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Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

V Nobili, S Cucchiara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Sunil V Pawar, Vinay G Zanwar, Ajay S Choksey, Ashok R Mohite, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Qais Q Contractor, Pravin M Rathi, Ravi U Verma, Premlata K Varthakavi
:  Background and rationale. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of pediatric liver disease in western countries. Its prevalence in Indian subcontinent is not well studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a school based cross sectional study we have screened overweight and obese children in the age group of 11 to 15 years for NAFLD. Ultrasonography, elevated serum transaminases, fibroscan were used for defining NAFLD. Dietary habits, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, blood counts and insulin resistance were recorded...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Min-Su Oh, Sorina Kim, Joon-Hyuck Jang, Jong Yoon Park, Hyun-Sik Kang, Mu Sook Lee, Ki Soo Kang
PURPOSE: To analyze the associations among the degrees of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasonography and metabolic syndrome, degrees of obesity in children, and degrees of parental obesity. METHODS: A total of 198 children with obesity who visited a pediatric obesity clinic were prospectively enrolled in this study. The severity of NAFLD based on ultrasonography was classified into no, mild, moderate, or severe NAFLD group. The degree of obesity based on the percentage over standard weight for height per sex was classified into mild, moderate, or severe...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Amal Mohamed Ahmed, Maha Abdel Ghany, Gehan Lotfy Abdel Hakeem, Aya Kamal, Rania Khattab, Asmaa Abdalla, Laila El Morsi Abou El Fotoh, Abdel Azeem El Mazary, Madiha Abdalla Sayed, Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Fadil
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the health problems with great burden on the liver that may end with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to assess serum vitamin D level in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease children. METHODS: This cross sectional case control study involved 47 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease selected while recruiting the pediatric hepatology clinics. Their ages ranged from 5-15 years and were compared with 23 healthy age and sex matched children...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Giorgio Bedogni, Andrea Mari, Alessandra De Col, Nicoletta Marazzi, Claudio Tiribelli, Melania Manco, Alessandro Sartorio
BACKGROUND: No study so far has evaluated the relationship between insulin secretion (ISEC) and insulin sensitivity (ISEN) in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the relationship between ISEC and ISEN in young obese patients with and without NAFLD. METHODS: We matched 401 NAFLD(+) and 595 NAFLD(-) children by sex (same), age (≤1 year), pubertal status (same), and body mass index (BMI; ≤0.05 standard deviation scores) using coarsened exact matching...
August 19, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Kimberly P Newton, Jiayi Hou, Nancy A Crimmins, Joel E Lavine, Sarah E Barlow, Stavra A Xanthakos, Jonathan Africa, Cynthia Behling, Michele Donithan, Jeanne M Clark, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
Importance: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major chronic liver disease in children in the United States and is associated with insulin resistance. In adults, NAFLD is also associated with type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children with NAFLD is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in children with NAFLD and assess type 2 diabetes and prediabetes as risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Jae Hwa Jung, Mo Kyung Jung, Ki Eun Kim, Ah Reum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Choon Sik Yoon, Ho Seong Kim, Duk-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Abdominal obesity is a fundamental factor underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Because of radiation exposure and cost, computed tomography or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate abdominal adiposity are not appropriate in children. Authors evaluated whether ultrasound results could be an indicator of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We enrolled 73 subjects (aged 6-16 years) who were evaluated abdominal adiposity by ultrasound...
June 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Inez Martincevic, Marialena Mouzaki
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of treatment for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is lifestyle modification, which includes dietary changes that lead to slow but sustained weight loss or weight stabilization in growing children. Accurate estimation of energy requirements is necessary to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of the most commonly used equations in predicting the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with NAFLD. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed in a single institution...
July 12, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Guido Carpino, Valerio Nobili, Anastasia Renzi, Cristiano De Stefanis, Laura Stronati, Antonio Franchitto, Anna Alisi, Paolo Onori, Rita De Vito, Gianfranco Alpini, Eugenio Gaudio
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most important causes of liver-related morbidity in children. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the activation of liver resident macrophage pool is a central event in the progression of liver injury. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the polarization of liver macrophages and the possible role of Wnt3a production by macrophages in hepatic progenitor cell response in the progression of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. 32 children with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were included...
2016: PloS One
Helma P Cotrim, Edison R Parise, Cláudio Figueiredo-Mendes, João Galizzi-Filho, Gilda Porta, Claudia P Oliveira
The prevalence of obesity-related metabolic syndrome has rapidly increased in Brazil, resulting in a high frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, that didn't receive much attention in the past. However, it has received increased attention since this disease was identified to progress to end-stage liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have not been established in Brazil. The Brazilian Society of Hepatology held an event with specialists' members from all over Brazil with the purpose of producing guideline for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease based on a systematic approach that reflects evidence-based medicine and expert opinions...
April 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Rocio Lopez, Giulia Tozzi, Anna Alisi, Naim Alkhouri, Valerio Nobili
BACKGROUND: Within the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent evidence suggests that adult patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have significantly lower blood lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity than those with steatosis. This has not been studied in pediatric patients with NAFLD. AIM: Investigate blood LAL activity in pediatric patients with NAFLD and assess its correlation with histological severity. METHODS: We collected data on consecutive children with biopsy-proven NAFLD including demographics, anthropometrics, and routine laboratory tests...
August 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Nicole Thompson, Bobbe Mansfield, Meredith Stringer, Brandy Stewart, Jami Potter, Karen Fernengel
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is often accompanied by obesity-related comorbidities. An integrative review of the literature was performed to create a comprehensive algorithm to help primary care providers manage the common comorbidities associated with childhood overweight and obesity. DATA SOURCES: The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, and PubMed databases were searched...
October 2016: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Jeffrey B Schwimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Nidhi P Goyal, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. Childhood NAFLD is associated with hepatic and nonhepatic morbidity and mortality. Nonhepatic associations include cardiovascular, metabolic, pulmonary, and psychological disorders. Cardiovascular conditions observed in childhood include left ventricular dysfunction. Furthermore, childhood obesity is associated with greater odds of having hepatocellular carcinoma as an adult. Evidence suggests that NAFLD may begin in utero in children of diabetic mothers...
May 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Jonathan A Africa, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used...
May 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main chronic noncommunicable diseases in Westernized societies; its worldwide prevalence has doubled during the last 20 years. NAFLD has serious health implications not only for adults, but also for children. However, pediatric NAFLD is not only an important global problem in itself, but it is likely to be associated with increases in comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. There are several differences between NAFLD in children and adults, and it is not clear whether the disease observed in children is the initial phase of a process that progresses with age...
June 2016: Gastroenterology
Matthew M Yeh, Patricia Belt, Elizabeth M Brunt, Kris V Kowdley, Laura A Wilson, Linda Ferrell
The significance of the quantity of acidophil bodies (AB) in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not certain. We quantified AB in liver biopsies and examined the association with the diagnosis of NASH and other histologic features. We reviewed 157 liver biopsies from the NASH Clinical Research Network Database collected in 2006. One hundred twenty-seven biopsies were from adult patients. Diagnoses were 94 definite NASH, 40 borderline NASH, and 23 definitely not NASH. The total length and average width of the core biopsies were measured, and the biopsy areas were calculated (mm(2))...
June 2016: Human Pathology
Bimota Nambam, Janet Silverstein, Peiyao Cheng, Katrina J Ruedy, Roy W Beck, R Paul Wadwa, Georgeanna Klingensmith, Steven M Willi, Jamie R Wood, Fida Bacha, Inas H Thomas, William V Tamborlane
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, clinical outcomes, and co-morbidities of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T2D Registry. METHODS: PDC enrolled 598 youth <21 yr of age with T2D from February 2012 to July 2015 at eight centers. Data were collected from medical records and interviews with participants and/or parents and included glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes treatments, prevalence of diabetes comorbidities (hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia (DL), microalbuminuria (MA), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
March 11, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Maricruz Crespo, Sara Lappe, Ariel E Feldstein, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly common and potentially serious in children and adolescents. The term NAFLD refers to a spectrum of diseases ranging from accumulation of fat in the liver (simple steatosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver "NAFL") to the potentially progressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterized by hepatocyte ballooning, inflammation, and often associated with fibrosis. While large prospective longitudinal studies in pediatric NAFLD are still lacking, growing evidence suggests that children with NAFL are at increased risk for cardiometabolic complications, while those with NASH and advance fibrosis are also at risk for significant liver-related morbidity including cirrhosis and its complications...
August 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yen H Pham, Brigid A Bingham, Cynthia S Bell, Susan A Greenfield, Susan D John, Lawrence H Robinson, Mona A Eissa
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic steatosis in adults has been proposed to be associated with obesity; however, data on pancreatic steatosis in children are lacking. Our study aimed to measure the prevalence of pancreatic steatosis in children and to examine its association with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review study of 232 patients 2 to 18 years old who underwent abdominal computed tomographic imaging in the emergency department or inpatient ward within a 1-year time span and from whom demographics, anthropometrics, and medical history were obtained...
March 2016: Southern Medical Journal
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