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Wan C Tan, Cameron J Hague, Jonathon Leipsic, Jean Bourbeau, Liyun Zheng, Pei Z Li, Don D Sin, Harvey O Coxson, Miranda Kirby, James C Hogg, Rekha Raju, Jeremy Road, Denis E O'Donnell, Francois Maltais, Paul Hernandez, Robert Cowie, Kenneth R Chapman, Darcy D Marciniuk, J Mark FitzGerald, Shawn D Aaron
BACKGROUND: Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans are widely performed in clinical practice, often leading to detection of airway or parenchymal abnormalities in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic individuals. However, clinical relevance of CT abnormalities is uncertain in the general population. METHODS: We evaluated data from 1361 participants aged ≥40 years from a Canadian prospective cohort comprising 408 healthy never-smokers, 502 healthy ever-smokers, and 451 individuals with spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had thoracic CT scans...
2016: PloS One
F Unglaub, M F Langer, B Hohendorff, L P Müller, J M Unglaub, P Hahn, H Krimmer, C K Spies
Fractures of the distal radius are very common. The majority of patients are elderly females. High impact trauma are often responsible for fractures in young men. Clinical and radiological diagnostics, including computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scan, are generally sufficient. The indication for conservative treatment is still recommended for specific fracture patterns. Application of palmar locking plates after open reduction proved to be efficacious for the majority of fracture patterns. Furthermore, precise detection and treatment of concomitant lesions are mandatory in order to prevent complications...
November 4, 2016: Der Orthopäde
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Trevor P E Williams, Scott Shaw, Adam Porter, Larry Berkwitt
OBJECTIVE: To review information regarding etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for aortic thrombotic disease in dogs. ETIOLOGY: Diseases resulting in hypercoagulable states can cause thrombus formation in the distal aorta, and account for the majority of cases of aortic thrombosis (ATh) in dogs, although a substantial number of cases have no identifiable underlying cause. Aortic thromboembolism (ATE) also occurs but appears to be much less frequently documented...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
A García Baglietto, C Barceló Cañellas, C Marhuenda Irastorza
INTRODUCTION: Stump appendicitis is the remaining appendicular tissue inflammation after a variable length of time. It is a very infrequent pathology with a paucity in pediatric publications, and given the fact that a delay in its diagnosis could lead to an increased morbidity, this is the reason of its clinical relevance. CLINICAL CASE: A 10 years old girl who had laparoscopic excision of a flemonous-gangrenous appendicitis and who 45 days after surgery showed new clinical symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis...
October 10, 2015: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Marcelo P N Carvalho, Natalia C C A Fernandes, Viviane C Nemer, Ramiro N Dias Neto, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Bruna S Miranda, Maria J Mamprim, José L Catão-Dias, Rodrigo A Réssio
Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that comprise neurofibromas, schwannomas, neurilemmomas, and perineuromas. In animals, peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms are most commonly diagnosed in dogs and cattle, followed by horses, goats, and cats, but their occurrence is uncommon in birds. An adult, free-living, male toco (common) toucan ( Ramphastos toco ) was admitted to the zoo animal clinic with weight loss, dehydration, and presence of a soft nodule adhered to the medial portion of the left pectoral muscle...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
F Hohendanner, J DeSantiago, F R Heinzel, L A Blatter
We tested the hypothesis that in atrial myocytes from a rabbit left ventricular heart failure (HF) model, spatial inhomogeneity and temporal dyssynchrony of Ca removal during excitation-contraction coupling together with increased Na/Ca exchange (NCX) activity generate a substrate for proarrhythmic Ca release. Ca removal occurs via Ca reuptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and extrusion via NCX exclusively in the cell periphery since rabbit atrial myocytes lack transverse tubules. Ca removal kinetics were assessed by the time constant τ of decay of local peripheral subsarcolemmal (SS) and central (CT) action potential (AP)-induced Ca transients (CaTs) recorded in confocal line scan mode (using Fluo-4)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
C P Kasaven, G T McIntyre, P A Mossey
Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software...
September 5, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
M Garbani, W Xia, C Rhyner, M Prati, A Scheynius, B Malissen, H Engqvist, M Maurer, R Crameri, D Terhorst
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory interventions play a key role in the treatment of infections and cancer as well as allergic diseases. Adjuvants such as micro- and nanoparticles are often added to immunomodulatory therapies to enhance the triggered immune response. Here, we report the immunological assessment of novel and economically manufactured microparticle adjuvants, namely strontium-doped hydroxyapatite porous spheres (SHAS), which we suggest for the use as adjuvant and carrier in allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT)...
September 3, 2016: Allergy
Muhammad Saleem Khan, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Saleem Asghar, Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam
The physicochemical and biological properties of metals change as the particles are reduced to nanoscale. This ability increases the application of nanoparticles in commercial and medical industry. Keeping in view this importance, Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by reduction methods using formaldehyde as reducing agent in the chemical route and lemon extracts in the biological route. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of nanoparticles suggested that the particles were either agglomerated or spherical in shape with mean diameter of 16...
September 2, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Dilia Mildret Fontalvo, Gustavo Jiménez Borré, Doris Gómez Camargo, Neylor Chalavé Jiménez, Javier Bellido Rodríguez, Bernarda Cuadrado Cano, Shirley Navarro Gómez
BACKGROUND: The coexistance among fungal pathogens and tuberculosis pulmonary is a clinical condition that generally occurs in immunosuppressive patients, however, immunocompetent patients may have this condition less frequently. OBJECTIVE: We report the case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with coinfection Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. CASE DESCRIPTION: A female patient, who is a 22-years old, with fever and a new onset of hemoptysis...
2016: Colombia Médica: CM
C R Lamb, I D Jones
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of subclinical abnormalities reported in thoracic (CT) scans of cats and to investigate associations between respiratory signs and CT signs. METHODS: Retrospective review of signalment, indications, respiratory signs and reported CT findings in a series of cats. Associations between patient variables, respiratory signs and CT signs were analysed using multi-variable regression methods. RESULTS: Records of 352 consecutive cats were reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Benjamin M Mervak, Matthew S Davenport, Kelsey A Flynt, Ella A Kazerooni, William J Weadock
PURPOSE: With the development of patient portals, the opportunity exists to identify gaps in practice by analyzing priorities patients place on the receipt and comprehension of radiology reports. Our purpose was to describe the nature of radiology-specific patient information requests by analysis of patient-initiated messages submitted through a web-based electronic patient portal. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective cross-sectional study...
July 19, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Martina Načeradská, Michaela Fridrichová, Dita Kellnerová, Soňa Peková, Petr Lány
OBJECTIVES: Dermatophytosis, commonly known as ringworm, is a superficial fungal skin disease and zoonosis. Pythium oligandrum is a micromycete with mycoparasitic properties that is used in agriculture to control fungal infections on plants. Formulations containing P oligandrum were also developed for the treatment of dermatophytoses, but only several case studies have been published. In order to document the process in simplified conditions in vitro, we investigated the effectiveness of P oligandrum against three pathogenic dermatophytes common in domestic animals...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Maria Fernanda Lima Villaça-Carvalho, Luiz Roberto Coutinho Manhães, Mari Eli Leonelli de Moraes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro Lopes
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of bifid mandibular canals (BMC) by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined CT scans from 300 patients both male and female, aged 25 to 87 years. The subjects were divided into groups according to gender, male group (MG) and female group (FG) as well as subgroups according to the side, right (R) and left (L). Tomographic acquisitions were performed on the device I-Cat ® Classic...
September 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jun Hou, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Shanshan Dai, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang
The presence of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in natural waters has raised concerns about their environmental impacts, but the potential influences of ZnO NPs on fluvial biofilm have not been reported. In this study, the utility of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of fluvial biofilm to ZnO NPs toxicity and a method that combines AEA into an index of "Integrated Biomarker Responses (IBR)" were studied. Compared with the absence of ZnO NPs, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that a large amount of ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto biofilm and these NPs exerted adverse effects on the viability of bacteria in biofilm...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shang H Zeng, Qi Wang, Yan Wang, Yue Fei, Na Liu, Su P Ding, Hai Q Su
Inverse CeO₂-Co₃O₄/CuO catalysts with chrysanthemum-like morphology were prepared by the co-precipitation method, and characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. It is found that the filament is composed of ordered-array CuO nanocrystallites, and CeO₂ was dispersed on the outer surface of filament. The CeO₂-Co₃O₄/CuO catalyst with thin filaments can form the long periphery at the CeO₂-CuO contact interface and improve catalytic performance...
January 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Elizabeth M Jones, Melissa Papio, Boon Ching Tee, Frank M Beck, Henry W Fields, Zongyang Sun
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have indicated that orthodontic-grade cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are limited when displaying small defects at the mandibular condyles for diagnosis. In this study, we investigated whether this limitation was inherent to CBCT by comparing CBCT with multislice computed tomography (CT), and whether image segmentation and color mapping could overcome this limitation. METHODS: Nine fresh pig heads (18 condyles, 36 medial and lateral condylar regions) were used...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Dennis Dane Cho, Yaniv Berliner, David Carr
Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported previous antibiotic treatment of a cellulitis secondary to a cat bite injury to his right thumb four weeks prior...
June 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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