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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631995/monitoring-the-effect-of-pathogenic-nematodes-on-locomotion-of-drosophila-larvae
#1
Martin Kunc, Badrul Arefin, Pavel Hyrsl, Ulrich Theopold
One of the key factors that determine the interaction between hosts and their parasites is the frequency of their interactions, which depends on the locomotory behavior of both parts. To address host behavior we used natural infections involving insect pathogenic nematodes and Drosophila melanogaster larvae as hosts. Using a modified version of a recently described method (FIMTrack) to assess several parameters in larger sets of animals, we initially detected specific differences in larval food searching when comparing Drosophila strains...
February 21, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630695/newly-formulated-protein-quality-enhanced-extruded-sorghum-cowpea-corn-soya-sugar-and-oil-containing-fortified-blended-foods-lead-to-adequate-vitamin-a-and-iron-outcomes-and-improved-growth-compared-with-non-extruded-csb-in-rats
#2
Nicole M Delimont, Nicole M Fiorentino, Alexander B Opoku-Acheampong, Michael V Joseph, Qingbin Guo, Sajid Alavi, Brian L Lindshield
Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625227/a-brief-review-of-salient-factors-influencing-adult-eating-behaviour
#3
Christine Emilien, James H Hollis
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#4
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622636/crispr-based-engineering-of-next-generation-lactic-acid-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Sarah O'Flaherty, Rodolphe Barrangou
The advent of CRISPR-based technologies has opened new avenues for the development of next-generation food microorganisms and probiotics with enhanced functionalities. Building off two decades of functional genomics studies unraveling the genetic basis for food fermentations and host-probiotic interactions, CRISPR technologies offer a wide range of opportunities to engineer commercially-relevant Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems can be repurposed to enhance gene expression or provide new features to improve host colonization and promote human health...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604414/dietary-iron-and-heme-iron-consumption-genetic-susceptibility-and-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Hamed Khalili, Punyanganie S de Silva, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Paul Lochhead, Amit Joshi, John J Garber, James R Richter, Jenny Sauk, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND: Dietary iron and heme, likely through their effect on gut commensal bacteria and colonic barrier function, have been shown to modulate colonic inflammation in animal models of colitis. Nonetheless, the link between dietary total and heme iron and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been previously explored. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 165,331 U.S. women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II...
July 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591779/elucidating-the-biological-roles-of-insulin-and-its-receptor-in-murine-intestinal-growth-and-function
#7
Stina Rikke Jensen, Sarah E Wheeler, Henning Hvid, Jonas Ahnfelt-Rønne, Bo Falck Hansen, Erica Nishimura, Grith Skytte Olsen, Patricia L Brubaker
The role of the intestinal insulin receptor (IR) is not well-understood. We therefore explored the effect of insulin (300 nmol/kg-d for 12d) on the intestine in sex-matched C57Bl/6J mice. The intestinal and metabolic profiles were also characterized in male and female intestinal-epithelial IR knockout (IE-irKO) mice as compared to all genetic controls, on a chow or Western diet (WD) for 4-12wk. Insulin treatment did not affect intestinal size, intestinal resistance or metabolic genes, but reduced proximal-colon crypt depth and acutely increased colonic AKT activation...
June 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587069/taste-perception-of-sweet-sour-salty-bitter-and-umami-and-changes-due-to-l-arginine-supplementation-as-a-function-of-genetic-ability-to-taste-6-n-propylthiouracil
#8
Melania Melis, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Behavioral reaction to different taste qualities affects nutritional status and health. 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) tasting has been reported to be a marker of variation in taste perception, food preferences, and eating behavior, but results have been inconsistent. We showed that l-Arg can enhance the bitterness intensity of PROP, whilst others have demonstrated a suppression of the bitterness of quinine. Here, we analyze the taste perception of sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami and the modifications caused by l-Arg supplementation, as a function of PROP-taster status...
May 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582707/an-ultrasensitive-label-free-electrochemiluminescent-immunosensor-for-measuring-cry1ab-level-and-genetically-modified-crops-content
#9
Hongfei Gao, Luke Wen, Yuhua Wu, Zhifeng Fu, Gang Wu
The development of genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crops has aroused great public concern about the risks on the eco-environment resulting from a release of toxic Cry proteins (such as Cry1Ab) to the soil. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to measure the Cry proteins level and the GM crops content. Here, we have tested for the first time a method that uses novel carbon nanospheres (CNPs) label-free electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunosensor for the ultrasensitive quantification of Cry1Ab and GM crops...
April 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573861/safety-assessment-of-food-and-feed-from-gm-crops-in-europe-evaluating-efsa-s-alternative-framework-for-the-rat-90-day-feeding-study
#10
Bonnie Hong, Yingzhou Du, Pushkor Mukerji, Jason M Roper, Laura Marie Appenzeller
Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572902/bioinspired-m-13-bacteriophage-based-photonic-nose-for-differential-cell-recognition
#11
Jong-Sik Moon, Won-Geun Kim, Dong-Myeong Shin, So-Young Lee, Chuntae Kim, Yujin Lee, Jiye Han, Kyujung Kim, So Young Yoo, Jin-Woo Oh
A bioinspired M-13 bacteriophage-based photonic nose was developed for differential cell recognition. The M-13 bacteriophage-based photonic nose exhibits characteristic color patterns when phage bundle nanostructures, which were genetically modified to selectively capture vapor phase molecules, are structurally deformed. We characterized the color patterns of the phage bundle nanostructure in response to cell proliferation via several biomarkers differentially produced by cells, including hydrazine, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, ethanol and toluene...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559156/dietary-safety-assessment-of-genetically-modified-rice-eh-rich-in-%C3%AE-carotene
#12
Yangyang Wu, Yan Xu, Yanan Du, Xiao Zhao, Ruili Hu, Xiaorui Fan, Fangfang Ren, Quanhong Yao, Rihe Peng, Xueming Tang, Kai Zhao
This 90-day study aimed to assess the dietary safety of transgenic rice EH which is rich in β-carotene. Two experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 45% rice flour of Zhonghua 11 rice and transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene, respectively. The reference group was fed a diet containing standard feed nutrition. During the trial period, each rat was weighed and the food intake was recorded twice a week. Their behaviors were observed daily. In the end, blood samples were obtained from all anesthetized rats to measure the hematologic and serum chemistry indicators...
May 27, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554328/the-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#13
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Gema Frühbeck, Maria De Angelis, Ornella De Bari, David Q-H Wang, Frank Lammert, Piero Portincasa
Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans, motivating a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548831/folate-biofortification-in-hydroponically-cultivated-spinach-by-the-addition-of-phenylalanine
#14
Sho Watanabe, Yuta Ohtani, Yohei Tatsukami, Wataru Aoki, Takashi Amemiya, Yasunori Sukekiyo, Seiichi Kubokawa, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, the production and sales of genetically modified foods are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification. We hydroponically cultivated spinach with the addition of three candidate compounds expected to fortify folate...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521687/diet-and-contaminants-driving-the-rise-to-obesity-epidemics
#15
Agostino Di Ciaula, Piero Portincasa
The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented to dietary habits and lifestyle, which seem to have modest effects. Genetic factors only partly explain the rise, whereas environmental factors seem to play a key role, mainly by gene-environment interactions through epigenetic mechanisms. A number of animal and human studies point to maternal diet, intestinal microbiota and chemicals introduced as contaminants with food, all factors able to increase the risk of obesity...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510512/field-trial-of-insect-resistant-and-herbicide-tolerant-genetically-modified-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-for-environmental-risk-assessment-in-japan
#16
Yoko Asanuma, Takahiro Gondo, Genki Ishigaki, Koichi Inoue, Norihiro Zaita, Melody Muguerza, Ryo Akashi
Japan imports cottonseed mainly from Australia and the USA where more than 96% of all cotton varieties grown are genetically modified (GM). GM crops undergo an environmental risk assessment (ERA) under the Law Concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity before import into Japan. Potential adverse effects on biodiversity are comprehensively assessed based on competitiveness, production of harmful substances and outcrossing ability. Even though imported cottonseed is intended for food and feed uses and not for cultivation, the potential risks from seed spillage during transport must be evaluated...
April 3, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499068/mutmapplus-identified-novel-mutant-alleles-of-a-rice-starch-branching-enzyme-iib-gene-for-fine-tuning-of-cooked-rice-texture
#17
Masaru Nakata, Tomomi Miyashita, Rieko Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Hiroki Takagi, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takayuki Umemoto, Hiromoto Yamakawa
Physico-chemical properties of storage starch largely determine rice grain quality and food characteristics. Therefore, modification of starch property is effective to fine-tune cooked rice textures. To obtain new resources with modified starch property as breeding materials, we screened a mutant population of a japonica cultivar Nipponbare and found two independent mutant lines, altered gelatinization (age) 1 and age2, with moderate changes in starch gelatinization property. A combination of conventional genetic analyses and the latest mapping method, MutMapPlus, revealed that both of these lines harbor novel independent mutant alleles of starch branching enzyme IIb (BEIIb) gene...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496171/altered-balance-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-learning-in-a-genetically-modified-mouse-model-of-glutamatergic-dysfunction-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#18
David J Sanderson, Aletheia Lee, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, David M Bannerman
The GluA1 AMPAR subunit (encoded by the Gria1 gene) has been implicated in schizophrenia. Gria1 knockout in mice results in recently experienced stimuli acquiring aberrantly high salience. This suggests that GluA1 may be important for learning that is sensitive to the temporal contiguity between events. To test this, mice were trained on a Pavlovian trace conditioning procedure in which the presentation of an auditory cue and food were separated by a temporal interval. Wild-type mice initially learnt, but with prolonged training came to withhold responding during the trace-conditioned cue, responding less than for another cue that was nonreinforced...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487674/uncovering-potential-applications-of-cyanobacteria-and-algal-metabolites-in-biology-agriculture-and-medicine-current-status-and-future-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Madhulika Singh, Andrzej Bajguz, Jitendra Kumar, Samiksha Singh, Vijay P Singh, Sheo M Prasad
Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483713/safety-assessment-of-astaxanthin-derived-from-engineered-escherichia-coli-k-12-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-and-a-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-study-in-rats
#20
Yin-Ju Lin, Jian-Yu Lin, Di-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hao Chen, Ming-Hsi Chiou
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity that has been used for decades as a nutrient/color additive and it has recently been marketed as a health supplement. Astaxanthin can be synthesized in a wide range of microalgae, yeast, and bacteria. As genes directing astaxanthin biosynthesis in various organisms have been cloned, this study assessed the safety of astaxanthin crystal produced by Escherichia coli K-12 harboring plasmids carrying astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. The astaxanthin crystal contains a total carotenoid content of 950 mg/g and an astaxanthin content of 795 mg/g...
May 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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