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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#1
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219487/evidence-for-the-risks-and-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-exposure
#2
REVIEW
Amir Levine, Kelly Clemenza, Moira Rynn, Jeffrey Lieberman
OBJECTIVE: This review of the scientific literature examines the potential adult sequelae of exposure to cannabis and related synthetic cannabinoids in adolescence. We examine the four neuropsychiatric outcomes that are likely most vulnerable to alteration by early cannabinoid use, as identified within both the clinical and preclinical research: cognition, emotional functioning, risk for psychosis, and addiction. METHOD: A literature search was conducted through PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar with no publication date restrictions...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190538/acute-intoxication-caused-by-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-and-mmb-2201-a-case-series
#3
Bernardino Barceló, Simona Pichini, Victoria López-Corominas, Isabel Gomila, Christopher Yates, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini
Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively new substances of abuse. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. When new compounds are introduced, their use is initially not restricted by prohibition therefore their consumption cannot be verified by standard drug tests. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults is constantly growing, making it important for emergency services to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of intoxication present...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162792/synthetic-pot-not-your-grandfather-s-marijuana
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin M Ford, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Paul L Prather
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes...
January 27, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093016/acute-and-residual-effects-in-adolescent-rats-resulting-from-exposure-to-the-novel-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-pinaca-and-ab-fubinaca
#5
Richard C Kevin, Katie E Wood, Jordyn Stuart, Andrew J Mitchell, Michael Moir, Samuel D Banister, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have rapidly proliferated as recreational drugs, and may present a substantial health risk to vulnerable populations. However, information on possible effects of long-term use is sparse. This study compared acute and residual effects of the popular indazole carboxamide SC compounds AB-PINACA and AB-FUBINACA in adolescent rats with ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and control treatments. Albino Wistar rats were injected (i.p.) with AB-PINACA or AB-FUBINACA every second day (beginning post-natal day (PND) 31), first at a low dose (0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986504/the-consequences-of-chronic-cannabis-smoking-in-vulnerable-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Montaha Al Iede, Kenneth Nunn, Bronwyn Milne, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana...
November 9, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977335/fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-morphine-interaction-influences-ventilatory-response-to-hypercapnia-and-postoperative-opioid-outcomes-in-children
#7
Vidya Chidambaran, Valentina Pilipenko, Kristie Spruance, Raja Venkatasubramanian, Jing Niu, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Kejian Zhang, Kenneth Kaufman, Alexander A Vinks, Lisa J Martin, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam
AIM: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. We hypothesized that FAAH variants will predict risk of morphine-related adverse outcomes due to opioid-endocannabinoid interactions. PATIENTS & METHODS: In 101 postsurgical adolescents receiving morphine analgesia, we prospectively studied ventilatory response to 5% CO2 (HCVR), respiratory depression (RD) and vomiting. Blood was collected for genotyping and morphine pharmacokinetics...
January 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935269/from-adolescent-to-elder-rats-motivation-for-palatable-food-and-cannabinoids-receptors
#8
Amancio-Belmont Octavio, Romano-López Antonio, Ruiz-Contreras Alejandra Evelin, Méndez-Díaz Mónica, Prospéro-García Oscar
To analyze motivation, food self-administration and decision-making were evaluated in adolescent, adult, and aged rats. Subjects were trained to press a lever (fixed ratio, FR1 and FR5) in an operant chamber, to obtain chocolate flavor pellets. They assessed the progressive ratio (PR), extinction, and reinstatement of the behavior. To estimate decision-making for food, rats were trained in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: (a) associating one compartment with lab chow (LCh) one day and the other compartment with rice krisspies (RK), the next day...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909319/the-cannabinoid-receptor-1-as-a-key-mediator-of-adolescent-behavior
#9
Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899885/interacting-cannabinoid-and-opioid-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-control-adolescent-social-play
#10
Antonia Manduca, Olivier Lassalle, Marja Sepers, Patrizia Campolongo, Vincenzo Cuomo, Giovanni Marsicano, Brigitte Kieffer, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Viviana Trezza, Olivier J J Manzoni
Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898071/are-adolescents-more-vulnerable-to-the-harmful-effects-of-cannabis-than-adults-a-placebo-controlled-study-in-human-males
#11
C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889374/-consumption-of-cannabis-in-adolescents
#12
O Phan, I Obradovic, A Har
Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824312/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-drug-abuse-the-probable-role-of-molecular-mimicry-or-the-overstimulation-of-cb-receptors-in-a-17-year-old-adolescent-case-report
#13
Lidia Hau, Gyorgyi Csabi, Barnabas Rozsai, Jozsef Stankovics, Tamas Tenyi, Katalin Hollody
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibodies produced against NMDA receptors. We report the case of a 17-year-old drug user teenager who presented with altered mental scale, psychiatric symptoms and autonomic dysfunction. In the background we diagnosed NMDA encephalitis. We supposed that synthetic cannabinoids/drugs may have lead to the of trigger NMDA encephalitis via the altered activation of the immune system and molecular mimicry mechanism.
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789118/adverse-structural-and-functional-effects-of-marijuana-on-the-brain-evidence-reviewed
#14
REVIEW
David E Mandelbaum, Suzanne M de la Monte
The growing use and legalization of cannabis are leading to increased exposures across all age groups, including in adolescence. The touting of its medicinal values stems from anecdotal reports related to treatment of a broad range of illnesses including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasms, arthritis, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, post-traumatic stress, inflammatory bowel disease, and anxiety. However, anecdotal data and the high level of interest in this treatment must not obscure objective assessments of any potential and realized short- and long-term adverse effects of cannabis, particularly with respect to age of onset and chronicity of exposure...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777807/synthetic-cannabis-overdose-and-withdrawal-in-a-young-adult-a-case-report-commentary-on-regulation-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
John Samaan, Gerardo F Ferrer, Boye Akinyemi, Patricia Junquera, Juan Oms, Rhaisa Dumenigo
Introduction. Marijuana has been used for its psychotropic effects including enhanced relaxation and perceptual alterations. However, the use of synthetic marijuana (SM) leads to more frequent and drastic side effects than the typical use of regular marijuana, owing to the fact that SM has a shorter duration and an earlier peak of action. Despite all the potential adverse health effects associated with SM use, current health policies on SM are very limited. It is believed that the popularity of SM has increased, due to its easy accessibility in the US and lack of detection in typical urine drug screens for THC...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776623/evidence-based-treatment-options-in-cannabis-dependency
#16
Lisa Walther, Andreas Gantner, Andreas Heinz, Tomislav Majić
BACKGROUND: Now that the consumption of natural and synthetic cannabinoids is becoming more widespread, the specific treatment of cannabis-related disturbances is an increasingly important matter. There are many therapeutic options, and it is not always clear which ones are evidence-based and appropriate for use in a given clinical situation. METHODS: This review is based on reports of pertinent randomized and controlled trials (RCTs) that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed and Cochrane databases...
September 30, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749024/-just-one-bad-high-considering-synthetic-cannabinoid-outcome-expectancies-in-adolescents
#17
David S Mathai, Christopher D Verrico, Daryl Shorter, John H Coverdale, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Certain medical consequences seem unique to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and not cannabis use. We report the case of an adolescent, whose drug expectancies appear to minimize the severity of SC-related adverse events. METHODS/RESULTS: An 18-year-old male presented with altered mental status and seizure, complicated by respiratory failure. He was stabilized and on discharge, despite counseling on the harms of SC usage, the patient planned to resume use, insisting that the hospitalization was "just one bad high"...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720453/-new-patterns-of-substance-use-and-abuse-among-french-adolescents-a-knowledge-synthesis
#18
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717258/traditional-marijuana-high-potency-cannabis-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-increasing-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Robin M Murray, Harriet Quigley, Diego Quattrone, Amir Englund, Marta Di Forti
Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715709/acute-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-update-2015
#20
Juliana Tournebize, Valérie Gibaja, Jean-Pierre Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and Europe. In recent years, a range of new substances with cannabis-like effects-known as synthetic cannabinoids (SCs)-have suddenly burst on the drug scene. However, there is limited information about the clinical hazards linked to the use of these emerging substances. This review summarizes the literature to date relating the health effects of SCs. METHOD: A systematic literature review of original case studies was performed using PubMed and Web of Science (January 1980-July 2015)...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
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