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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851852/long-telomeres-do-not-affect-cellular-fitness-in-yeast
#1
Yaniv Harari, Shira Zadok-Laviel, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres, the ends of the eukaryotic chromosomes, help to maintain the genome's integrity and thus play important roles in aging and cancer. Telomere length is strictly controlled in all organisms. In humans, telomeres shorten with age, and it has been proposed that telomere shortening may play a causal role in aging. We took advantage of the availability of yeast strains with genetically or physiologically generated differences in telomere length to measure the effect that telomere length may have on cellular growth...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780354/asymmetric-inheritance-of-the-yeast-chaperone-hsp26p-and-its-functional-consequences
#2
George Lytras, Ioannis Zacharioudakis, Dimitris Tzamarias
The yeast Hsp26 protein, a conserved a-crystallin small heatshock chaperone, is assembled in to oligomeric complexes, microscopically visible as distinct cytoplasmic foci. We studied at single cell resolution the dynamics of Hsp26p foci assembly, the mode of their inheritance in to progeny cells and the physiological significance of Hsp26p function. We showed that Hsp26p foci are formed upon cells' entry in to stationary phase, but upon re-entry to proliferation they are asymmetrically retained in the mother cells and are absent from the newborn daughters...
September 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768809/2-hydroxyisobutyrylation-on-histone-h4k8-is-regulated-by-glucose-homeostasis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Jing Huang, Zhouqing Luo, Wantao Ying, Qichen Cao, He Huang, Junkai Dong, Qingyu Wu, Yingming Zhao, Xiaohong Qian, Junbiao Dai
New types of modifications of histones keep emerging. Recently, histone H4K8 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (H4K8hib) was identified as an evolutionarily conserved modification. However, how this modification is regulated within a cell is still elusive, and the enzymes adding and removing 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation have not been found. Here, we report that the amount of H4K8hib fluctuates in response to the availability of carbon source in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that low-glucose conditions lead to diminished modification...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707178/life-span-retrieval-of-public-events-reminiscence-bump-for-high-impact-events-recency-for-others
#4
Ali I Tekcan, Aysecan Boduroglu, Aysu Mutlutürk, Aslı Aktan Erciyes
Although substantial evidence exists showing a reliable reminiscence bump for personal events, data regarding retrieval distributions for public events have been equivocal. The primary aim of the present study was to address life-span retrieval distributions of different types of public events in comparison to personal events, and to test whether the existing accounts of the bump can explain the distribution of public events. We asked a large national sample to report the most important, happiest, and saddest personal events and the most important, happiest, saddest, most proud, most fearful, and most shameful public events...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569246/inactivation-of-rad52-and-hdf1-dna-repair-genes-leads-to-premature-chronological-aging-and-cellular-instability
#5
Silvia Mercado-Saenz, Beatriz Lopez-Diaz, Francisco Sendra-Portero, Manuel Martinez-Morillo, Miguel J Ruiz-Gomez
The present study aims to investigate the role of radiation sensitive 52 (RAD52) and high-affinity DNA binding factor 1 (HDF1) DNA repair genes on the life span of budding yeasts during chronological aging. Wild type (wt) and rad52, hdf1, and rad52 hdf1 mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were used. Chronological aging and survival assays were studied by clonogenic assay and drop test. DNA damage was analyzed by electrophoresis after phenol extraction. Mutant analysis, colony forming units and the index of respiratory competence were studied by growing on dextrose and glycerol plates as a carbon source...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551760/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-longitudinal-trajectories-of-functional-biological-age-comparisons-across-gender
#6
Deborah Finkel, Ola Sternäng, Åke Wahlin
We used an alternate age variable, functional biological age (fBioAge), which was based on performance on functional body measures. The aim was to examine development of fBioAge across the adult life span, and to also examine potential gender differences and genetic and environmental influences on change with age. We used longitudinal data (n = 740; chronological age (ChronAge) range 45-85 at baseline) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. The rate of increase in fBioAge was twice as fast after ChronAge 75 than before...
July 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401438/resveratrol-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-decreases-chronological-life-span-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-a-glucose-dependent-manner
#7
Minerva Ramos-Gomez, Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin, Melina Canizal-García, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Gerardo M Nava, Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
A broad range of health benefits have been attributed to resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in mammalian systems, including the increases in longevity. Nonetheless, despite the growing number of studies performed with RSV, the molecular mechanism by which it acts still remains unknown. Recently, it has been proposed that inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation activity is the principal mechanism of RSV action. This mechanism suggests that RSV might induce mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in oxidative damage to cells with a concomitant decrease of cell viability and cellular life span...
June 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378095/measurement-of-muscle-health-in-aging
#8
Peter Francis, Mark Lyons, Mathew Piasecki, Jamie Mc Phee, Karen Hind, Philip Jakeman
Muscle health is a critical component in the struggle against physical frailty and the efforts to maintain metabolic health until the limit of chronological age. Consensus opinion is to evaluate muscle health in terms of muscle mass, strength and functional capability. There has been considerable variability in the components of muscle health which have been investigated in addition to variability in the tools of assessment and protocol for measurement. This is in stark contrast to the validated measurement of bone health across the adult life span...
April 4, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357388/balanced-coq6-biosynthesis-is-required-for-lifespan-and-mitophagy-in-yeast
#9
Isabel González-Mariscal, Aléjandro Martín-Montalvo, Cristina Ojeda-González, Adolfo Rodríguez-Eguren, Purificación Gutiérrez-Ríos, Plácido Navas, Carlos Santos-Ocaña
Coenzyme Q is an essential lipid with redox capacity that is present in all organisms. In yeast its biosynthesis depends on a multiprotein complex in which Coq7 protein has both catalytic and regulatory functions. Coq7 modulates CoQ6 levels through a phosphorylation cycle, where dephosphorylation of three amino acids (Ser/Thr) by the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7 increases the levels of CoQ6. Here we analyzed the role of Ptc7 and the phosphorylation state of Coq7 in yeast mitochondrial function. The conversion of the three Ser/Thr to alanine led to a permanently active form of Coq7 that caused a 2...
February 3, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329151/caloric-restriction-and-rapamycin-differentially-alter-energy-metabolism-in-yeast
#10
Kyung-Mi Choi, Seok-Jin Hong, Jan M van Deursen, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Cheol-Koo Lee
Rapamycin (RM), a drug that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and responds to nutrient availability, seemingly mimics the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on healthy life span. However, the extent of the mechanistic overlap between RM and CR remains incompletely understood. Here, we compared the impact of CR and RM on cellular metabolic status. Both regimens maintained intracellular ATP through the chronological aging process and showed enhanced mitochondrial capacity. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that CR had a stronger impact on global gene expression than RM...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160081/ecl1-is-a-zinc-binding-protein-involved-in-the-zinc-limitation-dependent-extension-of-chronological-life-span-in-fission-yeast
#11
Takafumi Shimasaki, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Chikako Naito, Kenko Azuma, Takeshi Tenno, Hidekazu Hiroaki, Hiroshi Murakami, Hirofumi Aiba
Overexpression of Ecl1-family genes (ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+)) results in the extension of the chronological life span in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the mechanism for this extension has not been defined clearly. Ecl1-family proteins consist of approximately 80 amino acids, and four cysteine residues are conserved in their N-terminal domains. This study focused on the Ecl1 protein, mutating its cysteine residues sequentially to confirm their importance. As a result, all mutated Ecl1 proteins nearly lost the function to extend the chronological life span, suggesting that these four cysteine residues are essential for the Ecl1 protein...
April 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118095/multiomics-approach-to-novel-therapeutic-targets-for-cancer-and-aging-related-diseases-role-of-sld7-in-yeast-aging-network
#12
Irem E Dayan, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Kutlu O Ulgen
Genome instability has long been implicated as a salient causal factor in aging and age-related diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with genome instability remain unclear. Recent studies suggest growth signaling in the organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in higher eukaryotes might affect oxidative stress and aging/age-related diseases by activating DNA replication stress that causes DNA damage. In this broader integrative biology and clinical context, MDM two binding protein (MTBP) is a binding protein that has a role in activation of the tumor suppressor protein p53...
February 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077803/gerosuppression-by-pan-mtor-inhibitors
#13
Olga V Leontieva, Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Rapamycin slows organismal aging and delays age-related diseases, extending lifespan in numerous species. In cells, rapamycin and other rapalogs such as everolimus suppress geroconversion from quiescence to senescence. Rapamycin inhibits some, but not all, activities of mTOR. Recently we and others demonstrated that pan-mTOR inhibitors, known also as dual mTORC1/C2 inhibitors, suppress senescent phenotype. As a continuation of these studies, here we investigated in detail a panel of pan-mTOR inhibitors, to determine their optimal gerosuppressive concentrations...
December 30, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062841/metal-based-superoxide-dismutase-and-catalase-mimics-reduce-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-extend-life-span-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Thales de P Ribeiro, Fernanda L Fonseca, Mariana D C de Carvalho, Rodrigo M da C Godinho, Fernando Pereira de Almeida, Tatiana D Saint'Pierre, Nicolás A Rey, Christiane Fernandes, Adolfo Horn, Marcos D Pereira
Aging is a natural process characterized by several biological changes. In this context, oxidative stress appears as a key factor that leads cells and organisms to severe dysfunctions and diseases. To cope with reactive oxygen species and oxidative-related damage, there has been increased use of superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) biomimetic compounds. Recently, we have shown that three metal-based compounds {[Fe(HPClNOL)Cl2]NO3, [Cu(HPClNOL)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 and Mn(HPClNOL)(Cl)2}, harboring in vitro SOD and/or CAT activities, were critical for protection of yeast cells against oxidative stress...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956494/sch9p-kinase-and-the-gcn4p-transcription-factor-regulate-glycerol-production-during-winemaking
#15
Beatriz Vallejo, Helena Orozco, Cecilia Picazo, Emilia Matallana, Agustín Aranda
Grape juice fermentation is a harsh environment with many stressful conditions, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts its metabolism in response to those environmental challenges. Many nutrient-sensing pathways control this feature. The Tor/Sch9p pathway promotes growth and protein synthesis when nutrients are plenty, while the transcription factor Gcn4p is required for the activation of amino acid biosynthetic pathways. We previously showed that Sch9p impact on longevity depends on the nitrogen/carbon ratio...
January 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803986/increased-levels-of-rna-oxidation-enhance-the-reversion-frequency-in-aging-pro-apoptotic-yeast-mutants
#16
Mariarita Stirpe, Vanessa Palermo, Matteo Ferrari, Seweryn Mroczek, Joanna Kufel, Claudio Falcone, Cristina Mazzoni
Despite recent advances in understanding the complexity of RNA processes, regulation of the metabolism of oxidized cellular RNAs and the mechanisms through which oxidized ribonucleotides affect mRNA translation, and consequently cell viability, are not well characterized. We show here that the level of oxidized RNAs is markedly increased in a yeast decapping Kllsm4Δ1 mutant, which accumulates mRNAs, ages much faster that the wild type strain and undergoes regulated-cell-death. We also found that in Kllsm4Δ1 cells the mutation rate increases during chronological life span indicating that the capacity to handle oxidized RNAs in yeast declines with aging...
February 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718307/sen1-the-homolog-of-human-senataxin-is-critical-for-cell-survival-through-regulation-of-redox-homeostasis-mitochondrial-function-and-the-tor-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Santhosh Kumar Sariki, Pushpendra Kumar Sahu, Upendarrao Golla, Vikash Singh, Gajendra Kumar Azad, Raghuvir S Tomar
Mutations in the Senataxin gene, SETX are known to cause the neurodegenerative disorders, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4 (ALS4). However, the mechanism underlying disease pathogenesis is still unclear. The Senataxin N-terminal protein-interaction and C-terminal RNA/DNA helicase domains are conserved in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, Sen1p. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we first show alterations in key cellular pathways such as: redox, unfolded protein response, and TOR in the yeast sen1 ΔN mutant (N-terminal truncation)...
November 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707823/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-the-portuguese-population-comparison-of-three-cross-sectional-studies-spanning-three-decades
#18
Maria João Gargaté, Idalina Ferreira, Anabela Vilares, Susana Martins, Carlos Cardoso, Susana Silva, Baltazar Nunes, João Paulo Gomes
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan infecting up to one-third of the world's population, constituting a life threat if transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. In Portugal, there is a lack of knowledge of the current epidemiological situation, as the unique toxoplasmosis National Serological Survey was performed in 1979/1980. METHODS: We studied the seroprevalence trends in the Portuguese general population over the past 3 decades, by assessing chronological spread cross-sectional studies, with special focus on women of childbearing age, by age group, region and gender...
October 5, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637250/selection-age-and-exercise-dependence-of-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-patterns-in-a-rat-model-of-metabolic-fitness
#19
Yu-Yu Ren, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Nathan R Qi, Mary K Treutelaar, Charles F Burant, Jun Z Li
Intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity can influence many complex traits including obesity and aging. To study this connection we established two rat lines by divergent selection of untrained aerobic capacity. After 32 generations the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed in endurance running distance and body fat, blood glucose, other health indicators, and natural life span. To understand the interplay among genetic differences, chronological age, and acute exercise we performed microarray-based gene expression analyses in skeletal muscle with a 2×2×2 design to simultaneously compare HCR and LCR, old and young animals, and rest and exhaustion...
November 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617362/variation-in-the-markers-of-nutritional-and-oxidative-state-in-a-long-lived-seabird-associations-with-age-and-longevity
#20
Janek Urvik, Richard Meitern, Kalev Rattiste, Lauri Saks, Peeter Hõrak, Tuul Sepp
Age-related declines in life-history traits have been widely observed in free-living animals. Several theories link senescence to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure several widely used markers of oxidative and nutritional state in a long-lived seabird, the common gull (Larus canus), in order to assess the suitability of these markers for describing deterioration in physiological condition associated with chronological age and survival. Associations with longevity and individual consistency of these parameters over the years (repeatability) were also assessed...
September 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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