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Yuji Hataya, Akifumi Oba, Takafumi Yamashita, Yasato Komatsu
Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders encountered in the elderly. We present the case of an 81-year-old man who developed hyponatremia due to isolated hypoaldosteronism occurring after licorice withdrawal. He had severe hypokalemia with hypertension and was diagnosed with pseudoaldosteronism. He had been taking a very small dose of licorice as a mouth refresher since his early adulthood. Five months after licorice withdrawal, he developed hypovolemic hyponatremia, which was resolved with administration of fludrocortisone acetate...
2017: Internal Medicine
Julian Yaxley, Christine Pirrone
BACKGROUND: The term renal tubular acidosis (RTA) describes a group of uncommon kidney disorders characterized by defective acid-base regulation. Reaching the diagnosis of RTA is complex and often delayed, resulting in suboptimal treatment. METHODS: This article provides an overview of the clinical features of RTA and diagnostic approaches in a format accessible to physicians for everyday use. RESULTS: The 3 major forms of disease are classified by their respective tubular transport defects, each of which produces persistent hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Sophie T Whoriskey, Susan L Bartlett, Eric Baitchman
A 20-yr-old female Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was diagnosed with hypoaldosteronism, a rare condition in which the body fails to produce normal amounts of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Aldosterone plays a key role in body salt homeostasis, increasing sodium reabsorption and promoting excretion of potassium. Hypoaldosteronism resulted in decreased appetite, lethargy, and weight loss in conjunction with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia in this tree kangaroo. The animal was successfully managed with mineralocorticoid replacement using desoxycorticosterone pivalate...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
A Bruel, R Vargas-Poussou, X Jeunemaitre, A Labbe, E Merlin, L Bessenay
Gordon's syndrome, or type II pseudo-hypoaldosteronism, is a rare cause of arterial hypertension in children. However, it is important to diagnose this syndrome because of the spectacular efficacy of thiazide diuretics. The typical clinical picture of Gordon syndrome includes, apart from arterial hypertension and dyskaliemia, hyperchloremia metabolic acidosis, hypercalciuria, a low rate of renin, and most frequently, a normal or high rate of aldosterone. Dental abnormalities and growth retardation can also be associated...
August 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Olivier Steichen, Laurence Amar, Philippe Chaffanjon, Jean-Louis Kraimps, Fabrice Ménégaux, Franck Zinzindohoue
Treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA) aims at preventing or correcting hypertension, hypokalemia and target organ damage. Patients with lateralized PA and candidates for surgery may be managed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Partial adrenalectomy and non-surgical ablation have no proven advantage over total adrenalectomy. Intraoperative morbidity and mortality are low in reference centers, and day-surgery is warranted in selected cases. Spironolactone administered during the weeks preceding surgery controls hypertension and hypokalemia and may prevent postoperative hypoaldosteronism...
July 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
W R Adam, J R Wright
Current guidelines recommend renin angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) as key components of treatment of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), because of their effect on reducing the future rate of loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common risk of RASI in CKD is a haemodynamically mediated, and reversible, fall in GFR of varying severity and duration, any time after commencement of the Inhibitors. A benefit of the acute reduction in filtration rate with RASI may be a reduction in the future rate of loss in GFR: the greatest benefit likely to be in those patients with a greater rate of loss of GFR prior to, and a lesser acute loss of GFR after, introduction of RASI; and in those patients with significant proteinuria...
May 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Adam Daniel Jakes, Kevin Baynes, Catherine Nelson-Piercy
We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.
March 17, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
André Gustavo P Sousa, João Victor de Sousa Cabral, William Batah El-Feghaly, Luísa Silva de Sousa, Adriana Bezerra Nunes
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently develop electrolyte disorders, including hyperkalemia. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in patients with diabetes is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism (HH), but other conditions may also contribute. Moreover, as hyperkalemia is related to the blockage of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and HH is most common among patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency due to diabetic nephropathy (DN), the proper evaluation and management of these patients is quite complex...
March 10, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
Maryam Razzaghy-Azar, Mabel Yau, Ahmed Khattab, Maria I New
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a genetic disorder causing severe hypertension, hypokalemia, and hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism owing to deficient 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11βHSD2) enzyme activity. The 11βHSD2 enzyme confers mineralocorticoid receptor specificity for aldosterone by converting cortisol to its inactive metabolite, cortisone and inactivating the cortisol-mineralocorticoid receptor complex. The 20year follow-up of a consanguineous Iranian family with three sibs affected with AME shows the successes and pitfalls of medical therapy with spironolactone...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Daniel W Nelson, George E Black, Richard L Thomas, Matthew J Eckert, Zachary S Hoffer, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid deficiency (GD) has been proposed as a key contributor to shock states, but the presence and role of acute mineralocorticoid deficiency may be of equal or greater significance. We sought to analyze the incidence and degree of acute mineralocorticoid deficiency and GD in an animal model of severe hemorrhage and shock. METHODS: Fifty-seven swine underwent 35% volume-controlled hemorrhage followed by aortic cross-clamping for 50 minutes to induce truncal ischemia-reperfusion...
December 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Meta Phoojaroenchanachai, Peera Buranakitjaroen, Chanin Limwongse
A thirty-eight years old female presented with frequent proximal weakness, severe hypertension, and persistent kaliuresis despite hypokalemia. After normalized serum potassium level, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism was detected Pedigree study supported an autosomal dominant inherited disease. A causative mutation for Liddle's syndrome (LS) in this patient was identified to be a novel frameshift mutation. DNA sequencing resulted in exon 13 of SCNN1B gene: SCNN1B NM_000336.2:c.1 724_1730dupGGCCCAC [p.Pro5 75Argfs*17]...
October 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Andrew D Woolcock, Cynthia Ward
A 6-year-old, castrated male Siamese cat was diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism, confirmed by an adrenocorticotopic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test documenting both hypocortisolism and hypoaldosteronism. The cat was successfully treated using a combination of prednisolone and desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP). This case demonstrates that DOCP can be used successfully as mineralocorticoid supplementation in cats with hypoadrenocorticism and may have a longer therapeutic duration than that in dogs.
November 2015: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Shipra Bansal, Salvador Castells, Vatcharapan Umpaichitra, Sheila Perez-Colon
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in children due to mutations in NR0B1/DAX1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1/dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita at the critical region of the X chromosome, gene 1). Another rare cause of PAI in children is autoimmune adrenal disease (AAD) which could be either isolated or as part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Antibody to major auto-antigen, 21-hydroxylase, is highly specific for AAD...
2015: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
A Uçar, Y Aydemir, A Doğan, E Tunçez
BACKGROUND: Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder with onset of diabetes in the neonatal period or early infancy. CASE REPORT: A 9-year-old girl with diabetes and growth failure from 2 months of age presented with ketoacidosis and multiple organ failure. Evaluation for short stature revealed epiphyseal dysplasia. A homozygous mutation in the EIF2AK3 gene confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. She was euthyroid...
March 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
C Sánchez-Marcos, V Hoffman, S Prieto-González, J Hernández-Rodríguez, G Espinosa
Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a rare complication of renal involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe a 24-year-old male with type IV lupus nephropathy as a presenting manifestation of SLE. He presented with improvement of renal function following induction therapy with three pulses of methylprednisolone and 500 mg biweekly pulses of cyclophosphamide. However, a week after the first pulse of cyclophosphamide, the patient presented with a significant increase in legs edema and severe hyperkalemia...
March 2016: Lupus
Sabriye Korkut, Emir Gökalp, Ahmet Özdemir, Selim Kurtoğlu, Şafak Demirtaş, Ülkü Gül, Osman Baştuğ
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is defined as a state of resistance to aldosterone, a hormone crucial for electrolyte equilibrium. The genetically transmitted type of PHA is primary hypoaldosteronism. Secondary hypoaldosteronism develops as a result of hydronephrosis or hydroureter. PHA patients suffer from severe hyponatremia and a severe clinical condition due to severe loss of salt can be encountered in the neonatal period. Dermal findings in the form of miliaria rubra can also develop in these patients. With the loss of salt, abnormal accumulation of sebum in the eye due to a defect in the sodium channels can also occur...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Michel Azizi
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACEI) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) has become a major therapeutic tool. Due to internal counter-regulation, however, this system cannot be fully blocked by targeting only one of its components. Instead of increasing the doses of an ACEI, an ARB or a renin inhibitor, blocking RAS at two successive levels neutralizes the consequences of internal counter-regulation and thus provides a more complete blockade with more pronounced biological effects...
February 2014: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Pranav Patel, Reena Kuriacose
Liddle's syndrome or pseudoaldosteronism is a rare autosomal dominant disease mimicking primary hyperaldosteronism, characterized by early-onset hypertension, hypokalemia and hypoaldosteronism, caused by excessive salt and water reabsorption in the distal nephron. As of 2008, there are <30 pedigrees or isolated cases that have been reported worldwide. We present an isolated case of a Liddle's syndrome in a 48-year-old female. A 48-year-old female presented to the clinic with palpitation and a three to four-year history of low potassium level and hypertension...
July 2015: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Cory Wilczynski, Lisa Shah, Mary Ann Emanuele, Nicholas Emanuele, Alaleh Mazhari
OBJECTIVE: Selective hypoaldosteronism (SH) is a condition manifested by hyperkalemia due to low aldosterone secretion with normal cortisol. One of the obstacles in diagnosis is the awareness of the condition itself. The objective of this review is to highlight what is known about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of SH. METHODS: Literature search was performed on PubMed and Ovid Medline for articles which contained hypoaldosteronism as a major topic...
August 2015: Endocrine Practice
Beate Ruecker, Mariarosaria Lang-Muritano, Katharina Spanaus, Maik Welzel, Dagmar l'Allemand, Franziska Phan-Hug, Claudia Katschnig, Daniel Konrad, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Eugen J Schoenle
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary hypoaldosteronism is a rare inborn disorder with life-threatening symptoms in newborns and infants due to an aldosterone synthase defect. Diagnosis is often difficult as the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) can remain within the normal range and thus lead to misinterpretation and delayed initiation of life-saving therapy. We aimed to test the eligibility of the PAC/plasma renin concentration (PRC) ratio as a tool for the diagnosis of primary hypoaldosteronism in newborns and infants...
2015: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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