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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544184/did-some-red-alga-derived-plastids-evolve-via-kleptoplastidy-a-hypothesis
#1
Andrzej Bodył
The evolution of plastids has a complex and still unresolved history. These organelles originated from a cyanobacterium via primary endosymbiosis, resulting in three eukaryotic lineages: glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants. The red and green algal plastids then spread via eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbioses, known as secondary and tertiary symbioses, to numerous heterotrophic protist lineages. The number of these horizontal plastid transfers, especially in the case of red alga-derived plastids, remains controversial...
May 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544161/bone-marrow-derived-cells-response-in-proximal-regions-of-nerves-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
Lulu Chen, Jia Cheng, Xiaonan Yang, Xiaolei Jin, Zuoliang Qi, Yu-Qing Jin
In recent years, bone marrow-derived cells have been found to be crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. After traumatic peripheral nerve injury, bone marrow-derived macrophages quickly infiltrate into the distal regions of nerves. To explore the changes caused by bone marrow-derived cells within the proximal regions of the nerves, sciatic nerves of chimeric mice carrying bone marrow cells expressing green fluorescent protein were crushed to observe the infiltration of invading bone marrow-derived cells...
May 24, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544074/single-stage-aesthetic-and-functional-reconstruction-of-composite-facial-gunshot-wound-with-a-chimeric-functioning-muscle-and-fibular-osseous-flap-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Andreas Gravvanis, Konstantinos Apostolou, Dimitrios Anterriotis, Dimosthenis Tsoutsos
The current concepts in the aesthetic and functional reconstruction of complex oromandibular defects are presented with a case of a patient with self-inflicted gunshot wound to the face. The patient presented with a 6 cm composite mandibular defect; the buccomandibular and suborbital aesthetic zones of the cheek along with the mucosa lining, and the ipsilateral facial musculature were missing. A rapid prototyping model of the facial skeleton was used to assist in preoperative planning. A single stage reconstruction with two free flaps was planned; a free fibula osseous flap to reconstruct the mandibular defect, and a free chimeric ALT/functioning vastus lateralis muscle...
May 23, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543553/enhanced-acquired-antibodies-to-a-chimeric-plasmodium-falciparum-antigen-ub05-09-is-associated-with-protective-immunity-against-malaria
#4
Dinga Jerome Nyhalah, Gamua Stanley Dobgima, Vincent PrydeKehdingha Titanji
It has been shown that covalently linking two antigens could enhance the immunogenicity of the chimeric construct. To prioritise such a chimera for malaria vaccine development it is necessary to demonstrate that naturally acquired antibodies against the chimera are associated with protection from malaria. Here we probe the ability of a chimeric construct of UB05 and UB09 antigens (UB05-09) to better differentiate between acquired immune protection and susceptibility to malaria. In a cross-sectional study, recombinant UB05-09 chimera and the constituent antigens were used to probe for specific antibodies in the plasma from children and adults resident in a malaria endemic zone, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
May 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543534/a-chimeric-protein-of-cfa-i-cs6-subunits-and-ltb-sta-toxoid-could-protect-immunized-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#5
Narges Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Goli Goujani, Jafar Amani, Ghasem Ahangari, Asal Akhavian, Mahyat Jafari
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs commonly considered as the bottleneck to achieve an effective vaccine. On the other hand, it is believed that a broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be available when the anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity were induced simultaneously...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543380/chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-that-target-chemokine-receptor-ccr4-as-a-therapeutic-modality-for-t-cell-malignancies
#6
Liyanage P Perera, Meili Zhang, Masao Nakagawa, Michael N Petrus, Michiyuki Maeda, Marshall E Kadin, Thomas A Waldmann, Pin-Yu Perera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542489/d-helix-influences-dimerization-of-the-atp-binding-cassette-abc-transporter-associated-with-antigen-processing-1-tap1-nucleotide-binding-domain
#7
Ahmet S Vakkasoglu, Sriram Srikant, Rachelle Gaudet
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large family of transmembrane importers and exporters. Using two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), which form a canonical ATP-sandwich dimer at some point within the transport cycle, the transporters harness the energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive substrate transport. However the structural elements that enable and tune the dimerization propensity of the NBDs have not been fully elucidated. Here we compared the biochemical properties of the NBDs of human and rat TAP1, a subunit of the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542132/inhibition-of-sdf-1-receptors-cxcr4-and-cxcr7-attenuates-acute-pulmonary-inflammation-via-the-adenosine-a2b-receptor-on-blood-cells
#8
Franziska Magdalena Konrad, Nadine Meichssner, Annette Bury, Kristian-Christos Ngamsri, Jörg Reutershan
Acute pulmonary inflammation is characterized by migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the different compartments of the lung. Recent studies showed evidence that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 influence migration of immune cells and their activity was linked to adenosine concentrations. We investigated the particular role of CXCR4- and CXCR7-inhibition and the potential link to the adenosine A2B-receptor, which plays an important anti-inflammatory role in the lung...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541812/engineering-humanized-antibody-framework-sequences-for-optimal-site-specific-conjugation-of-cytotoxins
#9
Jared L Spidel, Earl F Albone, Xin Cheng, Benjamin Vaessen, Sara Jacob, Andrew Z Milinichik, Arielle Verdi, J Bradford Kline, Luigi Grasso
The prevailing techniques used to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) involve random conjugation of the linker-drug to multiple lysines or cysteines in the antibody. Engineering natural and non-natural amino acids into an antibody has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy to produce homogeneous ADC products with defined drug-to-antibody ratios. We recently reported an efficient residue-specific conjugation technology (RESPECT) where thiol-reactive payloads can be efficiently conjugated to a native unpaired cysteine in position 80 (C80) of rabbit light chains...
May 25, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540544/five-year-volume-growth-of-european-beech-does-not-respond-to-ozone-pollution-in-italy
#10
Elena Paoletti, Alessandra De Marco, Alessandro Anav, Patrizia Gasparini, Enrico Pompei
A unique database of stand volume growth, estimated as periodic annual volume increment (in m(3) ha(-1) per year over the period 2001-2005) from 728 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) sites distributed across Italy, was used to assess the effects of ambient ozone (O3), expressed as annual average (M24), accumulated exposure above a 40 ppb hourly threshold (AOT40), and total stomatal ozone flux (POD0). Growth data were from the National forest inventory of Italy, while climate data and ozone concentrations were computed by the WRF and CHIMERE models, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540257/dynamic-interaction-of-enterovirus-71-and-dendritic-cells-in-infected-neonatal-rhesus-macaques
#11
Ting Zhao, Zhixiao Zhang, Ying Zhang, Min Feng, Shengtao Fan, Lichun Wang, Longding Liu, Xi Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Shuaiyao Lu, Huai Yang, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539557/prospects-for-personalized-combination-immunotherapy-for-solid-tumors-based-on-adoptive-cell-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapies
#12
Daiki Kato, Tomonori Yaguchi, Takashi Iwata, Kenji Morii, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ryohei Nishimura, Yutaka Kawakami
  Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and adoptive cell therapies (ACT) with antigen-receptor gene-engineered T cells have been shown to be successful for a limited number of patients with solid tumors. Responders to ICB therapy typically have T cell-inflamed tumors. Thus, it is important to develop strategies that convert non-T cell-inflamed tumors to T cell-inflamed tumors. Although chimeric antigen receptor transduced T (CAR-T) cell therapy targeting hematological malignancies demonstrated durable clinical responses, the success of gene-engineered T cell therapies in solid tumors is hampered by a lack of unique antigens, antigen loss in cancer cells, and the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) of solid tumors...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539448/virological-control-by-the-cd4-binding-site-antibody-n6-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Boris Julg, Amarendra Pegu, Peter Abbink, Jinyan Liu, Amanda Brinkman, Katherine Molloy, Shanell Mojta, Abishek Chandrashekar, Katherine Callow, Keyun Wang, Xuejun Chen, Stephen D Schmidt, Jinghe Huang, Richard A Koup, Michael S Seaman, Brandon F Keele, John R Mascola, Mark Connors, Dan H Barouch
Passive immunotherapies against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) with maximum breadth and potency to assure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in-vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically SHIV-SF162P3 infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7 (mean 1...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#14
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539427/tlr-induced-murine-dendritic-cell-dc-activation-requires-dc-intrinsic-complement
#15
Joong-Hyuk Sheen, Michael G Strainic, Jinbo Liu, Weijia Zhang, Zhengzi Yi, M Edward Medof, Peter S Heeger
Induction of proinflammatory T cell immunity is augmented by innate dendritic cell (DC) maturation commonly initiated by TLR signaling. We demonstrate that ligation of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 induces murine DC production of complement components and local production of the anaphylatoxin C5a. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses show that TLR-induced DC maturation, as assessed by surface phenotype, expression profiling by gene array, and functional ability to stimulate T cell responses, requires autocrine C3a receptor and C5a receptor (C3ar1/C5ar1) signaling...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539278/-construction-of-specific-artificial-antigen-presenting-cells-for-in-vitro-activation-of-cd19-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells
#16
Yao-Jun Peng, Qi-Yan Wu, Hong-Yu Liu, Jian Zhao, Hua-Feng Wei
OBJECTIVE: To construct CD19-specific artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) for in vitro activation and expansion of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells (CD19-CAR-T) and investigate their cytotoxic effect. METHODS: CD19-specific aAPCs (NIH3T3-CD19/86, NIH3T3-CD19/86/137L) expressing costimulatory molecules CD86 and/or CD137L were prepared on the basis of NIH3T3 backbone cells by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer. Irradiated CD19-specific aAPCs were co-cultured with CD19-CAR-T cells to activate and amplify CD19-CAR-T cells...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538502/successful-reduced-intensity-allogeneic-transplant-with-full-donor-chimerism-and-good-quality-of-life-in-adolescent-patient-with-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome
#17
Salah Ali, Anna Gacsadi, Elizabeth McDougall, Christine Armstrong, Joerg Krueger, Tal Schechter, Muhammad Ali
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, immune deficiency, and autoimmune phenomena. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment. Myeloablative conditioning is the most common regimen used for HSCT in patients with WAS to avoid the risk of mixed donor chimerism and autoimmunity post-HSCT. There is limited data on the use of reduced intensity conditioning for HSCT in patients with WAS. Here, we report a case with severe phenotype of WAS transplanted successfully with reduced intensity conditioning, which is an acceptable conditioning regimen and can be considered in patients with WAS with significantly impaired organ functions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537891/multiplex-pcr-approach-to-simultaneously-identify-several-mutations-in-fine-needle-cytology-thyroid-samples
#18
Emilia Vuttariello, Marco Borra, Elvira Mauriello, Celeste Calise, Barbara D'Andrea, Anna Capiluongo, Franco Fulciniti, Anna Cipolletta, Mario Monaco, Luciano Pezzullo, Gennaro Chiappetta
The most frequent initial manifestation of thyroid cancer is the appearance of a nodule. More than 20% of the general population has a palpable thyroid nodule and the percentage rises to 70% based on ultrasound identification. In 95% of cases the nodule is simply a hyperplastic or benign lesion. The most reliable diagnostic test for thyroid nodules is fine needle aspiration (FNA), but cytological discrimination between malignant and benign follicular neoplasms remains difficult. Cytological analysis is now, almost routinely, being combined with molecular genetics to enable the pathologist to make a more objective diagnosis...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537559/enforcement-of-developmental-lineage-specificity-by-transcription-factor-oct1
#19
Zuolian Shen, Jinsuk Kang, Arvind Shakya, Marcin Tabaka, Elke A Jarboe, Aviv Regev, Dean Tantin
Embryonic stem cells co-express Oct4 and Oct1, a related protein with similar DNA binding specificity. To study the role of Oct1 in ESC pluripotency and transcriptional control, we constructed germline and inducible-conditional Oct1 deficient ESC lines. ESCs lacking Oct1 show normal appearance, self-renewal and growth, but manifest defects upon differentiation. They fail to form beating cardiomyocytes, generate neurons poorly, form small, poorly differentiated teratomas, and cannot generate chimeric mice. Upon RA-mediated differentiation, Oct1 deficient cells induce lineage-appropriate developmentally poised genes poorly while lineage-inappropriate genes, including extra-embryonic genes, are inappropriately expressed...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537234/-car-t-cell-therapy-balance-of-efficacy-and-safety
#20
S V Kulemzin, V V Kuznetsova, M Mamonkin, A V Taranin, A A Gorchakov
Early results from clinical trials of autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells for the therapy of B-cell malignancies have encouraged extending the potency of this therapy to other cancers. However, the success of using CAR T-cells to treat patients with solid tumors has been limited. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the design and applications of CARs for the targeted therapy of cancer. We describe existing issues that limit the widespread application of CAR T cells and discuss the optimization steps needed to further improve safety and efficacy of this therapeutic platform...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
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