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genetically modified foods

V Priya, B N Srikumar, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Performing multiple tasks either simultaneously, in rapid alternation or in succession, is routine in daily life. Further, testing rodents in a battery of tests is common both in drug discovery and behavioral phenotyping research. However, learning of new tasks can be influenced by prior experience(s). There has been some research on 'switching cost' involved in the transition from one behavior to another. However, there has been no specific assessment of the effect of learning an operant paradigm on performance in a spatial memory task and vice versa...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P Nikolelis, Christina G Siontorou, Stephanos Karapetis, Theo Varzakas
The modern environmental and food analysis requires sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods. The growing field of biosensors represents an answer to this demand. Unfortunately, most biosensor systems have been tested only on distilled water or buffered solutions, although applications to real samples are increasingly appearing in recent years. In this context, biosensors for potential food applications continue to show advances in areas such as genetic modification of enzymes and microorganisms, improvement of recognition element immobilization, and sensor interfaces...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
Maarten van Zonneveld, Nerea Larranaga, Benjamin Blonder, Lidio Coradin, José I Hormaza, Danny Hunter
Neotropical fruit species once dispersed by Pleistocene megafauna have regained relevance in diversifying human diets to address malnutrition. Little is known about the historic interactions between humans and these fruit species. We quantified the human role in modifying geographic and environmental ranges of Neotropical fruit species by comparing the distribution of megafauna-dispersed fruit species that have been part of both human and megafauna diets with fruit species that were exclusively part of megafauna diets...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jonas Reinholz, Christopher Diesler, Susanne Schöttler, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Sandra Ritz, Katharina Landfester, Volker Mailänder
The transport of nanocarriers through barriers like the gut in a living organism involves the transcytosis of these nanocarriers through the cell layer dividing two compartments. Understanding how this process works is not only essential to further developing strategies for a more effective nanocarrier transport system but also for providing fundamental insights into the barrier function as a means of protection against micro- and nanoplastics in the food chain. We therefore set out to investigate the different uptake mechanisms, intracellular trafficking and the routes for exocytosis for small polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs ca...
March 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Alex Yen-Yu Chen, Tim Tully
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The complexity of disease etiology includes both genetic and environmental factors. No effective drug that can modify disease progression and protect dopamine neurons from degeneration is presently available. Human α-Synuclein A30P (A30P) is a mutant gene identified in early onset PD and showed to result selective dopamine neuron loss in transgenic A30P flies and mice...
March 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
March 8, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ana Carolina Feldenheimer da Silva, Elisabetta Recine, Paula Johns, Fabio da Silva Gomes, Mariana de Araújo Ferraz, Eduardo Faerstein
The historical struggles that Brazil faced to overcome malnutrition coincided with the empowerment of civil society and social movements which played a crucial role in the affirmation of health and food as social rights. After two decades under military dictatorship, Brazil went through a redemocratization process in the 1980s when activism emerged to demand spaces to participate in policy-making regarding the social agenda, including food and nutrition security (FNS). From 1988 onward institutional structures were established: the National Council of FNS (CONSEA) convenes government and civil society sectors to develop and monitor the implementation of policies, systems and actions...
March 1, 2018: Global Public Health
David C Merritt, Joseph Jamnik, Ahmed El-Sohemy
Background: Variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene ( FTO ) has been associated with susceptibility to obesity, but the association appears to be modified by diet. We investigated whether dietary protein intake modifies the association between FTO variant rs1558902 and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young adults ( n  = 1491) from the cross-sectional Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Results: Lifestyle, genetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected and diet was assessed using a Toronto-modified Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Rod A Herman, Gregory S Ladics
The value of criteria used in the weight-of-evidence assessment of allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops has been debated. This debate may originate, in part, from not specifying if the criteria are intended to contribute to the assessment of sensitization risk or elicitation risk. Here, this distinction is explicitly discussed in the context of exposure and hazard. GM crops with structural relationships with known allergens or sourced from an organism known to cause allergy (hazard) are screened for IgE-antibody reactivity using serum from sensitized individuals...
February 23, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Zixin Xie, Shiying Zou, Wentao Xu, Xu Liu, Kunlun Huang, Xiaoyun He
The genetically modified (GM) soybean FG72 contains two exogenous genes: p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) and double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mepsps), endowing the FG72 with the glyphosate and isoxaflutole herbicides resistant abilities for presence of the 2mEPSPS and HPPD W336 proteins. A food safety assessment of GM soybean FG72 was evaluated by a 90-days feeding study using three different dietary concentrations (7.5%, 15%, or 30% w/w) of the GM soybean or its corresponding non-GM cultivar Jack fed to Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 17, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Brenda Gamboa-Loira, César Hernández-Alcaraz, A Jay Gandolfi, Mariano E Cebrián, Ana Burguete-García, Angélica García-Martínez, Lizbeth López-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Nutrients and genetic polymorphisms participating in one-carbon metabolism may explain interindividual differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity, which in turn may account for variations in susceptibility to iAs-induced diseases. OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in five one-carbon metabolism genes (FOLH1 c.223 T > C, MTHFD1 c.1958 G > A, MTHFR c.665 C > T, MTR c.2756 A > G, and MTRR c...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Emily K Stern, Darren M Brenner
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, heterogeneous disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with changes in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is multifactorial and may relate to alterations in the gut microbiota, changes in visceral sensation and motility, and genetic and environmental factors. Administration of systemic antibiotics may increase the risk of IBS by altering gastrointestinal homeostasis. Therapeutic interventions for IBS with diarrhea that are thought to target alterations in the gut microbiota include the nonsystemic antibiotic rifaximin, the medical food serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin, prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary modification...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Jennifer A Anderson, Jamie Staley, Mary Challender, Jamie Heuton
Genetically modified crops undergo extensive evaluation to characterize their food, feed and environmental safety prior to commercial introduction, using a well-established, science-based assessment framework. One component of the safety assessment includes an evaluation of each introduced trait, including its source organism, for potential adverse pathogenic, toxic and allergenic effects. Several Pseudomonas species have a history of safe use in agriculture and certain species represent a source of genes with insecticidal properties...
February 9, 2018: Transgenic Research
Yalan Wei, Ling Huang, Jinghui Cao, Chenghui Wang, Jizhou Yan
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Aida Ebrahimi, Laszlo N Csonka, Muhammad A Alam
Heat treatment is one of the most widely used methods for inactivation of bacteria in food products. Heat-induced loss of bacterial viability has been variously attributed to protein denaturation, oxidative stress, or membrane leakage; indeed, it is likely to involve a combination of these processes. We examine the effect of mild heat stress (50-55°C for ≤12 min) on cell permeability by directly measuring the electrical conductance of samples of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to answer a fundamental biophysical question, namely, how bacteria die under mild heat stress...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Miroslav Vetrik, Jana Mattova, Hana Mackova, Jan Kucka, Pavla Pouckova, Olivia Kukackova, Jiri Brus, Sebastian Eigner-Henke, Ondrej Sedlacek, Ludek Sefc, Petr Stepanek, Martin Hruby
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder that causes excessive accumulation of copper in the body, leading to toxic damage, especially in the liver and nervous system. The current treatment cause burdensome side effects. We describe the use of chemically modified biopolymer carriers based on microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan containing the highly specific copper chelator 8-hydroxyquinoline as a new type of therapy for Wilson's disease. The chelators can scavenges copper ions released from food during digestion and copper ions present in secretions in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Masoumeh Rafiee, Gity Sotoudeh, Mahmoud Djalali, Ehsan Alvandi, Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Fatemeh Javadi, Farideh Doostan, Fariba Koohdani
PURPOSE: We aimed to study whether macronutrient intake could modify the association between ApoB Ins/Del and lipid profile, and serum leptin and ghrelin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: In this study, 700 T2DM patients were recruited. Anthropometric, biochemical and molecular data were collected, and Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The interactions were tested using ANCOVA. RESULTS: Del-allele carriers with high-MUFA and carbohydrate (≥ 12 and ≥ 54% of energy, respectively) had significantly higher TG (P = 0...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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