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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#1
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194599/teens-and-spice-a-review-of-adolescent-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use
#2
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Saeideh Amini, Abraham Ebenezer Paul
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly abused by adolescents with reported past year (2013) use in high school students between 3 and 10%. Standard adolescent postmortem toxicology does not include routine SC analysis, and thus, the true burden of fatalities related to SCs is unknown. A retrospective case review of two cases included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and toxicology. SCs were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Review of the eight adolescent SC-associated fatalities in the literature revealed five of eight cases had no other discernible cause of death on autopsy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168269/adolescent-ethanol-intake-alters-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-localization-in-astrocytes-of-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#3
Itziar Bonilla-Del Rίo, Nagore Puente, Sara Peñasco, Irantzu Rico, Ana Gutiérrez-Rodrίguez, Izaskun Elezgarai, Almudena Ramos, Leire Reguero, Inmaculada Gerrikagoitia, Brian R Christie, Patrick Nahirney, Pedro Grandes
Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 ) receptors are widely distributed in the brain and play important roles in astrocyte function and the modulation of neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is currently unknown how CB1 receptor expression in astrocytes is affected by long-term exposure to stressors. Here we examined CB1 receptors in astrocytes of ethanol (EtOH)-exposed adolescent mice to determine its effect on CB1 receptor localization and density in adult brain. 4-8-week-old male mice were exposed to 20 percent EtOH over a period of 4 weeks, and receptor localization was examined after 4 weeks in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122973/capsaicin-cream-for-treatment-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-in-adolescents-a-case-series
#4
Jessica Graham, Michael Barberio, George Sam Wang
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an underrecognized diagnosis among adolescents. In the adult literature, it is characterized as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in patients with chronic marijuana use. CHS is often refractory to the standard treatment of nausea and vomiting. Unconventional antiemetics, such as haloperidol, have been successful in alleviating symptoms; however, even 1 dose of haloperidol can lead to grave adverse effects, such as dystonia, extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
December 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107728/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-object-recognition-and-anxiety-like-activity-are-age-and-strain-dependent-in-mice
#5
C R Kasten, Y Zhang, S L Boehm
Use of exogenous cannabinoids disrupts the fine-tuned endocannabinoid receptor system, possibly leading to alterations in cognition, memory, and emotional processes that endure long after cannabinoid use has stopped. Long-term adolescent use may uniquely disrupt these behaviors when compared to adult use. The current study explored the acute and long-term behavioral effects of six 10mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) injections across the adolescent or early adult period in male inbred C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mice...
December 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061872/medical-cannabinoids-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Shane Shucheng Wong, Timothy E Wilens
CONTEXT: Legalization of medical marijuana in many states has led to a widening gap between the accessibility and the evidence for cannabinoids as a medical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review published reports to identify the evidence base of cannabinoids as a medical treatment in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a search of PubMed, Medline, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases was conducted in May 2017...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038246/cb1-dependent-long-term-depression-in-ventral-tegmental-area-gaba-neurons-a-novel-target-for-marijuana
#7
Lindsey Friend, Jared Weed, Philip Sandoval, Teresa Nufer, Isaac Ostlund, Jeffrey G Edwards
The VTA is necessary for reward behavior with dopamine cells critically involved in reward signaling. Dopamine cells in turn are innervated and regulated by neighboring inhibitory GABA cells. Using whole-cell electrophysiology in juvenile-adolescent GAD67-GFP male mice, we examined excitatory plasticity in fluorescent VTA GABA cells. A novel CB1-dependent LTD was induced in GABA cells that was dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). LTD was absent in CB1 knock-out mice but preserved in heterozygous littermates...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#8
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017758/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-characterization-of-asp8477-a-novel-highly-selective-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor
#9
Tomonari Watabiki, Noriko Tsuji, Tetsuo Kiso, Tohru Ozawa, Fumie Narazaki, Shuichiro Kakimoto
Although exogenous agonists for cannabinoid (CB) receptors are clinically effective for treating chronic pain, global activation of brain CB receptors causes frequent central nervous system (CNS) side-effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a primary catabolic enzyme for anandamide (AEA), an endogenous CB. Recently, we discovered a novel FAAH inhibitor, 3-pyridyl 4-(phenylcarbamoyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (ASP8477). In vitro studies demonstrated that ASP8477 inhibited human FAAH-1, FAAH-1 (P129T) and FAAH-2 activity with IC50 values of 3...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898309/-psychiatric-complications-of-cannabis-use
#10
Adriana V Bulacia
atural and synthetic cannabinoids modify the modulatory activity of the endocannabinoid system. Psychiatric complications induced by cannabis are analyzed, i.e. those that start with intoxication but persist beyond the removal of the drug (cognitive, psychotic and anxiety disorders) and the development of addictive behavior. Adolescence is the period of greatest vulnerability to cognitive impact. Cannabis-induced psychosis has been linked to consumption of high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol and personality traits of anxiety and somatization...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#11
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#12
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623823/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-cannabis-use-disorder-in-adults
#13
Kevin M Gray, Susan C Sonne, Erin A McClure, Udi E Ghitza, Abigail G Matthews, Aimee L McRae-Clark, Kathleen M Carroll, Jennifer S Potter, Katharina Wiest, Larissa J Mooney, Albert Hasson, Sharon L Walsh, Michelle R Lofwall, Shanna Babalonis, Robert W Lindblad, Steven Sparenborg, Aimee Wahle, Jacqueline S King, Nathaniel L Baker, Rachel L Tomko, Louise F Haynes, Ryan G Vandrey, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a prevalent and impairing condition, and established psychosocial treatments convey limited efficacy. In light of recent findings supporting the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for CUD in adolescents, the objective of this trial was to evaluate its efficacy in adults. METHODS: In a 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, treatment-seeking adults ages 18-50 with CUD (N=302), enrolled across six National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network-affiliated clinical sites, were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to a 12-week course of NAC 1200mg (n=153) or placebo (n=149) twice daily...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506926/high-times-for-cannabis-epigenetic-imprint-and-its-legacy-on-brain-and-behavior
#14
REVIEW
Henrietta Szutorisz, Yasmin L Hurd
Extensive debates continue regarding marijuana (Cannabis spp), the most commonly used illicit substance in many countries worldwide. There has been an exponential increase of cannabis studies over the past two decades but the drug's long-term effects still lack in-depth scientific data. The epigenome is a critical molecular machinery with the capacity to maintain persistent alterations of gene expression and behaviors induced by cannabinoids that have been observed across the individual's lifespan and even into the subsequent generation...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487656/adolescent-female-cannabinoid-exposure-diminishes-the-reward-facilitating-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-d-amphetamine-in-the-adult-male-offspring
#15
George Pitsilis, Dimitrios Spyridakos, George G Nomikos, George Panagis
Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ(9)-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ(9)-THC (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457972/the-rewarding-effects-of-ethanol-are-modulated-by-binge-eating-of-a-high-fat-diet-during-adolescence
#16
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández, Francisco Navarrete, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Maria A Aguilar, Jorge Manzanares, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Binge-eating is considered a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent and high caloric food intake in a short period of time. Epidemiologic studies support a positive relation between the ingestion of fat and ethanol (EtOH), specifically among adolescent subjects. The aim of this work was to clarify the role of the compulsive, limited and intermittent intake of a high-fat food during adolescence on the rewarding effects of EtOH. After binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week from postnatal day (PND) 29, the reinforcing effects of EtOH were tested with EtOH self-administration (SA), conditioned place preference (CPP) and ethanol locomotor sensitization procedures in young adult mice...
July 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441341/a-long-term-treatment-with-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-combined-with-valproate-increases-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#17
Marta Andres-Mach, Mirosław Zagaja, Agnieszka Haratym-Maj, Radosław Rola, Maciej Maj, Joanna Haratym, Monika Dudra-Jastrzębska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Rational polytherapy in the treatment of refractory epilepsy has been the main therapeutic modality for several years. In treatment with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it is of particular importance that AEDs be selected based on their high anticonvulsant properties, minimal side effects, and impact on the formation of new neurons. The aim of the study was to conduct an in vivo evaluation of the relationship between treatments with synthetic cannabinoid arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) alone or in combination with valproic acid (VPA) and hippocampal neurogenesis in a mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433118/the-role-of-public-health-in-combatting-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#18
Katherine E Warren, Shirli Tay, Leana S Wen
As the country struggles to address an epidemic of alcohol and drug overdose, a wide-ranging category of chemical substances known as synthetic drugs have provoked a new sense of public urgency over the past decade. Synthetic cannabinoids, a heterogeneous and evolving set of synthetic compounds that act on endogenous cannabinoid receptors, have become particularly popular among adolescents due to their relative ease of access and reputation as a "legal high." The Baltimore City Health Department has worked to combat the recent surge in synthetic drug use through a major public awareness campaign, legislative reform, and retailer engagement and compliance initiative...
May 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402427/bdnf-overexpression-prevents-cognitive-deficit-elicited-by-adolescent-cannabis-exposure-and-host-susceptibility-interaction
#19
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Neta Gazit, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Michal Taler, Shay Henry Hornfeld, Irit Gil-Ad, Abraham Weizman, Inna Slutsky, Minae Niwa, Atsushi Kamiya, Akira Sawa, Daniel Offen, Ran Barzilay
Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders. Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) protein is a driver for major mental illness by influencing neurodevelopmental processes. Here, utilizing a unique mouse model based on host (DISC1) X environment (THC administration) interaction, we aimed at studying the pathobiological basis through which THC exposure elicits psychiatric manifestations...
July 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357892/suspected-synthetic-cannabinomimetic-intoxication
#20
Regan A Baum, Abby Bailey, Ryan Chan, Karen Blumenschein
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to retrospectively review patient cases presenting to the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center (UKCMC) emergency department (ED) with symptoms of suspected synthetic cannabinomimetic (SC) intoxication. These drugs, currently undetected by standard urine drug screen tests, comprise a structurally diverse group of compounds designed to mimic the psychoactive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
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