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Signaling pathways AND Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930570/gut-microbiota-architects-of-small-intestinal-capillaries
#1
Avinash Khandagale, Christoph Reinhardt
The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930563/mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-analysis-of-the-dna-damage-response
#2
Matthew P Stokes, Yiying Zhu, Charles L Farnsworth
In response to DNA damage, cells have evolved mechanisms to halt cell cycle progression, activate repair, or initiate apoptosis. These DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are critical for cellular survival in response to genomic insult, and play important roles in growth, development, and disease. Historically, mediators of DNA damage response signaling have been studied one or a few proteins at a time. Advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and enrichment methods now allow for more global analysis of the DDR in cells and tissues...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930534/regulation-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-functions-by-post-translational-modifications
#3
Lianhua Piao, Kyoko Fujioka, Makoto Nakakido, Ryuji Hamamoto
The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, a post-translational modification of proteins. This  consists of the attachment of mono- or poly-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose units from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to specific polar residues of target proteins. PARP1 is the most abundant and best-characterized member of the family of PARP enzymes. PARP1 plays key roles in DNA repair, as well as a wide variety of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromatin modulation, cellular signaling pathway, inflammation, cellular stress responses and so on...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929822/genetic-and-ethnic-modulation-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-inhibitors
#4
Yen-Chou Chen, Cheng-Chih Chung, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Jen Chen
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are important as anticancer treatments through curbing tumor angiogenesis and growth. VEGF inhibitors have significant cardiovascular effects. By blocking VEGF receptors, ligands, or signal pathways, VEGF inhibitors disturb the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction, undermine endothelial cell integrity, and activate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. VEGF inhibitors increase risks of hypertension, heart failure, thromboembolism, and arrhythmia...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929194/adapting-secretory-proteostasis-and-function-through-the-unfolded-protein-response
#5
Madeline Y Wong, Andrew S DiChiara, Patreece H Suen, Kenny Chen, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Matthew D Shoulders
Cells address challenges to protein folding in the secretory pathway by engaging endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protective mechanisms that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). By the action of the transmembrane signal transducers IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, the UPR induces networks of genes whose products alleviate the burden of protein misfolding. The UPR also plays instructive roles in cell differentiation and development, aids in the response to pathogens, and coordinates the output of professional secretory cells...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928745/chronic-inflammation-in-immune-aging-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-crosstalk-with-the-telomere-complex
#6
REVIEW
Shyam Sushama Jose, Kamila Bendickova, Tomas Kepak, Zdenka Krenova, Jan Fric
Age-related decline in immunity is characterized by stem cell exhaustion, telomere shortening, and disruption of cell-to-cell communication, leading to increased patient risk of disease. Recent data have demonstrated that chronic inflammation exerts a strong influence on immune aging and is closely correlated with telomere length in a range of major pathologies. The current review discusses the impact of inflammation on immune aging, the likely molecular mediators of this process, and the various disease states that have been linked with immunosenescence...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928733/crosstalk-between-signaling-pathways-in-pemphigus-a-role-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#7
Gabriel A Cipolla, Jong Kook Park, Robert M Lavker, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler
Pemphigus consists of a group of chronic blistering skin diseases mediated by autoantibodies (autoAbs). The dogma that pemphigus is caused by keratinocyte dissociation (acantholysis) as a distinctive and direct consequence of the presence of autoAb targeting two main proteins of the desmosome-desmoglein (DSG) 1 and/or DSG3-has been put to the test. Several outside-in signaling events elicited by pemphigus autoAb in keratinocytes have been described, among which stands out p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) engagement and its apoptotic effect on keratinocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928715/intrinsic-and-regulated-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-transcription-in-mammalian-pituitary-gonadotrophs
#8
REVIEW
Marija M Janjic, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba
The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary gonadotrophs, represents a critical molecule in control of reproductive functions in all vertebrate species. GnRH-activated receptors regulate synthesis of gonadotropins in a frequency-dependent manner. The number of GnRHRs on the plasma membrane determines the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to GnRH and varies in relation to age, sex, and physiological status. This is achieved by a complex control that operates at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927759/redox-stress-and-signaling-during-vertebrate-embryonic-development-regulation-and-responses
#9
REVIEW
Alicia R Timme-Laragy, Mark E Hahn, Jason M Hansen, Archit Rastogi, Monika A Roy
Vertebrate embryonic development requires specific signaling events that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation to occur at the correct place and the correct time in order to build a healthy embryo. Signaling pathways are sensitive to perturbations of the endogenous redox state, and are also susceptible to modulation by reactive species and antioxidant defenses, contributing to a spectrum of passive vs. active effects that can affect redox signaling and redox stress. Here we take a multi-level, integrative approach to discuss the importance of redox status for vertebrate developmental signaling pathways and cell fate decisions, with a focus on glutathione/glutathione disulfide, thioredoxin, and cysteine/cystine redox potentials and the implications for protein function in development...
September 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927666/the-role-of-a-kinase-anchoring-proteins-in-cancer-development
#10
REVIEW
Erica Reggi, Dario Diviani
Cancer development is a multifactorial process resulting from the aberrant activation of multiple signaling pathways. It has become increasingly clear that the coordination of the signaling events leading to cancer formation and progression is under the control of macromolecular transduction complexes organized by scaffolding proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of scaffolding proteins involved in the spatio-temporal activation of pathways controlling cancer cell proliferation, cell survival, and invasion...
September 16, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927534/alternative-rna-splicing-and-gastric-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Ying Li, Yuan Yuan
Alternative splicing (AS) linked to diseases, especially to tumors. Recently, more and more studies focused on the relationship between AS and gastric cancer (GC). This review surveyed the hot topic from four aspects: First, the common types of AS in cancer, including exon skipping, intron retention, mutually exclusive exon, alternative 5 ' or 3' splice site, alternative first or last exon and alternative 3' untranslated regions. Second, basic mechanisms of AS and its relationship with cancer. RNA splicing in eukaryotes follows the GT-AG rule by both cis-elements and trans-acting factors regulatory...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927523/%C3%AE-eta-catenin-n-terminal-domain-an-enigmatic-region-prone-to-cancer-causing-mutations
#12
REVIEW
Mohd Saleem Dar, Paramjeet Singh, Riyaz A Mir, Mohd Jamal Dar
The Wnt/β-catenin is a highly conserved signaling pathway involved in cell fate decisions during various stages of development. Dysregulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been associated with various diseases including cancer. β-Catenin, the central component of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is a multi-functional protein playing both structural and signaling roles. β-Catenin is composed of three distinct domains: N-terminal domain, C-terminal domain and a central armadillo repeat domain. N-terminal domain of β-catenin harbours almost all of the cancer causing mutations, thus deciphering its critical structural and functional roles offers great potential in cancer detection and therapy...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927522/significance-and-nature-of-bystander-responses-induced-by-various-agents
#13
REVIEW
Neha Verma, Ashu Bhan Tiku
Bystander effects in a biological system are the responses shown by non-targeted neighbouring cells/tissues/organisms. These responses are triggered by factors released from targeted cells when exposed to a stress inducing agent. The biological response to stress inducing agents is complex, owing to the diversity of mechanisms and pathways activated in directly targeted and bystander cells. These responses are highly variable and can be either beneficial or hazardous depending on the cell lines tested, dose of agent used, experimental end points and time course selected...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927078/yes-associated-protein-a-novel-molecular-target-for-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Liang Shan, Hongyuan Jiang, Lifang Ma, Yongchun Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common type of malignant tumor. The early-diagnosis and treatment options for HCC are limited, which is primarily due to an incomplete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease. Yes-associated protein (YAP) overexpression promotes proliferation and phenotypic transformation of HCC cells. Recently, elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway and investigating the interactions between the signaling molecules, as a potential strategy for the treatment of HCC, has become an area of interest...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926422/two-faces-of-hippo-activate-or-suppress-the-hippo-pathway-in-cancer
#15
Jingwen Cao, Wenlong Huang
The Hippo pathway has generated considerable interest in recent years because of its involvement in several key hallmarks of cancer progression and metastasis. Research on the Hippo signaling pathway in cancer has been used to determine the activity of yes-associated protein (YAP) in tumorigenesis and disease progression. Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway can be used as a target to inhibit YAP activity and is a viable treatment for cancer. However, more studies are required to further advance our understanding of the Hippo signaling pathway in cancer...
September 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926092/key-genes-regulating-the-liposecretion-process-of-mature-adipocytes
#16
Giulia Maurizi, Tiina Petäistö, Angela Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia
White mature adipocytes (MAs) are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate toward fibroblast-like cells maintaining stem cell gene signatures. The main morphologic aspect of this transdifferentiation process, called liposecretion, is the secretion of large lipid droplets and the development of organelles necessary for exocrine secretion. There is a considerable interest in the adipocyte plastic properties involving liposecretion process, but the molecular details are incompletely explored. This review analyzes the gene expression of MAs isolated from human subcutaneous fat tissue with respect to bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) focusing on gene regulatory pathways involved into cellular morphology changes, cellular proliferation and transports of molecules through the membrane, suggesting potential ways to guide liposecretion...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925973/mechanisms-by-which-hpv-induces-a-replication-competent-environment-in-differentiating-keratinocytes
#17
REVIEW
Cary Moody
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer and are also associated with other genital malignancies, as well as an increasing number of head and neck cancers. HPVs have evolved their life cycle to contend with the different cell states found in the stratified epithelium. Initial infection and viral genome maintenance occurs in the proliferating basal cells of the stratified epithelium, where cellular replication machinery is abundant. However, the productive phase of the viral life cycle, including productive replication, late gene expression and virion production, occurs upon epithelial differentiation, in cells that normally exit the cell cycle...
September 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925869/perspectives-of-plant-natural-products-in-inhibition-of-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-by-regulating-multiple-signaling-pathways
#18
Md Shahid Sarwar, Hong-Jie Zhang, Siu Wai Tsang
Metastasis is often derived from increased invasion and migration of tumor cells, and is the most frequent cause of cancer-associated death. Either the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of metastatic cancer remains very challenging today by virtue of the complex histopathology and genetic or epigenetic variations. Medicinal scientists had discovered many potential anti-invasive and anti-metastatic compounds from plant materials. However, data on currently available plant-based compounds inhibiting cancer invasion and metastasis is relatively scanty and no published article has been found with updated information in this unique and important aspect...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925398/functional-significance-and-therapeutic-implication-of-ring-type-e3-ligases-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
L Liu, C C Wong, B Gong, J Yu
Accumulative studies revealed that E3 ubiquitin ligases have important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. The pathogenic mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression are complex and heterogeneous, involving somatic mutations, abnormal gene fusion, deletion or amplification and epigenetic alteration, which may cause aberrant expression or altered function of E3 ligases in CRC. Defects of E3 ligases have been reported to be involved in the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of CRC. The aberrant expressed E3 ligases can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending on ubiquiting target substrates in CRC...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924347/the-mechanisms-of-graphene-based-materials-induced-programmed-cell-death-a-review-of-apoptosis-autophagy-and-programmed-necrosis
#20
REVIEW
Lingling Ou, Shaoqiang Lin, Bin Song, Jia Liu, Renfa Lai, Longquan Shao
Graphene-based materials (GBMs) are widely used in many fields, including biomedicine. To date, much attention had been paid to the potential unexpected toxic effects of GBMs. Here, we review the recent literature regarding the impact of GBMs on programmed cell death (PCD). Apoptosis, autophagy, and programmed necrosis are three major PCDs. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the mitochondrial pathways and MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38)- and TGF-β-related signaling pathways are implicated in GBMs-induced apoptosis...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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