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Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606575/good-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-reduces-the-risk-for-nash-and-diabetes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obesity-the-results-of-an-italian-study
#1
Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Andrea Vania, Arianna Alterio, Salvatore Iasevoli, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, it was demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an ideal diet for all age groups and has an important role in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between adherence to the MD and NAFLD, with laboratory and histologic evaluation, in a group of children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: We enrolled 243 patients with obesity referred to our department from March 2014 to November 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600116/features-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-severely-obese-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-sleeve-gastrectomy
#2
Aayed Alqahtani, Mohamed Elahmedi, Khalid Alswat, Maha Arafah, Mosa Fagih, Jaehoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an underrecognized co-morbidity of obesity. The characteristic features and severity of NAFLD in severe childhood obesity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate features of NAFLD in obese children and identify predictors of significant disease. SETTING: Academic center with a standardized pathway for pediatric bariatric surgery and a dedicated multidisciplinary team. DESIGN: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis for a data set obtained from a prospective clinical outcome study that included severely obese children (≤14 yr of age) and adolescents (14-21 yr of age) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between March 2008 and March 2015...
April 7, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586157/role-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-the-determination-of-the-severity-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-liver-diseases-with-pathologic-correlations
#3
Mehmet Burak Özkan, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Esra Eren, Gonul Caltepe, Gulay Yilmaz, Cengiz Kara, Seda Gun
OBJECTIVES: Our aims in this study were as follows: (1) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish between advanced liver fibrosis and normal liver tissue for two different elastographic techniques; (2) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish mild liver fibrosis from normal liver tissue for the techniques; and (3) to assess tissue stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seventy-five patients assessed for liver biopsy on the same day were evaluated by point shear wave elastography...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556786/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy proven NAFLD. METHODS: 117 children (85 males, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound (US) evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care centre...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514463/pediatric-psoriasis-comorbidity-screening-guidelines
#5
Emily Osier, Audrey S Wang, Megha M Tollefson, Kelly M Cordoro, Stephen R Daniels, Andrew Eichenfield, Joel M Gelfand, Alice B Gottlieb, Alexa B Kimball, Mark Lebwohl, Nehal N Mehta, Amy S Paller, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Dennis M Styne, Abby S Van Voorhees, Wynnis L Tom, Lawrence F Eichenfield
Importance: Psoriasis is a complex inflammatory skin condition associated with serious medical comorbidities in adults, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, psoriatic arthritis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, depression, anxiety, and decreased quality of life. Because psoriasis begins in childhood in almost one-third of patients, early identification of risk may be critical to minimizing effects on future health. Objective: To develop the first set of guidelines for comorbidity screening for patients with pediatric psoriasis based on current evidence...
May 17, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506362/current-concepts-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Sarah E Fleet, Jay H Lefkowitch, Joel E Lavine
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease. Its increasing prevalence is a direct result of historically high rates of obesity. Hepatocyte lipid accumulation is the first step in a cascade of metabolic and inflammatory events thought to precipitate NAFLD. Histologic findings provide insight into these events. Lifestyle modification remains the primary therapy in children. Current recommendations include vitamin E treatment in those with biopsy-proven NASH. Trials of novel drugs are ongoing in adults...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506338/-clinical-efficacy-of-compound-glycyrrhizin-tablets-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Yu-Wen Li, Yu-Hua Hu, Tian-Tian Zhu, An-Zhen Chu, Chuan-Long Zhu
Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. zhuchuanlong@jsph.org.cn.
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493388/magnetic-resonance-elastography-measured-shear-stiffness-as-a-biomarker-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Jorge Eduardo Angeles, Melissa Paiz, Janis Durelle, Jonathan Africa, Kimberly P Newton, Elizabeth M Brunt, Joel E Lavine, Stephanie H Abrams, Prakash Masand, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, Kelvin Wong, Richard L Ehman, Meng Yin, Kevin J Glaser, Bogdan Dzyubak, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Jonathan Hooker, William Haufe, Alexandra Schlein, Gavin Hamilton, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is promising for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis, a major determinant of outcome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, data in children are limited. Study aims were to determine accuracy of MRE for detection of fibrosis and advanced fibrosis in children with NAFLD, and to assess agreement between manual and novel automated reading methods. We performed a prospective, multi-center study of 2D-MRE in children with NAFLD. MR-elastograms were analyzed manually at 2 reading centers and using a new automated technique...
May 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448433/prevalence-and-correlates-of-suspected-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-chinese-children
#9
Peige Song, Jinyue Yu, Manli Wang, Xinlei Chang, Jiawen Wang, Lin An
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious public health problem worldwide; however, the availability of information on the prevalence of NAFLD in the general pediatric population is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and correlates of suspected NAFLD in Chinese children at the national level. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) was used. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) were measured for children aged 7-18 years...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#10
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322576/the-effects-of-exercise-on-abdominal-fat-and-liver-enzymes-in-pediatric-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Katherine González-Ruiz, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mark D Peterson, Antonio García-Hermoso
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computerized search was made using three databases...
March 21, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298942/liver-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-in-childhood-obesity-comparison-and-correlation-with-biochemical-markers
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rajeev Kamble, Kushaljit S Sodhi, Babu R Thapa, Akshay K Saxena, Anmol Bhatia, Devi Dayal, Niranjan Khandelwal
PURPOSE: To compare and correlate the diagnostic efficiency of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography with biochemical markers for assessing hepatic changes in overweight and obese children. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. It included 54 overweight and obese children and 50 normal children (as a control group) in the age range 5-18 years. For all children, we performed grayscale ultrasonography to diagnose fatty liver, ARFI elastography to measure liver stiffness, and biochemical evaluation for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride (TG) levels...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286193/in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-zone-1-steatosis-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis
#13
Jonathan A Africa, Cynthia A Behling, Elizabeth M Brunt, Nan Zhang, Yunjun Luo, Alan Wells, Jiayi Hou, Patricia H Belt, Rohit Kohil, Joel E Lavine, Jean P Molleston, Kimberly P Newton, Peter F Whitington, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Focal zone 1 steatosis, although rare in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), does occur in children with NAFLD. We investigated whether focal zone 1 steatosis and focal zone 3 steatosis are distinct subphenotypes of pediatric NAFLD. We aimed to determine associations between the zonality of steatosis and demographic, clinical, and histologic features in children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 813 children (age <18 years; mean age, 12...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242319/white-paper-aga-power-practice-guide-on-obesity-and%C3%A2-weight-management-education-and-resources
#14
REVIEW
Andres Acosta, Sarah Streett, Mathew D Kroh, Lawrence J Cheskin, Katherine H Saunders, Marina Kurian, Marsha Schofield, Sarah E Barlow, Louis Aronne
The epidemic of obesity continues at alarming rates, with a high burden to our economy and society. The American Gastroenterological Association understands the importance of embracing obesity as a chronic, relapsing disease and supports a multidisciplinary approach to the management of obesity. Because gastrointestinal disorders resulting from obesity are more frequent and often present sooner than type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, gastroenterologists have an opportunity to address obesity and provide an effective therapy early...
May 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230607/effects-of-probiotics-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#15
Fatemeh Famouri, Zainab Shariat, Mahin Hashemipour, Mojtaba Keikha, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the effects of some probiotics on sonographic and biochemical nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: This randomized triple-blind trial was conducted among 64 obese children with sonographic NAFLD. They were randomly allocated to receive probiotic capsule (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC B3208, 3 × 10 colony forming units [CFU]; Bifidobacterium lactis DSMZ 32269, 6 × 10 CFU; Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC SD6576, 2 × 10 CFU; Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSMZ 21690, 2 × 10 CFU) or placebo for 12 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225568/liver-histology-and-diffusion-weighted-mri-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-magnet-study
#16
Paul Manning, Paul Murphy, Kang Wang, Jonathan Hooker, Tanya Wolfson, Michael S Middleton, Kimberly P Newton, Cynthia Behling, Hannah I Awai, Janis Durelle, Melissa N Paiz, Jorge E Angeles, Diana De La Pena, J Allen McCutchan, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine potential associations between histologic features of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and estimated quantitative magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed as part of the Magnetic Resonance Assessment Guiding NAFLD Evaluation and Treatment (MAGNET) ancillary study to the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107283/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-recommendations-from-the-expert-committee-on-nafld-econ-and-the-north-american-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#17
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists, and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065514/review-of-childhood-obesity-from-epidemiology-etiology-and-comorbidities-to-clinical-assessment-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Seema Kumar, Aaron S Kelly
Childhood obesity has emerged as an important public health problem in the United States and other countries in the world. Currently 1 in 3 children in the United States is afflicted with overweight or obesity. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is associated with emergence of comorbidities previously considered to be "adult" diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. The most common cause of obesity in children is a positive energy balance due to caloric intake in excess of caloric expenditure combined with a genetic predisposition for weight gain...
February 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986169/hepatic-steatosis-etiology-patterns-and-quantification
#19
REVIEW
Ilkay S Idilman, Ilknur Ozdeniz, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Hepatic steatosis can occur because of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholism, chemotherapy, and metabolic, toxic, and infectious causes. Pediatric hepatic steatosis is also becoming more frequent and can have distinctive features. The most common pattern is diffuse form; however, it can present in heterogenous, focal, multinodular, perilesional, perivascular, subcapsular, and lobar forms. Focal steatosis and fat sparing can occur because of the presence of veins of Sappey, pancreaticoduodenal vein, and aberrant right and left gastric veins, which drain into the liver as third inflow...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982761/liver-stiffness-in-pediatric-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease-diagnostic-accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-shear-wave-elastography
#20
Matteo Garcovich, Silvio Veraldi, Enrico Di Stasio, Maria Assunta Zocco, Lidia Monti, Paolo Tomà, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini, Valerio Nobili
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in identifying different degrees of fibrosis in a cohort of consecutive children and adolescents with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods Consecutive pediatric patients scheduled to undergo liver biopsy were studied with an ultrasonography-based SWE system. Elastography was performed in 68 of 69 patients with biopsy-proved NASH (37 boys and 31 girls; mean age, 12.6 years ± 2.48; age range, 8-17 years). The correlations among laboratory findings, liver stiffness, and fibrosis score were analyzed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the presence of any fibrosis (score ≥F1) or significant fibrosis (score ≥F2)...
June 2017: Radiology
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