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genetically modified foods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521687/diet-and-contaminants-driving-the-rise-to-obesity-epidemics
#1
Agostino Di Ciaula, Piero Portincasa
The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented to dietary habits and lifestyle, which seem to have modest effects. Genetic factors only partly explain the rise, whereas environmental factors seem to play a key role, mainly by gene-environment interactions through epigenetic mechanisms. A number of animal and human studies point to maternal diet, intestinal microbiota and chemicals introduced as contaminants with food, all factors able to increase the risk of obesity...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510512/field-trial-of-insect-resistant-and-herbicide-tolerant-genetically-modified-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-for-environmental-risk-assessment-in-japan
#2
Yoko Asanuma, Takahiro Gondo, Genki Ishigaki, Koichi Inoue, Norihiro Zaita, Melody Muguerza, Ryo Akashi
Japan imports cottonseed mainly from Australia and the USA where more than 96% of all cotton varieties grown are genetically modified (GM). GM crops undergo an environmental risk assessment (ERA) under the Law Concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity before import into Japan. Potential adverse effects on biodiversity are comprehensively assessed based on competitiveness, production of harmful substances and outcrossing ability. Even though imported cottonseed is intended for food and feed uses and not for cultivation, the potential risks from seed spillage during transport must be evaluated...
April 3, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499068/mutmapplus-identified-novel-mutant-alleles-of-a-rice-starch-branching-enzyme-iib-gene-for-fine-tuning-of-cooked-rice-texture
#3
Masaru Nakata, Tomomi Miyashita, Rieko Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Hiroki Takagi, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takayuki Umemoto, Hiromoto Yamakawa
Physico-chemical properties of storage starch largely determine rice grain quality and food characteristics. Therefore, modification of starch property is effective to fine-tune cooked rice textures. To obtain new resources with modified starch property as breeding materials, we screened a mutant population of a japonica cultivar Nipponbare and found two independent mutant lines, altered gelatinization (age) 1 and age2, with moderate changes in starch gelatinization property. A combination of conventional genetic analyses and the latest mapping method, MutMapPlus, revealed that both of these lines harbor novel independent mutant alleles of starch branching enzyme IIb (BEIIb) gene...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496171/altered-balance-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-learning-in-a-genetically-modified-mouse-model-of-glutamatergic-dysfunction-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#4
David J Sanderson, Aletheia Lee, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, David M Bannerman
The GluA1 AMPAR subunit (encoded by the Gria1 gene) has been implicated in schizophrenia. Gria1 knockout in mice results in recently experienced stimuli acquiring aberrantly high salience. This suggests that GluA1 may be important for learning that is sensitive to the temporal contiguity between events. To test this, mice were trained on a Pavlovian trace conditioning procedure in which the presentation of an auditory cue and food were separated by a temporal interval. Wild-type mice initially learnt, but with prolonged training came to withhold responding during the trace-conditioned cue, responding less than for another cue that was nonreinforced...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487674/uncovering-potential-applications-of-cyanobacteria-and-algal-metabolites-in-biology-agriculture-and-medicine-current-status-and-future-prospects
#5
REVIEW
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Madhulika Singh, Andrzej Bajguz, Jitendra Kumar, Samiksha Singh, Vijay P Singh, Sheo M Prasad
Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483713/safety-assessment-of-astaxanthin-derived-from-engineered-escherichia-coli-k-12-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-and-a-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-study-in-rats
#6
Yin-Ju Lin, Jian-Yu Lin, Di-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hao Chen, Ming-Hsi Chiou
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity that has been used for decades as a nutrient/color additive and it has recently been marketed as a health supplement. Astaxanthin can be synthesized in a wide range of microalgae, yeast, and bacteria. As genes directing astaxanthin biosynthesis in various organisms have been cloned, this study assessed the safety of astaxanthin crystal produced by Escherichia coli K-12 harboring plasmids carrying astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. The astaxanthin crystal contains a total carotenoid content of 950 mg/g and an astaxanthin content of 795 mg/g...
May 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475952/on-site-identification-of-meat-species-in-processed-foods-by-a-rapid-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-system
#7
Shunsuke Furutani, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Hidenori Nagai
Correct labeling of foods is critical for consumers who wish to avoid a specific meat species for religious or cultural reasons. Therefore, gene-based point-of-care food analysis by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is expected to contribute to the quality control in the food industry. In this study, we perform rapid identification of meat species by our portable rapid real-time PCR system, following a very simple DNA extraction method. Applying these techniques, we correctly identified beef, pork, chicken, rabbit, horse, and mutton in processed foods in 20min...
April 22, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473652/genetically-modified-foods-and-allergy
#8
REVIEW
T H Lee, H K Ho, T F Leung
2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine...
May 5, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459029/association-of-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-variant-with-lifestyle-factors-and-body-fat-in-indian-children
#9
Lavanya S Parthasarthy, Nikhil Phadke, Shashi Chiplonkar, Anuradha Khadilkar, Kavita Khatod, Veena Ekbote, Surabhi Shah, Vaman Khadilkar
CONTEXT: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. AIMS: (1) The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI) categories and (2) to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447029/cornell-alliance-for-science-evaluation-of-consensus-on-genetically-modified-food-safety-weaknesses-in-study-design
#10
Michael N Antoniou, Claire J Robinson
Cornell Alliance for Science has launched an initiative in which "citizen scientists" are called upon to evaluate studies on health risks of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. The purpose is to establish whether the consensus on GM food safety claimed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is supported by a review of the scientific literature. The Alliance's citizen scientists are examining more than 12,000 publication abstracts to quantify how far the scientific literature supports the AAAS's statement...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#11
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420193/a-quantitative-pcr-electrochemical-genosensor-test-for-the-screening-of-biotech-crops
#12
Suely Moura-Melo, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Arturo J Miranda-Ordieres, José Ribeiro Dos Santos Junior, Rosana A da Silva Fonseca, María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417173/semiautomated-taqman-pcr-screening-of-gmo-labelled-samples-for-unauthorised-gmos
#13
Ingrid M J Scholtens, Bonnie Molenaar, Richard A van Hoof, Stephanie Zaaijer, Theo W Prins, Esther J Kok
In most countries, systems are in place to analyse food products for the potential presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), to enforce labelling requirements and to screen for the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs. With the growing number of GMOs on the world market, a larger diversity of methods is required for informative analyses. In this paper, the specificity of an extended screening set consisting of 32 screening methods to identify different crop species (endogenous genes) and GMO elements was verified against 59 different GMO reference materials...
June 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414950/a-nanobiosensor-composed-of-exfoliated-graphene-oxide-and-gold-nano-urchins-for-detection-of-gmo-products
#14
Zahra Aghili, Navid Nasirizadeh, Adeleh Divsalar, Shahram Shoeibi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei
Genetically Modified Organisms, have been entered our food chain and detection of these organisms in market products are still the main challenge for scientists. Among several developed detection/quantification methods for detection of these organisms, the electrochemical nanobiosensors are the most attended which are combining the advantages of using nanomaterials, electrochemical methods and biosensors. In this research, a novel and sensitive electrochemical nanobiosensor for detection/quantification of these organisms have been developed using nanomaterials; Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Gold Nano-Urchins for modification of the screen-printed carbon electrode, and also applying a specific DNA probe as well as hematoxylin for electrochemical indicator...
September 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414867/basic-education-mexican-teachers-knowledge-of-biotechnology-and-attitudes-about-the-consumption-of-genetically-modified-foods
#15
Zacarías Jiménez-Salas, Eduardo Campos-Góngora, Blanca E González-Martínez, Alexandra Tijerina-Sáenz, Angélica D Escamilla-Méndez, Erik Ramírez-López
Over the past few years, a new research field has emerged, focusing on the social-scientific criteria for the study of opinions toward genetically modified foods (GMFs), since these may be limiting factors for the success or failure of these products. Basic education is the first step in the Mexican education system, and teachers may wield an outsized influence on the attitudes and preferences of children, prospective future consumers of these products. To better understand the current state of knowledge of biotechnology issues and opinions toward the consumption of GMF of Mexican teachers, a questionnaire was distributed, and 362 Mexican teachers of basic education responded...
April 16, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410872/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-wheezing-and-allergic-diseases-in-preschool-children-a-perspective-from-the-mediterranean-coast-of-turkey
#16
E Bolat, T Arikoglu, M A Sungur, S B Batmaz, S Kuyucu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic diseases in preschool children from one of the biggest cities in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. METHODS: The study population included 396 preschool children attending to urban daycare centres in Mersin. In the first stage, a comprehensive standardised questionnaire modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was employed...
April 11, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407967/molecular-characterization-of-an-unauthorized-genetically-modified-bacillus-subtilis-production-strain-identified-in-a-vitamin-b2-feed-additive
#17
Valentina Paracchini, Mauro Petrillo, Ralf Reiting, Alexandre Angers-Loustau, Daniela Wahler, Andrea Stolz, Birgit Schönig, Anastasia Matthies, Joachim Bendiek, Dominik M Meinel, Sven Pecoraro, Ulrich Busch, Alex Patak, Joachim Kreysa, Lutz Grohmann
Many food and feed additives result from fermentation of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms. For vitamin B2 (riboflavin), GM Bacillus subtilis production strains have been developed and are often used. The presence of neither the GM strain nor its recombinant DNA is allowed for fermentation products placed on the EU market as food or feed additive. A vitamin B2 product (80% feed grade) imported from China was analysed. Viable B. subtilis cells were identified and DNAs of two bacterial isolates (LHL and LGL) were subjected to three whole genome sequencing (WGS) runs with different devices (MiSeq, 454 or HiSeq system)...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405292/effects-of-genetically-modified-maize-events-expressing-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-cry1f-and-cp4-epsps-proteins-on-arthropod-complex-food-webs
#18
Zoltán Pálinkás, József Kiss, Mihály Zalai, Ágnes Szénási, Zita Dorner, Samuel North, Guy Woodward, Adalbert Balog
Four genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant, coleopteran and herbicide tolerant) and its non-GM control maize stands were tested to compare the functional diversity of arthropods and to determine whether genetic modifications alter the structure of arthropods food webs. A total number of 399,239 arthropod individuals were used for analyses. The trophic groups' number and the links between them indicated that neither the higher magnitude of Bt toxins (included resistance against insect, and against both insects and glyphosate) nor the extra glyphosate treatment changed the structure of food webs...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#19
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382044/functional-roles-of-micrornas-in-agronomically-important-plants-potential-as-targets-for-crop-improvement-and-protection
#20
REVIEW
Arnaud T Djami-Tchatchou, Neeti Sanan-Mishra, Khayalethu Ntushelo, Ian A Dubery
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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