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Signaling pathways AND Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156608/fatty-acids-antioxidants-and-physical-activity-in-brain-aging
#1
REVIEW
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Gustavo da Costa Ferreira, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Karen de Jesus Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156607/calcium-dependent-protein-kinases-in-phytohormone-signaling-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Wuwu Xu, Wenchao Huang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs) are Ca(2+)-sensors that decode Ca(2+) signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156521/micrornas-as-novel-biomarkers-for-colorectal-cancer-new-outlooks
#3
REVIEW
Naghmeh Shirafkan, Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Navid Shomali, Mehri Ghasbi, Behzad Baradaran
Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers with high mortality in the world. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through targeting mRNAs. MicroRNAs involve in many biological and pathological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis. etc. Dysregulation of miRNAs expression patterns have been reported in many tumors including Colorectal Cancer. Various studies indicate that miRNAs can be utilized as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for evaluation of tumor initiation, development, invasion, metastasis and response to chemotherapeutic drugs...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155239/mechanisms-controlling-the-anti-neoplastic-functions-of-foxo-proteins
#4
REVIEW
Tianyun Hou, Zhiming Li, Ying Zhao, Wei-Guo Zhu
The Forkhead box O (FoxO) proteins comprise a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that predominantly function as tumor suppressors. These proteins assume diverse roles in the cellular anti-neoplastic response, including regulation of apoptosis and autophagy, cancer metabolism, cell-cycle arrest, oxidative stress and the DNA damage response. More recently, FoxO proteins have been implicated in cancer immunity and cancer stem-cell (CSC) homeostasis. Interestingly, in some sporadic sub-populations, FoxO protein function may also be manipulated by factors such as β-catenin whereby they instead can facilitate cancer progression via maintenance of CSC properties or promoting drug resistance or metastasis and invasion...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155070/cytosolic-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-unanticipated-relocations-for-unexpected-functions
#5
Nathaniel Yakobov, Sylvain Debard, Frédéric Fischer, Bruno Senger, Hubert Dominique Becker
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essentially known for their conventional function of generating the full set of aminoacyl-tRNA species that are needed to incorporate each organism's repertoire of genetically-encoded amino acids during ribosomal translation of messenger RNAs. However, bacterial and eukaryotic cytosolic aaRSs have been shown to exhibit other essential nonconventional functions. Here we review all the subcellular compartments that prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytosolic aaRSs can reach to exert either a conventional or nontranslational role...
November 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155025/understanding-the-role-of-mammalian-sterile-20-like-kinase-1-mst1-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Haichang Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Dongdong Sun
Hippo signaling is a conserved pathway and plays important role in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. As critical components of the Hippo pathway in mammals, mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) participate in cell apoptosis and cell proliferation. Yes-associated protein (YAP) acts as a downstream transcriptional co-activator of MST1. MST1 is present in heart tissue and helps determine the fate of cardiomyocytes by regulating the balance between autophagy and apoptosis. Recent studies showed MST1 signaling is an essential participant in many cardiovascular disorders, including aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemic injury, and cardiomyopathy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155002/pdgf-in-organ-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Barbara Mara Klinkhammer, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor
Fibrosis is part of a tissue repair response to injury, defined as increased deposition of extracellular matrix. In some instances, fibrosis is beneficial; however, in the majority of diseases fibrosis is detrimental. Virtually all chronic progressive diseases are associated with fibrosis, representing a huge number of patients worldwide. Fibrosis occurs in all organs and tissues, becomes irreversible with time and further drives loss of tissue function. Various cells types initiate and perpetuate pathological fibrosis by paracrine activation of the principal cellular executors of fibrosis, i...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154823/regulation-of-cellular-and-pcp-signalling-by-the-scribble-polarity-module
#8
REVIEW
Michal Milgrom-Hoffman, Patrick O Humbert
Since the first identification of the Scribble polarity module proteins as a new class of tumour suppressors that regulate both cell polarity and proliferation, an increasing amount of evidence has uncovered a broader role for Scribble, Dlg and Lgl in the control of fundamental cellular functions and their signalling pathways. Here, we review these findings as well as discuss more specifically the role of the Scribble module in PCP signalling.
November 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154808/genetic-host-factors-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-carcinogenesis-emerging-new-paradigms
#9
REVIEW
Michiel C Mommersteeg, Jun Yu, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Helicobacter Pylori is a gram negative rod shaped microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately half the world's population. Infection with c may cause chronic gastritis which via a quite well described process known as Correas cascade can progress through sequential development of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia to gastric cancer. H. pylori is currently the only bacterium that is classified as a class 1 carcinogen by the WHO, although the exact mechanisms by which this bacterium contributes to gastric carcinogenesis are still poorly understood...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154447/roles-and-clinical-implications-of-micrornas-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Simona Ultimo, Alberto M Martelli, Giorgio Zauli, Marco Vitale, George A Calin, Luca M Neri
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs which regulate the expression of target genes by binding to messenger RNAs. miRNAs play a role in various biological processes, including proliferation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of miRNAs is implicated in invasion and metastasis in several human cancer types, and leukemia is not an exception. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is an hematological malignancy characterized by the proliferation of early lymphoid precursors that replace normal hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154163/upstairs-downstairs-spatial-regulation-of-hippo-signalling
#11
REVIEW
Alexander Fulford, Nicolas Tapon, Paulo S Ribeiro
Cellular signalling lies at the heart of every decision involved in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. The Hippo pathway was discovered nearly two decades ago through seminal work in Drosophila and rapidly emerged as a crucial signalling network implicated in developmental and oncogenic growth, tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Here, we review recent advances in the field relating to the upstream regulation of Hippo signalling and the intracellular tug-of-war that tightly controls its main target, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie/YAP...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153709/cytokines-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hemophilic-arthropathy
#12
REVIEW
Piotr Wojdasiewicz, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Paweł Nauman, Tomasz Mandat, Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka, Katarzyna Romanowska-Próchnicka, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Andrzej Kotela, Łukasz Kubaszewski, Ireneusz Kotela, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Robert Gasik
Hemophilic arthropathy (HA) is one of the most common and typical manifestation in the course of recurrent bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia. Clinical and subclinical joint bleeding episodes gradually lead to irreversible changes manifesting themselves as pain, progressing ankylosis, marked limitation of the range of motion, muscle atrophy and osteoporosis commonly concomitant with joint deformity resulting from chronic proliferative synovitis and both cartilage and bone degeneration leading to the final functional impairment of the joint...
November 13, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153705/spatial-and-temporal-control-of-nodal-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Caroline S Hill
Embryonic development is orchestrated by the activity of signal transduction pathways, amongst which are those downstream of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family. Here I focus on signalling by one of these ligands, NODAL, which is essential for early embryonic axis patterning. I review recent advances in our understanding of how NODAL signalling is transduced from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes, and how domains of NODAL activity are established and refined during embryonic development...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153169/a-100-year-review-regulation-of-nutrient-partitioning-to-support-lactation
#14
L H Baumgard, R J Collier, D E Bauman
We have seen remarkable advances in animal productivity in the last 75 years, with annual milk yield per cow increasing over 4-fold and no evidence of nearing a plateau. Because of these gains in productive efficiency, there have been dramatic reductions in resource inputs and the carbon footprint per unit of milk produced. The primary source for the historic gains relates to animal variation in nutrient partitioning. The regulation of nutrient use for productive functions has the overall goal of maintaining the cow's well-being regardless of the physiological or environmental challenges...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152855/kinase-interest-you-in-treating-incubated-cocaine-craving-a-hypothetical-model-for-treatment-intervention-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-cocaine
#15
REVIEW
Karen K Szumlinski, Christina B Shin
A diagnostic criterion for drug addiction, persistent drug-craving continues to be the most treatment-resistant aspect of addiction that maintains the chronic, relapsing, nature of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of psychomotor stimulant addiction, there currently exists no FDA-approved medication for craving reduction. In good part, this reflects our lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug-craving. In humans, cue-elicited drug-craving is associated with the hyper-excitability of prefrontal cortical regions...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152737/molecular-mechanisms-of-drug-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Leyla Norouzi-Barough, Mohammad Reza Sarookhani, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Sahar Moghbelinejad, Saranaz Jangjoo, Rasoul Salehi
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy among the gynecological cancers, with a 5-year survival rate, mainly due to being diagnosed at advanced stages, recurrence and resistance to the current chemotherapeutic agents. Drug resistance is a complex phenomenon and the number of known involved genes and cross-talks between signaling pathways in this process is growing rapidly. Thus, discovering and understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in chemo-resistance are crucial for management of treatment and identifying novel and effective drug targets as well as drug discovery to improve therapeutic outcomes...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152681/trichothecenes-immunomodulatory-effects-mechanisms-and-anti-cancer-potential
#17
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Eugenie Nepovimova, Anca Miron, Qianying Liu, Yun Wang, Dongxiao Su, Hualin Yang, Li Li, Kamil Kuca
Paradoxically, trichothecenes have both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory effects. The underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. Early studies show that dose, exposure timing, and the time at which immune function is assessed influence whether trichothecenes act in an immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory fashion. Recent studies suggest that the immunomodulatory function of trichothecenes is also actively shaped by competing cell-survival and death-signaling pathways. Autophagy may also promote trichothecene immunosuppression, although the mechanism may be complicated...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152593/resistance-is-futile-overcoming-resistance-to-targeted-therapies-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#18
Dana S Neel, Trever G Bivona
The advent of genomics has led to the identification of specific "driver" mutations in oncogenic kinases, and the development of targeted small molecule inhibitors to block their tumor-driving functions. These specific inhibitors have been a clinical success, and often significantly prolong the lives of individuals with cancer. Inevitably, however, the treated tumors recur as resistance to these targeted therapies develops. Here, we review the major mechanisms by which a cancer cell can evade targeted therapy, focusing on mechanisms of resistance to kinase inhibitors in lung cancer...
2017: NPJ Precis Oncol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152453/targeting-the-stem-cell-properties-of-adult-breast-cancer-cells-using-combinatorial-strategies-to-overcome-drug-resistance
#19
Naira V Margaryan, Elisabeth A Seftor, Richard E B Seftor, Mary J C Hendrix
Purpose of review: Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. In aggressive cancers, which are heterogeneous in nature, there exists a paucity of targetable molecules that can be used to predict outcome and response to therapy in patients, especially those in the high risk category with a propensity to relapse following chemotherapy. This review addresses the challenges pertinent to treating aggressive cancer cells with inherent stem cell properties, with a special focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152232/recent-therapeutic-advances-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#20
REVIEW
Prithviraj Bose, Varsha Gandhi
The last several years have witnessed a paradigm shift in the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The course of this very heterogeneous disease, traditionally treated with chemotherapeutic agents usually in combination with rituximab, typically has been characterized by remissions and relapses, and survival times vary greatly, depending on intrinsic biological attributes of the leukemia. The developments of the last few years have been transformative, ushering in an era of novel, molecularly targeted therapies, made possible by extensive efforts to elucidate the biology of the disease that predated the new targeted drugs...
2017: F1000Research
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