phosphorus (P) exists in the soils, plants cannot absorb most of the P due to its conversion to unavailable forms...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666130/tracking-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-meat-establishment-using-whole-genome-sequencing-as-a-food-safety-management-tool-a-proof-of-concept
#12
Ivan Nastasijevic, Dubravka Milanov, Branko Velebit, Vesna Djordjevic, Craig Swift, Anais Painset, Brankica Lakicevic
Repeated Listeria outbreaks particularly associated with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) delicatessen meat products have been reported annually at global level. The most frequent scenario that led to foodborne outbreaks was the post-thermal treatment cross-contamination of deli meat products during slicing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The precondition for such cross contamination is the previous introduction of Listeria into meat processing facilities and subsequent colonization of the production environment, associated with formation of biofilms resilient to common sanitation procedures regularly applied in meat establishments...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664693/readiness-of-adolescents-to-use-genetically-modified-organisms-according-to-their-knowledge-and-emotional-attitude-towards-gmos
#13
Stanisław Lachowski, Anna Jurkiewicz, Piotr Choina, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Agnieszka Buczaj, Małgorzata Goździewska
INTRODUCTION: Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a negative emotional attitude towards what is unknown...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661256/food-labeling-and-consumer-associations-with-health-safety-and-environment
#14
Joanna K Sax, Neal Doran
The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO...
December 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645870/impact-on-environment-ecosystem-diversity-and-health-from-culturing-and-using-gmos-as-feed-and-food
#15
REVIEW
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Victor A Tutelyan, Kirill S Golokhvast, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Duck Hwa Chung, Sung Jo Kang, Michael D Coleman, Nadia Tyshko, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks...
June 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643255/genome-editing-of-pig
#16
Masahito Watanabe, Hiroshi Nagashima
Pigs are important livestock for food and have been used in various biomedical studies, particularly translational research, as experimental animals because of their anatomical and physiological similarity to humans. The recent development of genome editing techniques, such as ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9, has rapidly expanded the use of genome editing tools in a variety of animals, resulting in the relatively easy and efficient generation of gene knock-out pigs. In the past few years, there has been a sustained increase in reports describing the development of genetically modified pigs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631995/monitoring-the-effect-of-pathogenic-nematodes-on-locomotion-of-drosophila-larvae
#17
Martin Kunc, Badrul Arefin, Pavel Hyrsl, Ulrich Theopold
One of the key factors that determine the interaction between hosts and their parasites is the frequency of their interactions, which depends on the locomotory behavior of both parts. To address host behavior we used natural infections involving insect pathogenic nematodes and Drosophila melanogaster larvae as hosts. Using a modified version of a recently described method (FIMTrack) to assess several parameters in larger sets of animals, we initially detected specific differences in larval food searching when comparing Drosophila strains...
February 21, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630695/newly-formulated-protein-quality-enhanced-extruded-sorghum-cowpea-corn-soya-sugar-and-oil-containing-fortified-blended-foods-lead-to-adequate-vitamin-a-and-iron-outcomes-and-improved-growth-compared-with-non-extruded-csb-in-rats
#18
Nicole M Delimont, Nicole M Fiorentino, Alexander B Opoku-Acheampong, Michael V Joseph, Qingbin Guo, Sajid Alavi, Brian L Lindshield
Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625227/a-brief-review-of-salient-factors-influencing-adult-eating-behaviour
#19
Christine Emilien, James H Hollis
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#20
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
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