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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#1
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#2
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623823/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-cannabis-use-disorder-in-adults
#3
Kevin M Gray, Susan C Sonne, Erin A McClure, Udi E Ghitza, Abigail G Matthews, Aimee L McRae-Clark, Kathleen M Carroll, Jennifer S Potter, Katharina Wiest, Larissa J Mooney, Albert Hasson, Sharon L Walsh, Michelle R Lofwall, Shanna Babalonis, Robert W Lindblad, Steven Sparenborg, Aimee Wahle, Jacqueline S King, Nathaniel L Baker, Rachel L Tomko, Louise F Haynes, Ryan G Vandrey, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a prevalent and impairing condition, and established psychosocial treatments convey limited efficacy. In light of recent findings supporting the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for CUD in adolescents, the objective of this trial was to evaluate its efficacy in adults. METHODS: In a 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, treatment-seeking adults ages 18-50 with CUD (N=302), enrolled across six National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network-affiliated clinical sites, were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to a 12-week course of NAC 1200mg (n=153) or placebo (n=149) twice daily...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506926/high-times-for-cannabis-epigenetic-imprint-and-its-legacy-on-brain-and-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Henrietta Szutorisz, Yasmin L Hurd
Extensive debates continue regarding marijuana (Cannabis spp), the most commonly used illicit substance in many countries worldwide. There has been an exponential increase of cannabis studies over the past two decades but the drug's long-term effects still lack in-depth scientific data. The epigenome is a critical molecular machinery with the capacity to maintain persistent alterations of gene expression and behaviors induced by cannabinoids that have been observed across the individual's lifespan and even into the subsequent generation...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487656/adolescent-female-cannabinoid-exposure-diminishes-the-reward-facilitating-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-d-amphetamine-in-the-adult-male-offspring
#5
George Pitsilis, Dimitrios Spyridakos, George G Nomikos, George Panagis
Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ(9)-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ(9)-THC (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457972/the-rewarding-effects-of-ethanol-are-modulated-by-binge-eating-of-a-high-fat-diet-during-adolescence
#6
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández, Francisco Navarrete, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Maria A Aguilar, Jorge Manzanares, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Binge-eating is considered a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent and high caloric food intake in a short period of time. Epidemiologic studies support a positive relation between the ingestion of fat and ethanol (EtOH), specifically among adolescent subjects. The aim of this work was to clarify the role of the compulsive, limited and intermittent intake of a high-fat food during adolescence on the rewarding effects of EtOH. After binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week from postnatal day (PND) 29, the reinforcing effects of EtOH were tested with EtOH self-administration (SA), conditioned place preference (CPP) and ethanol locomotor sensitization procedures in young adult mice...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441341/a-long-term-treatment-with-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-combined-with-valproate-increases-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#7
Marta Andres-Mach, Mirosław Zagaja, Agnieszka Haratym-Maj, Radosław Rola, Maciej Maj, Joanna Haratym, Monika Dudra-Jastrzębska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Rational polytherapy in the treatment of refractory epilepsy has been the main therapeutic modality for several years. In treatment with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it is of particular importance that AEDs be selected based on their high anticonvulsant properties, minimal side effects, and impact on the formation of new neurons. The aim of the study was to conduct an in vivo evaluation of the relationship between treatments with synthetic cannabinoid arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) alone or in combination with valproic acid (VPA) and hippocampal neurogenesis in a mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433118/the-role-of-public-health-in-combatting-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#8
Katherine E Warren, Shirli Tay, Leana S Wen
As the country struggles to address an epidemic of alcohol and drug overdose, a wide-ranging category of chemical substances known as synthetic drugs have provoked a new sense of public urgency over the past decade. Synthetic cannabinoids, a heterogeneous and evolving set of synthetic compounds that act on endogenous cannabinoid receptors, have become particularly popular among adolescents due to their relative ease of access and reputation as a "legal high." The Baltimore City Health Department has worked to combat the recent surge in synthetic drug use through a major public awareness campaign, legislative reform, and retailer engagement and compliance initiative...
May 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402427/bdnf-overexpression-prevents-cognitive-deficit-elicited-by-adolescent-cannabis-exposure-and-host-susceptibility-interaction
#9
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Neta Gazit, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Michal Taler, Shay Henry Hornfeld, Irit Gil-Ad, Abraham Weizman, Inna Slutsky, Minae Niwa, Atsushi Kamiya, Akira Sawa, Daniel Offen, Ran Barzilay
Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders. Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) protein is a driver for major mental illness by influencing neurodevelopmental processes. Here, utilizing a unique mouse model based on host (DISC1) X environment (THC administration) interaction, we aimed at studying the pathobiological basis through which THC exposure elicits psychiatric manifestations...
July 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357892/suspected-synthetic-cannabinomimetic-intoxication
#10
Regan A Baum, Abby Bailey, Ryan Chan, Karen Blumenschein
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to retrospectively review patient cases presenting to the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center (UKCMC) emergency department (ED) with symptoms of suspected synthetic cannabinomimetic (SC) intoxication. These drugs, currently undetected by standard urine drug screen tests, comprise a structurally diverse group of compounds designed to mimic the psychoactive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289139/longitudinal-predictors-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#11
Andrew L Ninnemann, Hye Jeong Choi, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a large, heterogeneous group of chemicals that are structurally similar to δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Many SCs are high-efficacy full agonists of the CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors, resulting in a potent group of chemicals with a variety of negative health effects, including death. SCs are available to adolescents at convenience stores and smoke shops and on the Internet. However, little is known about the risk factors that contribute to eventual use of SCs in adolescents, and no research has examined the psychiatric, personality, and substance-use risk factors that prospectively predict SC use...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#12
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219487/evidence-for-the-risks-and-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-exposure
#13
REVIEW
Amir Levine, Kelly Clemenza, Moira Rynn, Jeffrey Lieberman
OBJECTIVE: This review of the scientific literature examines the potential adult sequelae of exposure to cannabis and related synthetic cannabinoids in adolescence. We examine the four neuropsychiatric outcomes that are likely most vulnerable to alteration by early cannabinoid use, as identified within both the clinical and preclinical research: cognition, emotional functioning, risk for psychosis, and addiction. METHOD: A literature search was conducted through PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar with no publication date restrictions...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190538/acute-intoxication-caused-by-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-and-mmb-2201-a-case-series
#14
Bernardino Barceló, Simona Pichini, Victoria López-Corominas, Isabel Gomila, Christopher Yates, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini
Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively new substances of abuse. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. When new compounds are introduced, their use is initially not restricted by prohibition therefore their consumption cannot be verified by standard drug tests. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults is constantly growing, making it important for emergency services to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of intoxication present...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162792/synthetic-pot-not-your-grandfather-s-marijuana
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin M Ford, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Paul L Prather
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes...
March 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093016/acute-and-residual-effects-in-adolescent-rats-resulting-from-exposure-to-the-novel-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-pinaca-and-ab-fubinaca
#16
Richard C Kevin, Katie E Wood, Jordyn Stuart, Andrew J Mitchell, Michael Moir, Samuel D Banister, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have rapidly proliferated as recreational drugs, and may present a substantial health risk to vulnerable populations. However, information on possible effects of long-term use is sparse. This study compared acute and residual effects of the popular indazole carboxamide SC compounds AB-PINACA and AB-FUBINACA in adolescent rats with ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and control treatments. Albino Wistar rats were injected (i.p.) with AB-PINACA or AB-FUBINACA every second day (beginning post-natal day (PND) 31), first at a low dose (0...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986504/the-consequences-of-chronic-cannabis-smoking-in-vulnerable-adolescents
#17
REVIEW
Montaha Al Iede, Kenneth Nunn, Bronwyn Milne, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana...
November 9, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977335/fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-morphine-interaction-influences-ventilatory-response-to-hypercapnia-and-postoperative-opioid-outcomes-in-children
#18
Vidya Chidambaran, Valentina Pilipenko, Kristie Spruance, Raja Venkatasubramanian, Jing Niu, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Kejian Zhang, Kenneth Kaufman, Alexander A Vinks, Lisa J Martin, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam
AIM: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. We hypothesized that FAAH variants will predict risk of morphine-related adverse outcomes due to opioid-endocannabinoid interactions. PATIENTS & METHODS: In 101 postsurgical adolescents receiving morphine analgesia, we prospectively studied ventilatory response to 5% CO2 (HCVR), respiratory depression (RD) and vomiting. Blood was collected for genotyping and morphine pharmacokinetics...
January 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935269/from-adolescent-to-elder-rats-motivation-for-palatable-food-and-cannabinoids-receptors
#19
Amancio-Belmont Octavio, Romano-López Antonio, Ruiz-Contreras Alejandra Evelin, Méndez-Díaz Mónica, Prospéro-García Oscar
To analyze motivation, food self-administration and decision-making were evaluated in adolescent, adult, and aged rats. Subjects were trained to press a lever (fixed ratio, FR1 and FR5) in an operant chamber, to obtain chocolate flavor pellets. They assessed the progressive ratio (PR), extinction, and reinstatement of the behavior. To estimate decision-making for food, rats were trained in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: (a) associating one compartment with lab chow (LCh) one day and the other compartment with rice krisspies (RK), the next day...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909319/the-cannabinoid-receptor-1-as-a-key-mediator-of-adolescent-behavior
#20
Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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