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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448590/significant-changes-in-circulating-microrna-by-dietary-supplementation-of-selenium-and-coenzyme-q10-in-healthy-elderly-males-a-subgroup-analysis-of-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-among-elderly-swedish-citizens
#1
Urban Alehagen, Peter Johansson, Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Dick Wågsäter
BACKGROUND: Selenium and coenzyme Q10 is essential for important cellular functions. A low selenium intake is reported from many European countries, and the endogenous coenzyme Q10 production is decreasing in the body with increasing age. Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 in elderly have shown reduced cardiovascular mortality and reduced levels of markers of inflammation. However, microRNA analyses could give important information on the mechanisms behind the clinical effects of supplementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448036/using-microfluidic-devices-to-measure-lifespan-and-cellular-phenotypes-in-single-budding-yeast-cells
#2
Ke Zou, Diana S Ren, Qi Ou-Yang, Hao Li, Jiashun Zheng
Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model organism in aging research. Genetic studies have revealed many genes with conserved effects on the lifespan across species. However, the molecular causes of aging and death remain elusive. To gain a systematic understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying yeast aging, we need high-throughput methods to measure lifespan and to quantify various cellular and molecular phenotypes in single cells. Previously, we developed microfluidic devices to track budding yeast mother cells throughout their lifespan while flushing away newborn daughter cells...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447071/the-effects-of-reduced-rpd3-levels-on-fly-physiology
#3
Jared K Woods, Tahereh Ziafazeli, Blanka Rogina
BACKGROUND: Rpd3 is a conserved histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones and other proteins. Reduction or inhibition of Rpd3 extends longevity in yeast, worms, and flies. Previous studies in flies suggest an overlap with the mechanism of lifespan extension by dietary restriction. However, the mechanism of rpd3's effects on longevity remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated how rpd3 reduction affects fly spontaneous physical activity, fecundity, and stress resistance...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444510/starvation-signals-in-yeast-are-integrated-to-coordinate-metabolic-reprogramming-and-stress-response-to-ensure-longevity
#4
REVIEW
Nianshu Zhang, Lu Cao
Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to regulate CLS, yet it is poorly understood how the starvation signals transduced via these pathways lead to CLS extension. Using reporters whose expressions are induced by glucose starvation, we have screened the majority of the 'signaling' mutants in the yeast genome and identified many genes that are necessary for stress response...
April 25, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435839/the-frequency-of-yeast-psi-prion-formation-is-increased-during-chronological-ageing
#5
Shaun H Speldewinde, Chris M Grant
Ageing involves a time-dependent decline in a variety of intracellular mechanisms and is associated with cellular senescence. This can be exacerbated by prion diseases which can occur in a sporadic manner, predominantly during the later stages of life. Prions are infectious, self-templating proteins responsible for several neurodegenerative diseases in mammals and several prion-forming proteins have been found in yeast. We show here that the frequency of formation of the yeast [PSI(+) ] prion, which is the altered form of the Sup35 translation termination factor, is increased during chronological ageing...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427533/influence-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-technology-on-wine-chemical-and-sensorial-characteristics-potentialities-and-drawbacks
#6
Cláudia Nunes, Mickael C Santos, Jorge A Saraiva, Sílvia M Rocha, Manuel A Coimbra
During last years, scientific research on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a nonthermal processing technology for preservation or aging of wine has increased substantially. HHP between 200 and 500MPa is able to inactivate bacteria and yeasts in red and white wines, suggesting that it may be used for wine preservation. However, these treatments have been shown to promote changes on sensorial and physicochemical characteristics in both red and white wines, not immediately in the first month, but along storage...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426722/interactions-between-mitoneet-and-naf-1-in-cells
#7
Ola Karmi, Sarah H Holt, Luhua Song, Sagi Tamir, Yuting Luo, Fang Bai, Ammar Adenwalla, Merav Darash-Yahana, Yang-Sung Sohn, Patricia A Jennings, Rajeev K Azad, Jose' N Onuchic, Faruck Morcos, Rachel Nechushtai, Ron Mittler
The NEET proteins mitoNEET (mNT) and nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) are required for cancer cell proliferation and resistance to oxidative stress. NAF-1 and mNT are also implicated in a number of other human pathologies including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease, as well as in development, differentiation and aging. Previous studies suggested that mNT and NAF-1 could function in the same pathway in mammalian cells, preventing the over-accumulation of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416269/dna-protein-crosslink-proteolysis-repair
#8
REVIEW
Bruno Vaz, Marta Popovic, Kristijan Ramadan
Proteins that are covalently bound to DNA constitute a specific type of DNA lesion known as DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). DPCs represent physical obstacles to the progression of DNA replication. If not repaired, DPCs cause stalling of DNA replication forks that consequently leads to DNA double-strand breaks, the most cytotoxic DNA lesion. Although DPCs are common DNA lesions, the mechanism of DPC repair was unclear until now. Recent work unveiled that DPC repair is orchestrated by proteolysis performed by two distinct metalloproteases, SPARTAN in metazoans and Wss1 in yeast...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414025/alterations-of-the-translation-apparatus-during-aging-and-stress-response
#9
REVIEW
Yulia Gonskikh, Norbert Polacek
Aging is a biological process characterized by the irreversible and time-dependent deterioration of cell functions, tissues, and organs. Accumulating studies in a wide range of species from yeast to human revealed changes associated with the aging process to be conserved throughout evolution. The main characteristics of aging are (i) genomic instability, (ii) loss of telomere function, (iii) epigenetic changes,(iv) increased cellular senescence, (v) depletion of the stem cell pool, (vi) altered intercellular communication and (vii) loss of protein homeostasis...
April 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412652/during-yeast-chronological-aging-resveratrol-supplementation-results-in-a-short-lived-phenotype-sir2-dependent
#10
Ivan Orlandi, Giulia Stamerra, Maurizio Strippoli, Marina Vai
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound endowed with interesting biological properties/functions amongst which are its activity as an antioxidant and as Sirtuin activating compound towards SIRT1 in mammals. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are involved in many physiological and pathological processes including aging and age-related diseases. These enzymes are conserved across species and SIRT1 is the closest mammalian orthologue of Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
April 9, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412172/new-yeast-models-for-studying-mitochondrial-morphology-as-affected-by-oxidative-stress-and-other-factors
#11
Anton G Rogov, Alexandra P Ovchenkova, Tatiana N Goleva, Igor I Kireev, Renata A Zvyagilskaya
The overwhelming majority of investigations on mitochondrial morphology were performed using S. cerevisiae. In this study we showed the benefits of applying new model organisms including petite-negative D. magnusii and Y. lipolytica yeasts for visualization of mitochondrial fragmentation. Normally giant D. magnusii cells and filament-like Y. lipolytica cells contain the highly structured mitochondrial reticulum. Oxidative stress mediated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide triggered mitochondrial fragmentation in yeasts...
April 12, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410198/specific-changes-in-mitochondrial-lipidome-alter-mitochondrial-proteome-and-increase-the-geroprotective-efficiency-of-lithocholic-acid-in-chronologically-aging-yeast
#12
Anna Leonov, Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Simon D Bourque, Olivia Koupaki, Pavlo Kyryakov, Paméla Dakik, Mélissa McAuley, Younes Medkour, Karamat Mohammad, Tamara Di Maulo, Vladimir I Titorenko
We have previously found that exogenously added lithocholic acid delays yeast chronological aging. We demonstrated that lithocholic acid enters the yeast cell, is sorted to mitochondria, resides in both mitochondrial membranes, changes the relative concentrations of different membrane phospholipids, triggers changes in the concentrations of many mitochondrial proteins, and alters some key aspects of mitochondrial functionality. We hypothesized that the lithocholic acid-driven changes in mitochondrial lipidome may have a causal role in the remodeling of mitochondrial proteome, which may in turn alter the functional state of mitochondria to create a mitochondrial pattern that delays yeast chronological aging...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409300/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-determinants-linking-spindle-pole-fate-spindle-polarity-and-asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-budding-yeast-s-cerevisiae
#13
Marco Geymonat, Marisa Segal
The budding yeast S. cerevisiae is a powerful model to understand the multiple layers of control driving an asymmetric cell division. In budding yeast, asymmetric targeting of the spindle poles to the mother and bud cell compartments respectively orients the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. This program exploits an intrinsic functional asymmetry arising from the age distinction between the spindle poles-one inherited from the preceding division and the other newly assembled. Extrinsic mechanisms convert this age distinction into differential fate...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401438/resveratrol-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-decreases-chronological-life-span-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-a-glucose-dependent-manner
#14
Minerva Ramos-Gomez, Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin, Melina Canizal-García, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Gerardo M Nava, Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
A broad range of health benefits have been attributed to resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in mammalian systems, including the increases in longevity. Nonetheless, despite the growing number of studies performed with RSV, the molecular mechanism by which it acts still remains unknown. Recently, it has been proposed that inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation activity is the principal mechanism of RSV action. This mechanism suggests that RSV might induce mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in oxidative damage to cells with a concomitant decrease of cell viability and cellular life span...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398476/glycation-potentiates-%C3%AE-synuclein-associated-neurodegeneration-in-synucleinopathies
#15
Hugo Vicente Miranda, Éva M Szego, Luís M A Oliveira, Carlo Breda, Ekrem Darendelioglu, Rita M de Oliveira, Diana G Ferreira, Marcos A Gomes, Ruth Rott, Márcia Oliveira, Francesca Munari, Francisco J Enguita, Tânia Simões, Eva F Rodrigues, Michael Heinrich, Ivo C Martins, Irina Zamolo, Olaf Riess, Carlos Cordeiro, Ana Ponces-Freire, Hilal A Lashuel, Nuno C Santos, Luisa V Lopes, Wei Xiang, Thomas M Jovin, Deborah Penque, Simone Engelender, Markus Zweckstetter, Jochen Klucken, Flaviano Giorgini, Alexandre Quintas, Tiago F Outeiro
α-Synuclein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark in Parkinson's disease and in several other neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. The toxic properties of α-synuclein are conserved from yeast to man, but the precise underpinnings of the cellular pathologies associated are still elusive, complicating the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Combining molecular genetics with target-based approaches, we established that glycation, an unavoidable age-associated post-translational modification, enhanced α-synuclein toxicity in vitro and in vivo, in Drosophila and in mice...
April 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395030/clinical-features-molecular-heterogeneity-and-prognostic-implications-in-yars2-related-mitochondrial-myopathy
#16
Ewen W Sommerville, Yi Shiau Ng, Charlotte L Alston, Cristina Dallabona, Micol Gilberti, Langping He, Charlotte Knowles, Sophie L Chin, Andrew M Schaefer, Gavin Falkous, David Murdoch, Cheryl Longman, Marianne de Visser, Laurence A Bindoff, John M Rawles, John C S Dean, Richard K Petty, Maria E Farrugia, Tobias B Haack, Holger Prokisch, Robert McFarland, Douglass M Turnbull, Claudia Donnini, Robert W Taylor, Gráinne S Gorman
Importance: YARS2 mutations have been associated with a clinical triad of myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia in predominantly Middle Eastern populations. However, the identification of new patients expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of mitochondrial disorders. Objectives: To review the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of YARS2-related mitochondrial disease and to demonstrate a new Scottish founder variant. Design, Setting, and Participants: An observational case series study was conducted at a national diagnostic center for mitochondrial disease in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, and review of cases published in the literature...
April 10, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394250/ampk-and-vacuole-associated-atg14p-orchestrate-%C3%AE-lipophagy-for-energy-production-and-long-term-survival-under-glucose-starvation
#17
Arnold Y Seo, Pick-Wei Lau, Daniel Feliciano, Prabuddha Sengupta, Mark A Le Gros, Bertrand Cinquin, Carolyn A Larabell, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
Dietary restriction increases the longevity of many organisms, but the cell signaling and organellar mechanisms underlying this capability are unclear. We demonstrate that to permit long-term survival in response to sudden glucose depletion, yeast cells activate lipid-droplet (LD) consumption through micro-lipophagy (µ-lipophagy), in which fat is metabolized as an alternative energy source. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation triggered this pathway, which required Atg14p. More gradual glucose starvation, amino acid deprivation or rapamycin did not trigger µ-lipophagy and failed to provide the needed substitute energy source for long-term survival...
April 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386840/effects-of-supplements-containing-different-additives-on-nutritional-and-productive-performance-of-beef-cattle-grazing-tropical-grass
#18
V V Carvalho, M F Paulino, E Detmann, M L Chizzotti, L S Martins, A G Silva, S A Lopes, F H Moura
A grazing trial was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of three feed additives in supplements (crude protein, CP 230 g/kg dry matter, DM) on the performance, voluntary intake, and digestibility of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens (CP 81 and neutral detergent fiber, NDF 615 g/kg DM). Thirty-five Nellore heifers (21 months of age and 383 ± 6.29 kg of body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized design. The treatments were as follows: no supplement (control); supplement fed at 1 kg/animal/day without additives (S); supplement with monensin (S + M); supplement with yeast culture (S + YC); and supplement with enzyme complex (S + EC)...
April 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384494/increased-genome-instability-is-not-accompanied-by-sensitivity-to-dna-damaging-agents-in-aged-yeast-cells
#19
Daniele Novarina, Sara N Mavrova, Georges E Janssens, Irina L Rempel, Liesbeth M Veenhoff, Michael Chang
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae divides asymmetrically, producing a new daughter cell from the original mother cell. While daughter cells are born with a full lifespan, a mother cell ages with each cell division and can only generate on average 25 daughter cells before dying. Aged yeast cells exhibit genomic instability, which is also a hallmark of human aging. However, it is unclear how this genomic instability contributes to aging. To shed light on this issue, we investigated endogenous DNA damage in S...
March 23, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381226/annurca-apple-m-pumila-miller-cv-annurca-extracts-act-against-stress-and-ageing-in-s-cerevisiae-yeast-cells
#20
Mariarita Stirpe, Vanessa Palermo, Michele Maria Bianchi, Romano Silvestri, Claudio Falcone, Giancarlo Tenore, Ettore Novellino, Cristina Mazzoni
BACKGROUND: During the past years, a number of studies have demonstrated the positive effect of apple on ageing and different diseases such as cancer, degenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents a simple eukaryotic model to study the effects of different compounds on lifespan. We previously demonstrated that apple extracts have anti-ageing effects in this organism because of their antioxidant properties. In particular, the effect is related to the presence in this fruit of polyphenols, which give a large contribution to the antioxidant activity of apples...
April 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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