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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778010/exposure-to-cannabinoid-agonist-win-55-212-2-during-early-adolescence-increases-alcohol-preference-and-anxiety-in-cd1-mice
#1
Jimena Laura Frontera, Victoria María Gonzalez Pini, Fernando Luis Messore, Alicia Brusco
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the modulation of the reward system and participates in the reinforcing effects of different drugs of abuse, including alcohol. The most abundant receptor of the eCB system in the central nervous system is the CB1 receptor (CB1R), which is predominantly expressed in areas involved in drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra and the raphe nucleus. CB1R is expressed in early stages during development, and reaches maximum levels during early adolescence...
May 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718649/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#2
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum, Kathryn H Pade
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705007/altered-brain-cannabinoid-1-receptor-mrna-expression-across-postnatal-development-in-the-mam-model-of-schizophrenia
#3
Felipe V Gomes, Jessica R Edelson, David W Volk, Anthony A Grace
Altered cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) expression has been reported in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia, a developmental mental illness that usually emerges in late adolescence/early adulthood. However, the developmental period at which changes in the CB1R expression appear in schizophrenia is unknown. To gain insight into this factor, we assessed the postnatal developmental trajectory of CB1R expression in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia. Using in situ hybridization with film and grain analyses, CB1R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in multiple brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), secondary motor cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum, dorsal subregions and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, of MAM-treated rats and normal controls at three developmental periods [juvenile - postnatal day (PD) 30; adolescence - PD45; and adulthood - PD85]...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698342/unintentional-exposure-of-an-infant-to-synthetic-cannabinoid-bonzai-related-to-the-parent-s-use
#4
Meltem Dinleyici, Eylem Kiral, Sabiha Sahin, Kursat Bora Carman
The increase of available synthetic cannabinoids poses an emerging public health threat worldwide. Synthetic cannabinoid use has been mainly reported in adolescent cases in pediatric practices; there are few reported cases involving infants affected by unintentional use. In this case report, we present the youngest age of synthetic cannabinoid bonzai exposure in the literature, discussing a 3-month-old child affected by exposure to the parents' use of bonzai in the home environment. Because unintentional exposure to synthetic cannabinoids like bonzai might be encountered, pediatric emergency teams should be aware of this condition and child protection teams should be informed of suspicions of child negligence and abuse as a part of the medical approach...
April 24, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697923/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#5
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684296/alcohol-and-drug-intoxications-in-adolescents-admitted-to-paediatric-wards-in-the-czech-republic-5-year-retrospective-study-2006-2010
#6
Pavel Kabíček, Jiří Kobr, Lumír Šašek, Zita Obdržálková, Ludmila Svitálková, Věra Hůrková, Jiří Zeman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to establish frequency, severity and circumstances of alcohol and drug intoxications in adolescents admitted to inpatient wards in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Chief physician of each participating ward (or their designated deputy) searched the patient records for required information. The data was then statistically processed. RESULTS: Thirty inpatient paediatric wards participated in the study (27 district wards and 3 university hospital wards), amounting to more than a third of all paediatric wards in the country...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678279/the-psychiatric-consequences-of-cannabinoids
#7
Joao P De Aquino, Mohamed Sherif, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, John D Cahill, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak C D'Souza
With rising rates of cannabis use in the general population and an increasing number of US states legalizing both recreational and medical cannabis use, it is important to be informed about the adverse consequences of cannabinoids. This Commentary provides an overview of the psychiatric effects of plant-based and synthetic cannabinoids, differentiating acute effects from effects associated with persistent use. Cannabinoids produce multiphasic and dose-dependent effects on anxiety, mood, and perception, in addition to impairing cognition and psychomotor function...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673723/marijuana-use-by-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Edward J Hoffenberg, Shannon K McWilliams, Susan K Mikulich-Gilbertson, Brittany V Murphy, Megan Lagueux, Kristen Robbins, Analice S Hoffenberg, Edwin de Zoeten, Christian J Hopfer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate marijuana use by adolescents and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). STUDY DESIGN: This descriptive cross-sectional study of patients seen between December 2015 through June 2017 at Children's Hospital Colorado for IBD enrolled patients 13-23 years of age, independent of marijuana use status. Information obtained consisted of chart review, electronic and interview self-report, and serum cannabinoid levels. Marijuana ever-users were compared with never-users for clinical characteristics and perceptions of risk with use; users provided information on routes, patterns, motivations, and perceived benefits and problems with use...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652664/alcohol-use-in-adolescence-5-years-admissions-at-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#9
Marlene Rodrigues, Teresa Pontes, Juliana Almeida, Alexandra Estrada, Susana Carvalho
Objective To characterize the profile and pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents, admitted with acute alcoholic intoxication (AAI) at a pediatric emergency department of North Portugal. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of adolescents aged between 10 and 17 years, admitted with AAI between 2012 and 2016. The following variables were evaluated: age, gender, drinking context, quantity and type of alcohol, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), previous episodes, associated injuries, transport to the emergency department, other drug consumption, blood alcohol level (BAL), blood glucose level, treatment and orientation...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576413/the-effects-of-antipsychotics-on-the-density-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-selected-brain-regions-of-male-and-female-adolescent-juvenile-rats
#10
Jiamei Lian, Chao Deng
Antipsychotic drugs have been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders, such as childhood-onset schizophrenia. The abnormality of endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders in juveniles. This study investigated the effect of antipsychotics on the cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the brain of both male and female juvenile rats. The postnatal rats (PD23±1) were administered aripiprazole (1 mg/kg), olanzapine (1 mg/kg), risperidone (0...
March 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550900/short-term-genetic-selection-for-adolescent-locomotor-sensitivity-to-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc
#11
Chelsea R Kasten, Yanping Zhang, Ken Mackie, Stephen L Boehm
Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations...
March 17, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539420/cannabinoid-modulation-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factors-eif2%C3%AE-and-eif2b1-and-behavioral-cross-sensitization-to-cocaine-in-adolescent-rats
#12
Philippe A Melas, Johanna S Qvist, Matteo Deidda, Chirag Upreti, Ya Bin Wei, Fabrizio Sanna, Walter Fratta, Maria Scherma, Paola Fadda, Denise B Kandel, Eric R Kandel
Reduced eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2)α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α) enhances protein synthesis, memory formation, and addiction-like behaviors. However, p-eIF2α has not been examined with regard to psychoactive cannabinoids and cross-sensitization. Here, we find that a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2 mesylate [WIN]) reduced p-eIF2α in vitro by upregulating GADD34 (PPP1R15A), the recruiter of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The induction of GADD34 was linked to ERK/CREB signaling and to CREB-binding protein (CBP)-mediated histone hyperacetylation at the Gadd34 locus...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538266/synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-in-adolescents-presenting-for-emergency-care
#13
Meghan Gilley, Jeffrey Brent, Diane P Calello, Paul Wax, Yaron Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical picture and management of synthetic cannabinoid exposure in a cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Using the 45 participating sites of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry, a North American database, we conducted an observational study of a prospectively collected cohort. We identified all adolescent (12-19 years) cases of synthetic cannabinoid exposure who have received medical toxicology consultation between January 2012 and December 2016...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467679/the-endocannabinoid-system-across-postnatal-development-in-transmembrane-domain-neuregulin-1-mutant-mice
#14
Rose Chesworth, Leonora E Long, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
The use of cannabis is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia, particularly in adolescent individuals with genetic predisposition for the disorder. Alterations to the endocannabinoid system have been found in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we assessed whether molecular alterations exist in the endocannabinoid signalling pathway during brain development in a mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 ( Nrg1 ). We analysed transcripts encoding key molecules of the endocannabinoid system in heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice ( Nrg1 TM HET), which is known to have increased sensitivity to cannabis exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408467/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-changes-the-brain-lipidome-and-transcriptome-differentially-in-the-adolescent-and-the-adult
#15
Emma Leishman, Michelle Murphy, Ken Mackie, Heather B Bradshaw
Exposing the adolescent brain to drugs of abuse is associated with increased risk for adult onset psychopathologies. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence, with largely unknown effects on the developing brain. Cannabis' major psychoactive component, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial signaling. Therefore, multiple cellular and signaling pathways are affected with a single dose of THC. The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs), N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are members of an interconnected lipidome that includes an emerging class of AEA structural analogs, the lipoamines, additional 2-acyl glycerols, free fatty acids, and prostaglandins (PGs)...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399427/myocardial-ischemia-with-cannabinoid-use-in-an-adolescent
#16
Jeet J Mehta, Arjun K Mahendran, Ravi K Bajaj, Arpan R Doshi
A 16-year-old male presented to the emergency department with chest pain after smoking a synthetic cannabinoid from a vape pen. He had rising troponin I levels, and his exercise stress echocardiogram showed distal apical and septal hypokinesis that resolved at six-month follow-up. This case report raises concern about cardiac ischemia related to synthetic cannabinoid abuse in the pediatric population in the current era of cannabis legalization.
November 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341049/-long-term-outcome-after-prenatal-drug-exposure
#17
Ludwig Gortner, Sascha Meyer
Although prenatal exposure to opioids, cannabinoids and cocaine is a frequent problem, only scarce data have been published on the long-term outcome in affected children and adolescents. While opioid-exposed children up to the age of 2 years show a reduced motor developmental pattern, data from meta-analyses up to adolescence show a strong trend for reduced performance with regard to cognitive function and behavior. Follow-up data after intrauterine cannabinoid exposure indicate reduced cognitive and reading abilities as well as abnormal findings in complex planning tests...
January 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#18
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Methods: We recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 methylazoxymethanol acetate rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194599/teens-and-spice-a-review-of-adolescent-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use
#19
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Saeideh Amini, Abraham Ebenezer Paul
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly abused by adolescents with reported past year (2013) use in high school students between 3 and 10%. Standard adolescent postmortem toxicology does not include routine SC analysis, and thus, the true burden of fatalities related to SCs is unknown. A retrospective case review of two cases included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and toxicology. SCs were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Review of the eight adolescent SC-associated fatalities in the literature revealed five of eight cases had no other discernible cause of death on autopsy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168269/adolescent-ethanol-intake-alters-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-localization-in-astrocytes-of-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#20
Itziar Bonilla-Del Rίo, Nagore Puente, Sara Peñasco, Irantzu Rico, Ana Gutiérrez-Rodrίguez, Izaskun Elezgarai, Almudena Ramos, Leire Reguero, Inmaculada Gerrikagoitia, Brian R Christie, Patrick Nahirney, Pedro Grandes
Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 ) receptors are widely distributed in the brain and play important roles in astrocyte function and the modulation of neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is currently unknown how CB1 receptor expression in astrocytes is affected by long-term exposure to stressors. Here we examined CB1 receptors in astrocytes of ethanol (EtOH)-exposed adolescent mice to determine its effect on CB1 receptor localization and density in adult brain. 4-8-week-old male mice were exposed to 20 percent EtOH over a period of 4 weeks, and receptor localization was examined after 4 weeks in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
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