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Research utilization

Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
Hongyan Ma, Qi Huang, Wenshan Qu, Linyuan Li, Min Wang, Shao Li, Fujiang Chu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried roots of Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) is traditionally used as antipyretic medicine to reduce inflammation. It is well known that alkaloids and flavonoids are the main constituents of S. flavescens. However, the clinical researches and applications of S. flavescens is mainly based on its water-extracted alkaloids, its flavonoids may still remain in residues and have been underused. With development and manufacturing of S. flavescens in recent years, more herb residues are being produced...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Beáta Bőthe, István Tóth-Király, Marc N Potenza, Mark D Griffiths, Gábor Orosz, Zsolt Demetrovics
Impulsivity and compulsivity are transdiagnostic features associated with clinically relevant aspects of psychiatric disorders, including addictions. However, little research has investigated how impulsivity and compulsivity relate to hypersexuality and problematic pornography use. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate (a) self-reported impulsivity and compulsivity with respect to hypersexuality and problematic pornography use and (b) the similarities and possible differences between hypersexuality and problematic pornography use in these domains...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Jacob D Gire, Sam Y Jiang, Michael J Gardner, Julius A Bishop
OBJECTIVE: To determine how the utilization of open versus percutaneous treatment of posterior pelvic ring injuries in early career orthopaedic surgeons has changed over time. METHODS: Case log data from surgeons testing in the trauma subspecialty for Part II of the ABOS examination from 2003 to 2015 were evaluated. CPT codes for percutaneous fixation (27216) and open fixation (27218) of the posterior pelvic ring were evaluated using a regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 377 candidates performed 2,095 posterior ring stabilization procedures (1,626 percutaneous, 469 open)...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Levent Özçakar, Ayşe Merve Ata, Bayram Kaymak, Murat Kara, Dinesh Kumbhare
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: On the basis of its various advantages and the relevant awareness of physicians, ultrasound imaging has overwhelmingly taken its place in the scientific arena. This is true both from the side of daily clinical applications and also from the side of research. Yet, ultrasound provides real-time (diagnostic) imaging and (interventional) guidance for a wide spectrum of muscle disorders. In this regard, this review aims to discuss the potential/actual utility of ultrasound imaging in particular muscle disorders, that is, sarcopenia, spasticity and fibromyalgia/myofascial pain syndrome...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Daniel P Hsu, Shana L Hansen, Timothy A Roberts, Clinton K Murray, Vincent Mysliwiec
Introduction: In 2013, the U.S. Army Surgeon General implemented the Performance Triad (P3), an educational initiative to improve health-related behaviors of soldiers throughout the U.S. Army. The components of P3 are Sleep, Activity, and Nutrition with tenet behaviors for each component. This study reports the results of the 2015 U.S. Army Medical Corps survey regarding physician knowledge and adherence to the tenet behaviors of P3. Methods: In 2015, an anonymous survey was sent to all active duty U...
April 18, 2018: Military Medicine
Cuiping Li, Weiyi Lai, Hailin Wang
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm), and can generate many lineages for regenerative medicine. ES cell culture in vitro has long been the subject of widespread concerns. Classically, mouse ES cells are maintained in serum and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-containing medium. However, under serum/LIF conditions, cells show heterogeneity in morphology and the expression profile of pluripotency-related genes, and are mostly in a metastable state...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shaylea Badovinac, Hannah Gennis, Rebecca Pillai Riddell, Hartley Garfield, Saul Greenberg
Parents play a critical role in supporting infants' ability to manage strong emotions. Routine vaccinations provide an ideal context to observe the effect of parents' behaviors on infants' pain-related distress. Previous research in the vaccination context showed that parent sensitivity, operationalized by variables such as emotional availability and proximal soothing behaviors, is associated with infant pain-related distress behavior. However, the magnitudes of these relationships were smaller than expected given the established importance of parents in the development of distress regulation...
June 18, 2018: Children
Stephen P Kilgus, Michael P Van Wie, James S Sinclair, T Chris Riley-Tillman, Keith C Herman
Research has supported the applied use of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scale (DBR-SIS) targets of "academic engagement" and "disruptive behavior" for a range of purposes, including universal screening and progress monitoring. Though useful in evaluating social behavior and externalizing problems, these targets have limited utility in evaluating emotional behavior and internalizing problems. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to support the initial development and validation of a novel DBR-SIS target of "unhappy," which was intended to tap into the specific construct of depression...
June 18, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Yosef Sonnenblick, Michal Taler, Yaacov G Bachner, Rael D Strous
BACKGROUND: Although exercise has been shown to improve mood and well-being, the precise mechanism remains unknown. Neurosteroids are important neuroactive molecules with demonstrated involvement in several neurophysiological and disease processes. Previous research has noted neurosteroid changes in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels following exercise. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether changes in DHEA levels are associated with mood improvement after exercise and whether there are any differences in the effects on younger and older individuals...
June 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
S Hamaui Cuadrado, M Guinart Vidal
The Drug Information Association (DIA) Europe held its annual meeting from April 17-19, 2018, in Basel, Switzerland. The key topics discussed in the 3-day meeting were related to pharmacovigilance, clinical development, patient engagement, data and data standards, preclinical development and early-phase clinical research, regulatory science, translational medicine and science, and value and access. The program was principally focused on the current opportunities and future landscape of the healthcare system as a result of the increasingly innovative technologies and effective utilization of big data...
May 2018: Drugs of Today
Robert Waller, Leon Straker, Peter O'Sullivan, Michele Sterling, Anne Smith
Background and aims Investigation of the multidimensional correlates of pressure pain threshold (PPT) requires the study of large cohorts, and thus the use of multiple raters, for sufficient statistical power. Although PPT testing has previously been shown to be reliable, the reliability of multiple raters and investigation for systematic bias between raters has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrarater and interrater reliability of PPT measurement by handheld algometer at the wrist, leg, cervical spine and lumbar spine...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Elena Dragioti, Tobias Wiklund, Peter Alföldi, Björn Gerdle
Objective Insomnia is the most commonly diagnosed comorbidity disorder among patients with chronic pain. This circumstance requests brief and valid instruments for screening insomnia in epidemiological studies. The main object of this study was to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Swedish version of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). The ISI is a short instrument designed to measure clinical insomnia and one of the most common used scales both in clinical and research practice. However there is no study in Sweden that guarantees neither its factor structure nor its feasibility in chronic pain patients...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Alicia Duval, Beth A Lanning, Megan S Patterson
College students are a vulnerable population for dating violence (DV) because of the social environment in which they live and interact with other students. Campus climate surveys are considered best practice for gathering information about the severity and cause of college DV; however, there are still unanswered questions as to why DV remains an alarming public health concern among college students. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine DV risk factors specific to college students with a special focus on methodological factors and gaps in the literature...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Laura B Meade, Lindsay M Bearne, Louise H Sweeney, Samah H Alageel, Emma L Godfrey
PURPOSE: Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive movement) improves pain and function in people with persistent musculoskeletal pain (PMSK), but adherence is often poor. This systematic review evaluates the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of interventions to improve exercise adherence in people with PMSK and describes the content, context, and theoretical underpinning of behaviour change interventions designed to increase adherence. METHODS: Nine electronic databases were searched from inception dates to August 2017...
June 17, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Jessica M Cohenour, Valerie M Volkert, Keith D Allen
Operant renewal is a return of extinguished behavior due to changes in contextual stimuli that control the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a response. Well-established in classical conditioning and operant research, renewal presents itself in three forms-ABA, ABC, and AAB-and poses threats to treatment maintenance where extinction procedures are utilized. As AAB renewal may be less likely to occur than ABA or ABC renewal, the current study sought to determine if AAB renewal would occur with three participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder who were taught a simple lever pull response...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Paula Facal Marina, Jie Xu, Xuan Wu, Haolan Xu
Pickering emulsions, also known as particle stabilized emulsions, are one kind of extremely important emulsion for both fundamental research and practical applications. Many colloidal particles have been utilized as emulsifiers to stabilize Pickering emulsions. However, the most challenging issue is preparing Pickering emulsions with highly hydrophilic particles, because their adsorption onto oil-water interfaces is either thermodynamically or kinetically unfavorable. Although several strategies have been developed to overcome the poor ability of the hydrophilic particles to stabilize the emulsions, surface modification and functionalization of the hydrophilic particles or a change in solvent ( i...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Kathleen F Villa, Nancy L Reaven, Susan E Funk, Karen McGaughey, Jed Black
Background: Healthcare utilization and the cost implications associated with undiagnosed and/or misdiagnosed narcolepsy have not been evaluated, and there is scant literature characterizing the newly diagnosed population with narcolepsy with respect to treatment patterns and resource utilization. Objective: To analyze the changes in medication use, healthcare utilization, and the associated costs after a new diagnosis of narcolepsy. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we used data from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Research Databases, between January 2006 and March 2013, to identify patients who had a probable new diagnosis of narcolepsy-defined as a de novo medical claim for a multiple sleep latency test-which was preceded by ≥6 months of continuous insurance and was followed by a de novo diagnosis of narcolepsy...
May 2018: American Health & Drug Benefits
Nasim Sanati, Ovidiu D Iancu, Guanming Wu, James E Jacobs, Shannon K McWeeney
The heterogeneity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has made reliable stratification extremely challenging. Behavioral risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to this heterogeneity. To help elucidate potential mechanisms of progression in HNSCC, we focused on elucidating patterns of gene interactions associated with tumor progression. We performed de-novo gene co-expression network inference utilizing 229 patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) previously annotated by Bornstein et al...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Derek A Crawford, Nicholas B Drake, Michael J Carper, Justin DeBlauw, Katie M Heinrich
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals' abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention...
March 27, 2018: Sports (Basel)
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