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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210764/review-biosafety-assessment-of-bt-rice-and-other-bt-crops-using-spiders-as-example-for-non-target-arthropods-in-china
#1
REVIEW
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Jilin Hu, Qisheng Song, Zhi Wang
Since the birth of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin for pest control, the public debate regarding ecological and environmental risks as well as benefits of Bt crops has continued unabated. The impact of Bt crops, especially on non-target invertebrates, has received particular attention. In this review, we summarize and analyze evidences for non-target effects of Bt rice on spiders, major predators in rice fields. Bt rice has been genetically modified to express the Bt protein, which has been shown to be transferred and accumulate in spiders as part of their food chain...
February 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207292/occurrence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-carcasses-of-pigs-reared-in-intensive-systems-in-northern-italy
#2
Roberto Papini, Pierluigi di Ciccio, Marianna Marangi, Sergio Ghidini, Emanuela Zanardi, Alberto Vergara, Annunziata Giangaspero, Simona Nardoni, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Mancianti, Adriana Ianieri
To evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and to genetically characterize its isolates in carcasses of industrial fattening pigs, blood, diaphragm, and heart samples were collected from 375 carcasses of pigs slaughtered to be processed for Parma ham production. Pigs had been bred on approved farms (n = 75) located in the so-called Food Valley in Italy. Sera were examined for immunoglobulin G antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Both heart and diaphragm samples from seropositive carcasses were processed for the presence of T...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194094/food-seeking-in-a-risky-environment-a-method-for-evaluating-risk-and-reward-value-in-food-seeking-and-consumption-in-mice
#3
Sarah H Lockie, Clare V McAuley, Sasha Rawlinson, Natalie Guiney, Zane B Andrews
Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185883/development-of-reactor-configurations-for-an-electrofuels-platform-utilizing-genetically-modified-iron-oxidizing-bacteria-for-the-reduction-of-co2-to-biochemicals
#4
Jingyang Guan, Sarah A Berlinger, Xiaozheng Li, Zhongmou Chao, Victor Sousa E Silva, Scott Banta, Alan C West
Electrofuels processes are potentially promising platforms for biochemical production from CO2 using renewable energy. When coupled to solar panels, this approach could avoid the inefficiencies of photosynthesis and there is no competition with food agriculture. In addition, these systems could potentially be used to store intermittent or stranded electricity generated from other renewable sources. Here we develop reactor configurations for continuous electrofuels processes to convert electricity and CO2 to isobutyric acid (IBA) using genetically modified (GM) chemolithoautotrophic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#5
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
December 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181679/mechanism-of-motor-coordination-of-masseter-and-temporalis-muscles-for-increased-masticatory-efficiency-in-mice
#6
Tomoko Yoshimi, Yoshiyuki Koga, Aya Nakamura, Ayumi Fujishita, Haruka Kohara, Emi Moriuchi, Keiko Yoshimi, Chi-Yang Tsai, Noriaki Yoshida
The demand for the use of mice as animal models for elucidating the pathophysiologies and pathogeneses of oral motor disorders has been increasing in recent years, as more and more kinds of genetically modified mice that express functional disorders of the stomatognathic system become available. However, the fundamental characteristics of mouse jaw movements during mastication have yet to be fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of the masseter and temporalis muscles, and the mechanisms of motor coordination of these muscles for increasing masticatory efficiency in the closing phase in mice...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176947/silencing-of-foxp3-enhances-the-antitumor-efficacy-of-gm-csf-genetically-modified-tumor-cell-vaccine-against-b16-melanoma
#7
Antonio Miguel, Luis Sendra, Verónica Noé, Carles J Ciudad, Francisco Dasí, David Hervas, María José Herrero, Salvador F Aliño
The antitumor response after therapeutic vaccination has a limited effect and seems to be related to the presence of T regulatory cells (Treg), which express the immunoregulatory molecules CTLA4 and Foxp3. The blockage of CTLA4 using antibodies has shown an effective antitumor response conducing to the approval of the human anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab by the US Food and Drug Administration. On the other hand, Foxp3 is crucial for Treg development. For this reason, it is an attractive target for cancer treatment...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171816/the-western-disease-autism-and-somali-parents-embodied-health-movements
#8
Claire Laurier Decoteau
There is some statistical evidence indicating that Somali refugees and immigrants have high rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Somalis in North America call autism the "Western disease" because there is no word for autism in the Somali language and because many believe it does not exist in Somalia. In Toronto, Somali parents have forged an "epistemic community," united around a coherent theory of the development of autism, its defining features, and most successful therapies. They work together with researchers to support the theory that gut bacteria is a causal factor for the development of autism...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165384/early-taste-experiences-and-later-food-choices
#9
REVIEW
Valentina De Cosmi, Silvia Scaglioni, Carlo Agostoni
BACKGROUND: Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. METHODS: Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life...
February 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154537/odor-induced-neuronal-rhythms-in-the-olfactory-bulb-are-profoundly-modified-in-ob-ob-obese-mice
#10
Yan Chelminski, Christophe Magnan, Serge H Luquet, Amandine Everard, Nicolas Meunier, Hirac Gurden, Claire Martin
Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148682/dietary-protein-modifies-the-effect-of-the-mc4r-genotype-on-2-year-changes-in-appetite-and-food-craving-the-pounds-lost-trial
#11
Tao Huang, Yan Zheng, Adela Hruby, Donald A Williamson, George A Bray, Yiru Shen, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior. Variants in the MC4R gene have been related to appetite and obesity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine whether weight-loss diets modified the effect of the "obesity-predisposing" MC4R genotype on appetite-related measures in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 811 overweight and obese subjects [25 ≤ body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) ≤ 40] aged 30-70 y were included in the 2-y POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) trial...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145404/ethological-principles-predict-the-neuropeptides-co-opted-to-influence-parenting
#12
Christopher B Cunningham, Majors J Badgett, Richard B Meagher, Ron Orlando, Allen J Moore
Ethologists predicted that parental care evolves by modifying behavioural precursors in the asocial ancestor. As a corollary, we predict that the evolved mechanistic changes reside in genetic pathways underlying these traits. Here we test our hypothesis in female burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect where caring adults regurgitate food to begging, dependent offspring. We quantify neuropeptide abundance in brains collected from three behavioural states: solitary virgins, individuals actively parenting or post-parenting solitary adults and quantify 133 peptides belonging to 18 neuropeptides...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134072/lessons-on-dietary-biomarkers-from-twin-studies
#13
Cristina Menni
Metabolomic and microbiome profiling are promising tools to identify biomarkers of food intake and health status. The individual's genetic makeup plays a significant role on health, metabolism, gut microbes and diet and twin studies provide unique opportunities to untangle gene-environment effects on complex phenotypes. This brief review discusses the value of twin studies in nutrition research with a particular focus on metabolomics and the gut microbiome. Although, the twin model is a powerful tool to segregate the genetic component, to date, very few studies combine the twin design and metabolomics/microbiome in nutritional sciences...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132509/comparison-of-allergenicity-at-gly-m-4-and-gly-m-bd-30k-of-soybean-after-genetic-modification
#14
Jaw-Ji Tsai, Ching-Yun Chang, En-Chih Liao
Despite rapid growth of genetically modified (GM) crops, effective evaluations of genetic modification on allergenicity are still lacking. Gly m Bd 30K is cross-reactive with cow's milk protein casein, Gly m 4, and with birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Here we compared the allergenicity between GM and non-GM soybeans with respect to the foci Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K. Recombinant allergens of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 were generated and polyclonal antibodies raised to identify these two allergenic components in soybeans...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123097/a-l%C3%A3-vy-flight-diffusion-model-to-predict-transgenic-pollen-dispersal
#15
Valentin Vallaeys, Rebecca C Tyson, W David Lane, Eric Deleersnijder, Emmanuel Hanert
The containment of genetically modified (GM) pollen is an issue of significant concern for many countries. For crops that are bee-pollinated, model predictions of outcrossing rates depend on the movement hypothesis used for the pollinators. Previous work studying pollen spread by honeybees, the most important pollinator worldwide, was based on the assumption that honeybee movement can be well approximated by Brownian motion. A number of recent studies, however, suggest that pollinating insects such as bees perform Lévy flights in their search for food...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111424/effects-of-soy-product-intake-and-interleukin-genetic-polymorphisms-on-early-gastric-cancer-risk-in-korea-a-case-control-study
#16
Sarah Yang, Yoon Park, Jeonghee Lee, Il Ju Choi, Young Woo Kim, Keun Won Ryu, Joohon Sung, Jeongseon Kim
Purpose: The current study investigated whether the combined effects of soy intake and genetic polymorphisms of interleukin (IL) genes modify gastric cancer risk. Materials and Methods: A total of 377 cases and 754 controls of Korean origin were included in the analysis. Soy consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Seven variants of IL-10 (rs1800871), IL-2 (rs2069763 and rs2069762), IL-13 (rs6596090 and rs20541), and IL-4R (rs7205663 and rs1805010) were genetically analyzed...
January 19, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111299/assessment-of-endogenous-allergenicity-of-genetically-modified-plants-exemplified-by-soybean-where-do-we-stand
#17
REVIEW
R Selb, J M Wal, F J Moreno, M Lovik, C Mills, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, A Fernandez
According to EU regulation, genetically modified (GM) plants considered to be allergenic have to be assessed concerning their endogenous allergens before placement on the EU market, in line with the international standards described in Codex Alimentarius. Under such premises, a quantitative relevant increase in allergens might occur in GM plants as an unintended effect compared with conventionally produced crops, which could pose a risk to consumers. Currently, data showing a connection between dose and allergic sensitisation are scarce since the pathophysiological mechanisms of sensitisation are insufficiently understood...
January 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111297/modeling-of-glucose-release-from-native-and-modified-wheat-starch-gels-during-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-digestion-using-artificial-intelligence-methods
#18
A R Yousefi, Seyed M A Razavi
Estimation of the amounts of glucose release (AGR) during gastrointestinal digestion can be useful to identify food of potential use in the diet of individuals with diabetes. In this work, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and group method of data handling (GMDH) models were applied to estimate the AGR from native (NWS), cross-linked (CLWS) and hydroxypropylated wheat starch (HPWS) gels during digestion under simulated gastrointestinal conditions...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107927/electrochemical-detection-of-magnetically-entrapped-dna-sequences-from-complex-samples-by-multiplexed-enzymatic-labelling-application-to-a-transgenic-food-feed-quantitative-survey
#19
C L Manzanares-Palenzuela, J P Martín-Clemente, M J Lobo-Castañón, B López-Ruiz
Monitoring of genetically modified organisms in food and feed demands molecular techniques that deliver accurate quantitative results. Electrochemical DNA detection has been widely described in this field, yet most reports convey qualitative data and application in processed food and feed samples is limited. Herein, the applicability of an electrochemical multiplex assay for DNA quantification in complex samples is assessed. The method consists of the simultaneous magnetic entrapment via sandwich hybridisation of two DNA sequences (event-specific and taxon-specific) onto the surface of magnetic microparticles, followed by bienzymatic labelling...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088010/challenges-and-opportunities-for-improving-food-quality-and-nutrition-through-plant-biotechnology
#20
REVIEW
David Francis, John J Finer, Erich Grotewold
Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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