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chronological life span

Takafumi Shimasaki, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Chikako Naito, Kenko Azuma, Takeshi Tenno, Hidekazu Hiroaki, Hiroshi Murakami, Hirofumi Aiba
Overexpression of Ecl1-family genes (ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+)) results in the extension of the chronological life span in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the mechanism for this extension has not been defined clearly. Ecl1-family proteins consist of approximately 80 amino acids, and four cysteine residues are conserved in their N-terminal domains. This study focused on the Ecl1 protein, mutating its cysteine residues sequentially to confirm their importance. As a result, all mutated Ecl1 proteins nearly lost the function to extend the chronological life span, suggesting that these four cysteine residues are essential for the Ecl1 protein...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Irem E Dayan, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Kutlu O Ulgen
Genome instability has long been implicated as a salient causal factor in aging and age-related diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with genome instability remain unclear. Recent studies suggest growth signaling in the organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in higher eukaryotes might affect oxidative stress and aging/age-related diseases by activating DNA replication stress that causes DNA damage. In this broader integrative biology and clinical context, MDM two binding protein (MTBP) is a binding protein that has a role in activation of the tumor suppressor protein p53...
February 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Olga V Leontieva, Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Rapamycin slows organismal aging and delays age-related diseases, extending lifespan in numerous species. In cells, rapamycin and other rapalogs such as everolimus suppress geroconversion from quiescence to senescence. Rapamycin inhibits some, but not all, activities of mTOR. Recently we and others demonstrated that pan-mTOR inhibitors, known also as dual mTORC1/C2 inhibitors, suppress senescent phenotype. As a continuation of these studies, here we investigated in detail a panel of pan-mTOR inhibitors, to determine their optimal gerosuppressive concentrations...
December 30, 2016: Aging
Thales de P Ribeiro, Fernanda L Fonseca, Mariana D C de Carvalho, Rodrigo M da C Godinho, Fernando Pereira de Almeida, Tatiana D Saint'Pierre, Nicolás A Rey, Christiane Fernandes, Adolfo Horn, Marcos D Pereira
Aging is a natural process characterized by several biological changes. In this context, oxidative stress appears as a key factor that leads cells and organisms to severe dysfunctions and diseases. To cope with reactive oxygen species and oxidative-related damage, there has been increased use of superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) biomimetic compounds. Recently, we have shown that three metal-based compounds {[Fe(HPClNOL)Cl2]NO3, [Cu(HPClNOL)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 and Mn(HPClNOL)(Cl)2}, harboring in vitro SOD and/or CAT activities, were critical for protection of yeast cells against oxidative stress...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Beatriz Vallejo, Helena Orozco, Cecilia Picazo, Emilia Matallana, Agustín Aranda
Grape juice fermentation is a harsh environment with many stressful conditions, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts its metabolism in response to those environmental challenges. Many nutrient-sensing pathways control this feature. The Tor/Sch 9p pathway promotes growth and protein synthesis when nutrients are plenty, while the transcription factor Gcn4p is required for the activation of amino acid biosynthetic pathways. We previously showed that Sch 9p impact on longevity depends on the nitrogen/carbon ratio...
December 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Mariarita Stirpe, Vanessa Palermo, Matteo Ferrari, Seweryn Mroczek, Joanna Kufel, Claudio Falcone, Cristina Mazzoni
Despite recent advances in understanding the complexity of RNA processes, regulation of the metabolism of oxidized cellular RNAs and the mechanisms through which oxidized ribonucleotides affect mRNA translation, and consequently cell viability, are not well characterized. We show here that the level of oxidized RNAs is markedly increased in a yeast decapping Kllsm4Δ1 mutant, which accumulates mRNAs, ages much faster that the wild type strain and undergoes regulated-cell-death. We also found that in Kllsm4Δ1 cells the mutation rate increases during chronological life span indicating that the capacity to handle oxidized RNAs in yeast declines with aging...
February 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Santhosh Kumar Sariki, Pushpendra Kumar Sahu, Upendarrao Golla, Vikash Singh, Gajendra Kumar Azad, Raghuvir S Tomar
Mutations in the Senataxin gene, SETX are known to cause the neurodegenerative disorders, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4 (ALS4). However, the mechanism underlying disease pathogenesis is still unclear. The Senataxin N-terminal protein-interaction and C-terminal RNA/DNA helicase domains are conserved in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, Sen1p. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we first show alterations in key cellular pathways such as: redox, unfolded protein response, and TOR in the yeast sen1 ΔN mutant (N-terminal truncation)...
November 2016: FEBS Journal
Maria João Gargaté, Idalina Ferreira, Anabela Vilares, Susana Martins, Carlos Cardoso, Susana Silva, Baltazar Nunes, João Paulo Gomes
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan infecting up to one-third of the world's population, constituting a life threat if transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. In Portugal, there is a lack of knowledge of the current epidemiological situation, as the unique toxoplasmosis National Serological Survey was performed in 1979/1980. METHODS: We studied the seroprevalence trends in the Portuguese general population over the past 3 decades, by assessing chronological spread cross-sectional studies, with special focus on women of childbearing age, by age group, region and gender...
October 5, 2016: BMJ Open
Yu-Yu Ren, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Nathan R Qi, Mary K Treutelaar, Charles F Burant, Jun Z Li
Intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity can influence many complex traits including obesity and aging. To study this connection we established two rat lines by divergent selection of untrained aerobic capacity. After 32 generations the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed in endurance running distance and body fat, blood glucose, other health indicators, and natural life span. To understand the interplay among genetic differences, chronological age, and acute exercise we performed microarray-based gene expression analyses in skeletal muscle with a 2×2×2 design to simultaneously compare HCR and LCR, old and young animals, and rest and exhaustion...
November 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Janek Urvik, Richard Meitern, Kalev Rattiste, Lauri Saks, Peeter Hõrak, Tuul Sepp
Age-related declines in life-history traits have been widely observed in free-living animals. Several theories link senescence to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure several widely used markers of oxidative and nutritional state in a long-lived seabird, the common gull (Larus canus), in order to assess the suitability of these markers for describing deterioration in physiological condition associated with chronological age and survival. Associations with longevity and individual consistency of these parameters over the years (repeatability) were also assessed...
September 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Marjorie Petitjean, Marie-Ange Teste, Isabelle Léger-Silvestre, Jean M François, Jean-Luc Parrou
Looking back to our recent work that challenged the paradigm of trehalose in stress resistance in yeast, our objective was to revisit the role of this disaccharide in chronological life span (CLS), and in the control of apoptosis. Using a catalytically dead variant of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) protein, (the first enzyme in the trehalose biosynthetic pathway), and by manipulating intracellular trehalose independently of this pathway, we demonstrated that trehalose has no role in CLS or in the inhibition of acetic acid or H202-triggered cell death...
January 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Daniel A Warner, David A W Miller, Anne M Bronikowski, Fredric J Janzen
Lifespan and aging rates vary considerably across taxa; thus, understanding the factors that lead to this variation is a primary goal in biology and has ramifications for understanding constraints and flexibility in human aging. Theory predicts that senescence-declining reproduction and increasing mortality with advancing age-evolves when selection against harmful mutations is weaker at old ages relative to young ages or when selection favors pleiotropic alleles with beneficial effects early in life despite late-life costs...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Júlia Santos, Fernanda Leitão-Correia, Maria João Sousa, Cecília Leão
Dietary regimens have proven to delay aging and age-associated diseases in several eukaryotic model organisms but the input of nutritional balance to longevity regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we present data on the role of single carbon and nitrogen sources and their interplay in yeast longevity. Data demonstrate that ammonium, a rich nitrogen source, decreases chronological life span (CLS) of the prototrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PYCC 4072 in a concentration-dependent manner and, accordingly, that CLS can be extended through ammonium restriction, even in conditions of initial glucose abundance...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Joshua L Rutt, Corinna E Löckenhoff
Although perceived continuity with one's future self has attracted increasing research interest, age differences in this phenomenon remain poorly understood. The present study is the first to simultaneously examine past and future self-continuity across multiple temporal distances using both explicit and implicit measures and controlling for a range of theoretically implicated covariates in an adult life span sample (N = 91, aged 18-92, M = 50.15, SD = 19.20, 56% female). Perceived similarity to one's self across 6 past and 6 future time points (1 month to 10 years) was assessed with an explicit self-report measure and an implicit me/not me trait rating task...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Jae Kyo Yi, Ruijuan Xu, Eunmi Jeong, Izolda Mileva, Jean-Philip Truman, Chih-Li Lin, Kai Wang, Justin Snider, Sally Wen, Lina M Obeid, Yusuf A Hannun, Cungui Mao
Sphingoid bases (SBs) as bioactive sphingolipids, have been implicated in aging in yeast. However, we know neither how SBs are regulated during yeast aging nor how they, in turn, regulate it. Herein, we demonstrate that the yeast alkaline ceramidases (YPC1 and YDC1) and SB kinases (LCB4 and LCB5) cooperate in regulating SBs during the aging process and that SBs shortens chronological life span (CLS) by compromising mitochondrial functions. With a lipidomics approach, we found that SBs were increased in a time-dependent manner during yeast aging...
April 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Elisa Fabbri, Yang An, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Marco Zoli, Marcello Maggio, Stephanie A Studenski, Josephine M Egan, Chee W Chia, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: Age-related changes in testosterone levels in older persons and especially in women have not been fully explored. The objective of this study was to describe age-related trajectories of total testosterone (TT), ammonium sulfate precipitation-measured bioavailable testosterone (mBT), and sex hormone-binding glycoprotein (SHBG) in men and women from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, with special focus on the oldest adults. METHODS: Participants included 788 White men and women aged 30-96 years with excellent representation of old and oldest old, who reported not taking medications known to interfere with testosterone...
September 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jessica L Greenlee, Angela S Mosley, Amy M Shui, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Katherine O Gotham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the life span. We sought to identify medical and behavioral problems associated with a history of a parent-reported diagnosis of depression in a large sample of school-aged children and adolescents with ASD. METHODS: A sample of 1272 participants (aged 6-17 years; mean [SD]: 9.56 [2.79] years) from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network consortium were divided into "ever-depressed" (n = 89) and "nondepressed" (n = 1183) groups on the basis of caregiver endorsement of children's current or previous diagnoses of depression...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Ana Gil-Bona, Jose A Reales-Calderon, Claudia M Parra-Giraldo, Raquel Martinez-Lopez, Lucia Monteoliva, Concha Gil
Ecm33 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans. This protein is known to be involved in fungal cell wall integrity (CWI) and is also critical for normal virulence in the mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis, but its function remains unknown. In this work, several phenotypic analyses of the C. albicans ecm33/ecm33 mutant (RML2U) were performed. We observed that RML2U displays the inability of protoplast to regenerate the cell wall, activation of the CWI pathway, hypersensitivity to temperature, osmotic and oxidative stresses and a shortened chronological lifespan...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrea Basso, Giovanna Del Bello, Francesco Piacenza, Robertina Giacconi, Laura Costarelli, Marco Malavolta
Impairment of one or more parameters of circadian rhythms (CR) of body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA) are considered among the hallmarks of mammalian aging. These alterations are frequently used as markers for imminent death in laboratory mice. However, there are still contradictory data for particular strains and it is also uncertain which changes might predict senescence changes later in life, including the force of mortality. In the present paper we use telemetry to study LMA and CR of BT during aging of BALB/c mice...
August 2016: Biogerontology
Shamroop K Mallela, Reinaldo Almeida, Christer S Ejsing, Andreas Conzelmann
Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1...
2016: PloS One
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