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cannabinoides adolescents

David S Mathai, Christopher D Verrico, Daryl Shorter, John H Coverdale, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Certain medical consequences seem unique to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and not cannabis use. We report the case of an adolescent, whose drug expectancies appear to minimize the severity of SC-related adverse events. METHODS/RESULTS: An 18-year-old male presented with altered mental status and seizure, complicated by respiratory failure. He was stabilized and on discharge, despite counseling on the harms of SC usage, the patient planned to resume use, insisting that the hospitalization was "just one bad high"...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Robin M Murray, Harriet Quigley, Diego Quattrone, Amir Englund, Marta Di Forti
Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Juliana Tournebize, Valérie Gibaja, Jean-Pierre Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and Europe. In recent years, a range of new substances with cannabis-like effects - known as synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) - have suddenly burst on the drug scene. However, there is limited information about the clinical hazards linked to the use of these emerging substances. This review summarizes the literature to date relating the health effects of SCs. METHOD: A systematic literature review of original case studies was performed using 'Pubmed' and the 'Web of Science' (January, 1980 - July, 2015)...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
M Servadio, F Melancia, A Manduca, A di Masi, S Schiavi, V Cartocci, V Pallottini, P Campolongo, P Ascenzi, V Trezza
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotyped/repetitive behaviors, for which no specific treatments are currently available. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is a known, although still underestimated, environmental risk factor for ASD. Altered endocannabinoid activity has been observed in autistic patients, and endocannabinoids are known to modulate behavioral traits that are typically affected in ASD. On this basis, we tested the hypothesis that changes in the endocannabinoid tone contribute to the altered phenotype induced by prenatal VPA exposure in rats, with focus on behavioral features that resemble the core and associated symptoms of ASD...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Francisco Javier Pavón, Eva María Marco, Mariam Vázquez, Laura Sánchez, Patricia Rivera, Ana Gavito, Virginia Mela, Francisco Alén, Juan Decara, Juan Suárez, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Julie Chowen, Fernando Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Antonia Serrano, María Paz Viveros
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session...
2016: PloS One
Nabi Zorlu, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Çiğdem Çolak Kalaycı, Andrew Zalesky, Başak Bağcı, Nihan Oğuz, Fazıl Gelal, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Şeref Gülseren, Aybala Sarıçiçek, Emre Bora, Christos Pantelis
Synthetic cannabinoids have become increasingly popular in the last few years especially among adolescents and young adults. However, no previous studies have assessed the effects of synthetic cannabinoids on the structure of the human brain. Understanding the harms of synthetic cannabinoid use on brain structure is therefore crucial given its increasing use. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 22 patients who used synthetic cannabinoids more than five times a week for at least 1 year and 18 healthy controls...
September 8, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jan Copeland, Peter Gates, Izabella Pokorski
BACKGROUND: As policy responses to cannabis use and availability change internationally, levels of cannabis use disorder rise and treatment seeking increases. Diversion to cannabis treatment from the criminal justice system also increases demand in the system. At a time of developing treatment systems in response to this demand, an understanding of the evidence is increasingly important. OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of the developing evidence-base for psycho-social interventions for cannabis use disorder, including adjunctive cannabinoid agonist therapy...
August 30, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Erin K Kirschmann, Michael W Pollock, Vidhya Nagarajan, Mary M Torregrossa
Use of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) often begins in adolescence, and heavy adolescent marijuana use is often associated with impaired cognitive function in adulthood. However, clinical reports of long-lasting cognitive deficits, particularly in subjects who discontinue use in adulthood, are mixed. Moreover, dissociating innate differences in cognitive function from cannabis-induced deficits is challenging. Therefore, the current study sought to develop a rodent model of adolescent cannabinoid self-administration (SA), using the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), in order to assess measures of relapse/reinstatement of drug seeking and long-term effects on cognitive function assessed in a delay-match-to-sample working memory task and a spatial recognition task...
October 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
J Tomas-Roig, E Benito, R C Agis-Balboa, F Piscitelli, S Hoyer-Fender, V Di Marzo, U Havemann-Reinecke
Regular use of marijuana during adolescence enhances the risk of long-lasting neurobiological changes in adulthood. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of long-term administration of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212.2 during adolescence in young adult mice. Adolescent mice aged 5 weeks were subjected daily to the pharmacological action of WIN55212.2 for 3 weeks and were then left undisturbed in their home cage for a 5-week period and finally evaluated by behavioral testing. Mice that received the drug during adolescence showed memory impairment in the Morris water maze, as well as a dose-dependent memory impairment in fear conditioning...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
Diana Dow-Edwards, Lindsay Silva
Marijuana use during adolescence has reached virtually every strata of society. The general population has the perception that marijuana use is safe for mature people and therefore is also safe for developing adolescents. However, both clinical and preclinical research shows that marijuana use, particularly prior to age 16, could have long-term effects on cognition, anxiety and stress-related behaviors, mood disorders and substance abuse. These effects derive from the role of the endocannabinoid system, the endogenous cannabinoid system, in the development of cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus during adolescence...
August 25, 2016: Brain Research
Deepak Cyril D Souza, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Mohamed Sherif, Jose Cortes-Briones, John Cahill, Swapnil Gupta, Patrick D Skosnik, Mohini Ranganathan
There is growing interest in the relationship between cannabis and psychosis. The link between cannabis use and psychosis comprises three distinct relationships: acute psychosis associated with cannabis intoxication, acute psychosis that lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication, and persistent psychosis not time-locked to exposure. Experimental studies reveal that cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and synthetic cannabinoids reliably produce transient positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in healthy volunteers...
August 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
M Rodríguez-Arias, C Roger-Sánchez, I Villanova, N Revert, C Manzanedo, J Miñarro, M A Aguilar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/6481862.].
2016: Neural Plasticity
Lindsay M Squeglia, Nathaniel L Baker, Erin A McClure, Rachel L Tomko, Vitria Adisetiyo, Kevin M Gray
AIMS: Current adolescent alcohol treatments have modest effects and high relapse rates. Evaluation of novel pharmacotherapy treatment is warranted. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant supplement with glutamatergic properties, is a promising treatment for marijuana cessation in adolescents; however, its effects on adolescent drinking have not been examined. To that end, this secondary analysis evaluated: (1) the effect of NAC vs. placebo on alcohol use over an eight-week adolescent marijuana cessation trial and (2) the role of marijuana cessation and reduction on subsequent alcohol use...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
David J Clarke, Jordyn Stuart, Iain S McGregor, Jonathon C Arnold
The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in schizophrenia. Mice with heterozygous deletion of neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 HET mice) provide a well-characterised animal model of schizophrenia, and display enhanced sensitivity to stress and cannabinoids during adolescence. However, no study has yet determined whether these mice have altered brain endocannabinoid concentrations. Nrg1 application to hippocampal slices decreased 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signalling and disrupted long-term depression, a form of synaptic plasticity critical to spatial learning...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
V Lorenzetti, S Alonso-Lana, G J Youssef, A Verdejo-Garcia, C Suo, J Cousijn, M Takagi, M Yücel, N Solowij
Background Cannabis use typically commences during adolescence, a period during which the brain undergoes profound remodeling in areas that are high in cannabinoid receptors and that mediate cognitive control and emotion regulation. It is therefore important to determine the impact of adolescent cannabis use on brain function. Objective We investigate the impact of adolescent cannabis use on brain function by reviewing the functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in adolescent samples. Method We systematically reviewed the literature and identified 13 functional neuroimaging studies in adolescent cannabis users (aged 13 to 18 years) performing working memory, inhibition and reward processing tasks...
August 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Katherine M Keyes, Caroline Rutherford, Ava Hamilton, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids use has been a public health concern given association with hospitalization and death among users. While national reports estimate that reported use is declining among adolescents, differences by birth cohort may indicate subgroups who remain at higher risk, both in the overall adolescent population and among demographic subgroups. METHODS: We estimated age, period, and cohort models of self-reported past-year synthetic cannabinoid use (queried as "synthetic marijuana" ["K2," "Spice"]) among 54,865 adolescents aged 13-19 attending high school from 2011 to 2015...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Linda Patia Spear
Studies using animal models of adolescent exposure to alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, and the stimulants cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethampethamine and methamphetamine have revealed a variety of persisting neural and behavioral consequences. Affected brain regions often include mesolimbic and prefrontal regions undergoing notable ontogenetic change during adolescence, although it is unclear whether this represents areas of specific vulnerability or particular scrutiny to date. Persisting alterations in forebrain systems critical for modulating reward, socioemotional processing and cognition have emerged, including apparent induction of a hyper-dopaminergic state with some drugs and/or attenuations in neurons expressing cholinergic markers...
November 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Claire E Blevins, Kelsey E Banes, Robert S Stephens, Denise D Walker, Roger A Roffman
Little is known regarding the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC), particularly use among adolescent substance users who may be at higher risk. The present exploratory study seeks to describe SC use and subjective effects among cannabis-using adolescents as well as compare the characteristics of cannabis users who do and do not use SC. Exploratory analyses evaluated cannabis treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Participants enrolled in a randomized, controlled intervention for cannabis-using high school students aged 14-19 (N=252) completed questionnaires regarding their use of SC and other substances...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
V M Doenni, J M Gray, C M Song, S Patel, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
Early-life inflammation has been shown to exert profound effects on brain development and behavior, including altered emotional behavior, stress responsivity and neurochemical/neuropeptide receptor expression and function. The current study extends this research by examining the impact of inflammation, triggered with the bacterial compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (P) 14, on social behavior during adolescence. We investigated the role that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays in sociability after early-life LPS...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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