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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907085/the-natural-variation-in-lifespans-of-single-yeast-cells-is-related-to-variation-in-cell-size-ribosomal-protein-and-division-time
#1
Georges E Janssens, Liesbeth M Veenhoff
There is a large variability in lifespans of individuals even if they are genetically identical and raised under the same environmental conditions. Our recent system wide study of replicative aging in baker's yeast predicts that protein biogenesis is a driver of aging. Here, we address how the natural variation in replicative lifespan within wild-type populations of yeast cells correlates to three biogenesis-related parameters, namely cell size, ribosomal protein Rpl13A-GFP levels, and division times. Imaging wild type yeast cells in microfluidic devices we observe that in all cells and at all ages, the division times as well as the increase in cell size that single yeast undergo while aging negatively correlate to their lifespan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894717/hepatitis-b-vaccine-alone-may-be-enough-for-preventing-hepatitis-b-virus-transmission-in-neonates-of-hbsag-hbeag-mothers
#2
Ying Lu, Xiao-Feng Liang, Fu-Zhen Wang, Ling Yan, Rong-Cheng Li, Yan-Ping Li, Feng-Cai Zhu, Xiang-Jun Zhai, Jie Li, Hui Zhuang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of vaccine alone compared with vaccine plus HBIG for preventing HBV transmission in neonates of HBsAg (+)/HBeAg (-) mothers. METHODS: Combined immunization is currently recommended for neonates of HBsAg (+) mothers in China. As a result, a randomized design is infeasible due to ethical reasons. In practice, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Jiangsu Province implement vaccine alone and vaccine plus HBIG strategies for neonates born to HBsAg (+)/HBeAg (-) mothers, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887640/functional-and-regulatory-profiling-of-energy-metabolism-in-fission-yeast
#3
Michal Malecki, Danny A Bitton, Maria Rodríguez-López, Charalampos Rallis, Noelia Garcia Calavia, Graeme C Smith, Jürg Bähler
BACKGROUND: The control of energy metabolism is fundamental for cell growth and function and anomalies in it are implicated in complex diseases and ageing. Metabolism in yeast cells can be manipulated by supplying different carbon sources: yeast grown on glucose rapidly proliferates by fermentation, analogous to tumour cells growing by aerobic glycolysis, whereas on non-fermentable carbon sources metabolism shifts towards respiration. RESULTS: We screened deletion libraries of fission yeast to identify over 200 genes required for respiratory growth...
November 25, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884780/regulation-of-metabolic-health-and-aging-by-nutrient-sensitive-signaling-pathways
#4
Nicole E Cummings, Dudley W Lamming
All organisms need to be capable of adapting to changes in the availability and composition of nutrients. Over 75 years ago, researchers discovered that a calorie restricted (CR) diet could significantly extend the lifespan of rats, and since then a CR diet has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan in model organisms ranging from yeast to non-human primates. In this review, we discuss the effects of a CR diet on metabolism and healthspan, and highlight emerging evidence that suggests that dietary composition - the precise macronutrients that compose the diet - may be just as important as caloric content...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871365/mechanism-and-regulation-of-dna-protein-crosslink-repair-by-the-dna-dependent-metalloprotease-sprtn
#5
Julian Stingele, Roberto Bellelli, Ferdinand Alte, Graeme Hewitt, Grzegorz Sarek, Sarah L Maslen, Susan E Tsutakawa, Annabel Borg, Svend Kjær, John A Tainer, J Mark Skehel, Michael Groll, Simon J Boulton
Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are toxic DNA lesions that interfere with essential chromatin transactions, such as replication and transcription. Little was known about DPC-specific repair mechanisms until the recent identification of a DPC-processing protease in yeast. The existence of a DPC protease in higher eukaryotes is inferred from data in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, but its identity remains elusive. Here we identify the metalloprotease SPRTN as the DPC protease acting in metazoans. Loss of SPRTN results in failure to repair DPCs and hypersensitivity to DPC-inducing agents...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857176/glycation-potentiates-neurodegeneration-in-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#6
Hugo Vicente Miranda, Marcos António Gomes, Joana Branco-Santos, Carlo Breda, Diana F Lázaro, Luísa Vaqueiro Lopes, Federico Herrera, Flaviano Giorgini, Tiago Fleming Outeiro
Protein glycation is an age-dependent posttranslational modification associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. By modifying amino-groups, glycation interferes with folding of proteins, increasing their aggregation potential. Here, we studied the effect of pharmacological and genetic manipulation of glycation on huntingtin (HTT), the causative protein in Huntington's disease (HD). We observed that glycation increased the aggregation of mutant HTT exon 1 fragments associated with HD (HTT72Q and HTT103Q) in yeast and mammalian cell models...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855118/tethering-telomerase-to-telomeres-increases-genome-instability-and-promotes-chronological-aging-in-yeast
#7
Jun Liu, Ming-Hong He, Jing Peng, Yi-Min Duan, Yi-Si Lu, Zhenfang Wu, Ting Gong, Hong-Tao Li, Jin-Qiu Zhou
Chronological aging of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is attributed to multi-faceted traits especially those involving genome instability, and has been considered to be an aging model for post-mitotic cells in higher organisms. Telomeres are the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and are essential for genome integrity and stability. It remains elusive whether dysregulated telomerase activity affects chronological aging. We employed the CDC13-EST2 fusion gene, which tethers telomerase to telomeres, to examine the effect of constitutively active telomerase on chronological lifespan (CLS)...
November 13, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847193/extremely-low-gestational-age-and-very-low-birthweight-for-gestational-age-are-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-large-cohort-study-of-10-year-old-children-born-at-23-27-weeks-gestation
#8
Robert M Joseph, Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, Tim Heeren, Jean A Frazier, Janice Ware, Deborah Hirtz, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: No prospective cohort study of high-risk children has used rigorous exposure assessment and optimal diagnostic procedures to examine the perinatal antecedents of autism spectrum disorder separately among those with and without cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify perinatal factors associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder with and without intellectual disability (intelligence quotient <70) in children born extremely preterm...
November 12, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842609/a-recombinant-multi-antigen-vaccine-formulation-containing-babesia-bovis-merozoite-surface-antigens-msa-2a1-msa-2b-and-msa-2c-elicits-invasion-inhibitory-antibodies-and-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-cells
#9
Alba Marina Gimenez, Katia S Françoso, Jonatan Ersching, Marcelo Y Icimoto, Vitor Oliveira, Anabel E Rodriguez, Leonhard Schnittger, Monica Florin-Christensen, Mauricio M Rodrigues, Irene S Soares
BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis is a tick-transmitted protozoan hemoparasite and the causative agent of bovine babesiosis, a potential risk to more than 500 million cattle worldwide. The vaccines currently available are based on attenuated parasites, which are difficult to produce, and are only recommended for use in bovines under one year of age. When used in older animals, these vaccines may cause life-threatening clinical symptoms and eventually death. The development of a multi-subunit recombinant vaccine against B...
November 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833823/hydrogen-peroxide-induced-loss-of-heterozygosity-correlates-with-replicative-lifespan-and-mitotic-asymmetry-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Emine Güven, Lindsay A Parnell, Erin D Jackson, Meighan C Parker, Nilin Gupta, Jenny Rodrigues, Hong Qin
Cellular aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to genomic instability and impaired mitotic asymmetry. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in cellular aging, we examined the effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry in a collection of yeast strains with diverse backgrounds. We treated yeast cells with hydrogen peroxide and monitored the changes of viability and the frequencies of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in response to hydrogen peroxide doses. The mid-transition points of viability and LOH were quantified using sigmoid mathematical functions...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833516/utility-of-laboratory-diagnosis-for-confirmation-of-the-syndromic-case-management-in-married-indian-women-with-vaginal-discharge
#11
Prabhav Aggarwal, Sonali Bhattar, Satyendra Kumar Sahani, Preena Bhalla
OBJECTIVE: WHO and NACO recommend treatment of STIs/RTIs on the basis syndromic case management (SCM), even without laboratory confirmation, which may lead to over-treatment. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the utility of laboratory diagnosis for confirmation of patients with vaginal discharge diagnosed on the basis of SCM. METHODOLOGY: 234 married women in reproductive age group, diagnosed as having vaginal discharge syndrome were included. Normal saline wet-mount slide preparations were made for detection of motile trichomonads...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831465/dynamic-control-of-hsf1-during-heat-shock-by-a-chaperone-switch-and-phosphorylation
#12
Xu Zheng, Joanna Krakowiak, Nikit Patel, Ali Beyzavi, Jideofor Ezike, Ahmad S Khalil, David Pincus
Heat shock factor (Hsf1) regulates the expression of molecular chaperones to maintain protein homeostasis. Despite its central role in stress resistance, disease and aging, the mechanisms that control Hsf1 activity remain unresolved. Here we show that in budding yeast, Hsf1 basally associates with the chaperone Hsp70 and this association is transiently disrupted by heat shock, providing the first evidence that a chaperone repressor directly regulates Hsf1 activity. We develop and experimentally validate a mathematical model of Hsf1 activation by heat shock in which unfolded proteins compete with Hsf1 for binding to Hsp70...
November 10, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829146/absence-of-non-histone-protein-complexes-at-natural-chromosomal-pause-sites-results-in-reduced-replication-pausing-in-aging-yeast-cells
#13
Marleny Cabral, Xin Cheng, Sukhwinder Singh, Andreas S Ivessa
There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling) at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs) in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes). The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828963/proteomic-landscape-of-tissue-specific-cyclin-e-functions-in-vivo
#14
Junko Odajima, Siddharth Saini, Piotr Jung, Yasmine Ndassa-Colday, Scott Ficaro, Yan Geng, Eugenio Marco, Wojciech Michowski, Yaoyu E Wang, James A DeCaprio, Larisa Litovchick, Jarrod Marto, Piotr Sicinski
E-type cyclins (cyclins E1 and E2) are components of the cell cycle machinery that has been conserved from yeast to humans. The major function of E-type cyclins is to drive cell division. It is unknown whether in addition to their 'core' cell cycle functions, E-type cyclins also perform unique tissue-specific roles. Here, we applied high-throughput mass spectrometric analyses of mouse organs to define the repertoire of cyclin E protein partners in vivo. We found that cyclin E interacts with distinct sets of proteins in different compartments...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804052/exploring-the-power-of-yeast-to-model-aging-and-age-related-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Ana V Oliveira, Rita Vilaça, Cláudia N Santos, Vítor Costa, Regina Menezes
Aging is a multifactorial process determined by molecular, cellular and systemic factors and it is well established that advancing age is a leading risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, the close association of aging and neurodegenerative disorders has placed aging as the greatest social and economic challenge of the 21st century, and age-related diseases have also become a key priority for countries worldwide. The growing need to better understand both aging and neurodegenerative processes has led to the development of simple eukaryotic models amenable for mechanistic studies...
November 1, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803986/increased-levels-of-rna-oxidation-enhance-the-reversion-frequency-in-aging-pro-apoptotic-yeast-mutants
#16
Mariarita Stirpe, Vanessa Palermo, Matteo Ferrari, Seweryn Mroczek, Joanna Kufel, Claudio Falcone, Cristina Mazzoni
Despite recent advances in understanding the complexity of RNA processes, regulation of the metabolism of oxidized cellular RNAs and the mechanisms through which oxidized ribonucleotides affect mRNA translation, and consequently cell viability, are not well characterized. We show here that the level of oxidized RNAs is markedly increased in a yeast decapping Kllsm4Δ1 mutant, which accumulates mRNAs, ages much faster that the wild type strain and undergoes regulated-cell-death. We also found that in Kllsm4Δ1 cells the mutation rate increases during chronological life span indicating that the capacity to handle oxidized RNAs in yeast declines with aging...
November 1, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799647/low-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-hepatitis-b-vaccine-derived-from-hansenula-polymorpha-in-adults-over-40-years-of-age
#17
Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Nativa Helena Alves Del-Rios, Raquel Silva Pinheiro, Fabiana Perez Rodrigues Bergamaschi, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Sheila Araujo Teles
The Brazilian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (VrHB-IB) is based on the expression of the recombinant antigen in Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells. Currently, data on the immunogenicity of this vaccine in older adults are nonexistent. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of VrHB-IB in adults over 40 years of age. From May to October 2011, 235 rural settlers between 2 and 93 years of age from the State of Goias in Brazil were eligible for vaccination. Of these, 180 accepted the first dose of the vaccine and 106 (58...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790797/causative-agents-of-onychomycosis-a-7-year-study
#18
Mostafa Chadeganipour, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is principally caused by dermatophyte species, but nondermatophyte molds and yeasts have also been involved, causing different clinical manifestations. The aim of this investigation is to determine the clinicomycological and epidemiological profile of the etiologic agents of onychomycosis. METHODS: The study population included 9,785 suspected cases of onychomycosis referred to the Medical Mycology Reference Laboratory in Isfahan, Iran, during 2007-2014...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783562/empirical-verification-of-evolutionary-theories-of-aging
#19
Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Anastasia Glebov, Nimara Asbah, Luigi Bruno, Carolynne Meunier, Tatiana Iouk, Vladimir I Titorenko
We recently selected 3 long-lived mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a lasting exposure to exogenous lithocholic acid. Each mutant strain can maintain the extended chronological lifespan after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. In this study, we used these long-lived yeast mutants for empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging. We provide evidence that the dominant polygenic trait extending longevity of each of these mutants 1) does not affect such key features of early-life fitness as the exponential growth rate, efficacy of post-exponential growth and fecundity; and 2) enhances such features of early-life fitness as susceptibility to chronic exogenous stresses, and the resistance to apoptotic and liponecrotic forms of programmed cell death...
October 25, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781945/resveratrol-and-lifespan-in-model-organisms
#20
Kathrin Pallauf, Gerald Rimbacha, Petra Maria Ruppa, Dawn China, Insa Wolf
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol may possess life-prolonging and health-benefitting properties, some of which may resemble the effect of caloric restriction (CR). CR appears to prolong the lifespan of model organisms in some studies and may benefit human health. However, for humans, restricting food intake for an extended period of time seems impracticable and substances imitating the beneficial effects of CR without having to reduce food intake could improve health in an aging and overweight population...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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