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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346848/cardiovascular-protective-effects-and-clinical-applications-of-resveratrol
#1
Sanghyun Cho, Kyung Namkoong, Minji Shin, Jueun Park, Eunyeong Yang, Jinsoo Ihm, Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Jin Han
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol that is generated by plant species following injury or attack by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This compound was first described as the French Paradox in 1992. Later in 2003, resveratrol was reported to activate sirtuins in yeast cells. Recent experimental studies have found that resveratrol offers a variety of benefits that include both anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to the ability to reverse obesity, attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, protect heart and endothelial function, and increase the life span...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346404/chemical-screening-identifies-atm-as-a-target-for-alleviating-senescence
#2
Hyun Tae Kang, Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Yongsub Kim, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
Senescence, defined as irreversible cell-cycle arrest, is the main driving force of aging and age-related diseases. Here, we performed high-throughput screening to identify compounds that alleviate senescence and identified the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-60019 as an effective agent. To elucidate the mechanism underlying ATM's role in senescence, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and found that ATM interacted with the vacuolar ATPase V1 subunits ATP6V1E1 and ATP6V1G1. Specifically, ATM decreased E-G dimerization through direct phosphorylation of ATP6V1G1...
March 27, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340346/the-upsides-and-downsides-of-organelle-interconnectivity
#3
REVIEW
Daniel E Gottschling, Thomas Nyström
Interconnectivity and feedback control are hallmarks of biological systems. This includes communication between organelles, which allows them to function and adapt to changing cellular environments. While the specific mechanisms for all communications remain opaque, unraveling the wiring of organelle networks is critical to understand how biological systems are built and why they might collapse, as occurs in aging. A comprehensive understanding of all the routes involved in inter-organelle communication is still lacking, but important themes are beginning to emerge, primarily in budding yeast...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339714/effect-of-whole-yeast-cell-product-supplementation-citristim%C3%A2-on-immune-responses-and-cecal-microflora-species-in-pullet-and-layer-chickens-during-an-experimental-coccidial-challenge
#4
Ashley D Markazi, Victor Perez, Mamduh Sifri, Revathi Shanmugasundaram, Ramesh K Selvaraj
Three separate experiments were conducted to study the effects of whole yeast cell product supplementation in pullets and layer hens. Body weight gain, fecal and intestinal coccidial oocyst counts, cecal microflora species, cytokine mRNA amounts, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations in the cecal tonsils were analyzed following an experimental coccidial infection. In Experiment I, day-old Leghorn layer chicks were fed 3 experimental diets with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim®, ADM, Decatur, IL)...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#5
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329151/caloric-restriction-and-rapamycin-differentially-alter-energy-metabolism-in-yeast
#6
Kyung-Mi Choi, Seok-Jin Hong, Jan M van Deursen, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Cheol-Koo Lee
Rapamycin (RM), a drug that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and responds to nutrient availability, seemingly mimics the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on healthy life span. However, the extent of the mechanistic overlap between RM and CR remains incompletely understood. Here, we compared the impact of CR and RM on cellular metabolic status. Both regimens maintained intracellular ATP through the chronological aging process and showed enhanced mitochondrial capacity. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that CR had a stronger impact on global gene expression than RM...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326345/methionine-restriction-alters-bone-morphology-and-affects-osteoblast-differentiation
#7
Amadou Ouattara, Diana Cooke, Raj Gopalakrishnan, Tsang-Hai Huang, Gene P Ables
Methionine restriction (MR) extends the lifespan of a wide variety of species, including rodents, drosophila, nematodes, and yeasts. MR has also been demonstrated to affect the overall growth of mice and rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of MR on bone structure in young and aged male and female C57BL/6J mice. This study indicated that MR affected the growth rates of males and young females, but not aged females. MR reduced volumetric bone mass density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), while bone microarchitecture parameters were decreased in males and young females, but not in aged females compared to control-fed (CF) mice...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325816/papers-of-note-in-science355-6330
#8
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles include several reviews on targeting signaling pathways to treat cancer, as well as research articles that highlight proteins that drive circadian clocks; how bacteriophages affect the virulence of pathogenic bacteria; a mobile transcription factor in plants; a secreted nucleoside that affects metabolism; and the effects of protein aggregation in aging yeast cells.
March 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317242/chemical-screening-identifies-rock-as-a-target-for-recovering-mitochondrial-function-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#9
Hyun Tae Kang, Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Gyu Ree Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent...
March 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315697/the-role-of-the-tor-pathway-in-mediating-the-link-between-nutrition-and-longevity
#10
REVIEW
Oleh Lushchak, Olha Strilbytska, Veronika Piskovatska, Kenneth B Storey, Alexander Koliada, Alexander Vaiserman
The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates signals from extracellular and intracellular agents, such as growth factors, nutrients, mediators of energy balance, oxygen availability and other environmental cues. It allows the regulation of multiple cellular processes including protein and lipid synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy and metabolic processes. Being conserved across different phyla, TOR regulates longevity of various organisms in response to dietary conditions. In this review we described the main components of the TOR pathway and its upstream effectors and downstream processes in relation to aging...
March 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314677/vulvovaginal-candidiasis-etiology-symptomatology-and-risk-factors
#11
L Mtibaa, N Fakhfakh, A Kallel, S Belhadj, N Belhaj Salah, N Bada, K Kallel
OBJECTIVE: To determine epidemiological, clinical and mycological characteristics of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in Tunisian population and to evaluate predisposing factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 2160 vaginal swabs were performed over 2 years (January 2014-December 2015). It was carried out at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Rabta Hospital in Tunisia. After swab collecting, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol and Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Actidione media were implemented to research yeasts...
March 14, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302853/aggregation-of-the-whi3-protein-not-loss-of-heterochromatin-causes-sterility-in-old-yeast-cells
#12
Gavin Schlissel, Marek K Krzyzanowski, Fabrice Caudron, Yves Barral, Jasper Rine
In yeast, heterochromatin silencing is reported to decline in aging mother cells, causing sterility in old cells. This process is thought to reflect a decrease in the activity of the NAD(+) (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent deacetylase Sir2. We tested whether Sir2 becomes nonfunctional gradually or precipitously during aging. Unexpectedly, silencing of the heterochromatic HML and HMR loci was not lost during aging. Old cells could initiate a mating response; however, they were less sensitive to mating pheromone than were young cells because of age-dependent aggregation of Whi3, an RNA-binding protein controlling S-phase entry...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302839/protein-aggregation-mediated-aging-in-yeast
#13
EDITORIAL
L Bryan Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302725/ankyrin-repeat-and-zinc-finger-domain-containing-1-mutations-are-associated-with-infantile-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Désirée Y van Haaften-Visser, Magdalena Harakalova, Enric Mocholi, Joris M van Montfrans, Abdul Elkadri, Ester Rieter, Karoline Fiedler, Peter M van Hasselt, Emily M M Triffaux, Mieke M van Haelst, Isaac J Nijman, Wigard P Kloosterman, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Aleixo M Muise, Edwin Cuppen, Roderick H J Houwen, Paul J Coffer
Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IO IBD) is an invalidating illness with an onset before two years of age and has a complex pathophysiology in which genetic factors are important. Homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in an IO IBD patient and subsequent sequencing of the candidate gene in twelve additional IO IBD patients revealed two patients with two mutated Ankyrin Repeat and Zinc Finger Domain containing 1 (ANKZF1) alleles (homozygous ANKZF1 R585Q mutation and compound heterozygous ANKZF1 E152K and V32_Q87del mutations respectively) and two patients with one mutated ANKZF1 allele...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299908/the-drugage-database-of-aging-related-drugs
#15
Diogo Barardo, Daniel Thornton, Harikrishnan Thoppil, Michael Walsh, Samim Sharifi, Susana Ferreira, Andreja Anžič, Maria Fernandes, Patrick Monteiro, Tjaša Grum, Rui Cordeiro, Evandro Araújo De-Souza, Arie Budovsky, Natali Araujo, Jan Gruber, Michael Petrascheck, Vadim E Fraifeld, Alexander Zhavoronkov, Alexey Moskalev, João Pedro de Magalhães
Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug-gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs...
March 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289075/coordinated-hsp110-and-hsp104-activities-power-protein-disaggregation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan Kaimal, Ganapathi Kandasamy, Fabian Gasser, Claes Andréasson
Protein aggregation is intimately associated with cellular stress and is accelerated during aging, disease and cellular dysfunction. Yeast cells rely on the ATP-consuming chaperone Hsp104 to disaggregate proteins together with Hsp70. Hsp110s are ancient and abundant chaperones that form complexes with Hsp70. Here we provide in vivo data showing that yeast Hsp110s Sse1 and Sse2 are essential for Hsp104-dependent protein disaggregation. Following heat shock, complexes of Hsp110 and Hsp70 are recruited to protein aggregates and functions together with Hsp104 in the disaggregation process...
March 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281664/genetic-interactions-and-functional-analyses-of-the-fission-yeast-gsk3-and-amk2-single-and-double-mutants-defective-in-torc1-dependent-processes
#17
Charalampos Rallis, StJohn Townsend, Jürg Bähler
The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling network plays important roles in aging and disease. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Gsk3 kinase inhibit TOR during stress. We performed genetic interaction screens using synthetic genetic arrays (SGA) with gsk3 and amk2 as query mutants, the latter encoding the regulatory subunit of AMPK. We identified 69 negative and 82 positive common genetic interactors, with functions related to cellular growth and stress. The 120 gsk3-specific negative interactors included genes functioning in translation and ribosomes...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281180/comparative-analysis-of-oxidative-stress-during-aging-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-in-synthetic-and-whey-media
#18
Priyanka Saini, Arun Beniwal, Shilpa Vij
During the aging of yeast culture, Kluyveromyces marxianus undergoes a number of changes in physiology and these changes play a significant role during fermentation. Aged stationary phase cells were found to contain more reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the level of oxidant is counteracted by the antioxidant defense system of the cells. Comparison of 3-day-old culture of K. marxianus with 45-day stationary phase culture represents an increased level of ROS inside the cells. Moreover, a decrease in glutathione content was observed over the set of the incubation period...
March 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273448/mutations-that-allow-sir2-orthologs-to-function-in-a-nad-depleted-environment
#19
Caitlin R Ondracek, Vincent Frappier, Alison E Ringel, Cynthia Wolberger, Leonard Guarente
Sirtuin enzymes depend on NAD(+) to catalyze protein deacetylation. Therefore, the lowering of NAD(+) during aging leads to decreased sirtuin activity and may speed up aging processes in laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we used a genetic screen to identify two mutations in the catalytic domain of yeast Sir2 that allow the enzyme to function in an NAD(+)-depleted environment. These mutant enzymes give rise to a significant increase of yeast replicative lifespan and increase deacetylation by the Sir2 ortholog, SIRT1, in mammalian cells...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265091/conserved-forkhead-dimerization-motif-controls-dna-replication-timing-and-spatial-organization-of-chromosomes-in-s-cerevisiae
#20
A Zachary Ostrow, Reza Kalhor, Yan Gan, Sandra K Villwock, Christian Linke, Matteo Barberis, Lin Chen, Oscar M Aparicio
Forkhead Box (Fox) proteins share the Forkhead domain, a winged-helix DNA binding module, which is conserved among eukaryotes from yeast to humans. These sequence-specific DNA binding proteins have been primarily characterized as transcription factors regulating diverse cellular processes from cell cycle control to developmental fate, deregulation of which contributes to developmental defects, cancer, and aging. We recently identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forkhead 1 (Fkh1) and Forkhead 2 (Fkh2) as required for the clustering of a subset of replication origins in G1 phase and for the early initiation of these origins in the ensuing S phase, suggesting a mechanistic role linking the spatial organization of the origins and their activity...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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