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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918244/determinants-and-regulation-of-protein-turnover-in-yeast
#1
Miguel Martin-Perez, Judit Villén
Protein turnover maintains the recycling needs of the proteome, and its malfunction has been linked to aging and age-related diseases. However, not all proteins turnover equally, and the factors that contribute to accelerate or slow down turnover are mostly unknown. We measured turnover rates for 3,160 proteins in exponentially growing yeast and analyzed their dependence on physical, functional, and genetic properties. We found that functional characteristics, including protein localization, complex membership, and connectivity, have greater effect on turnover than sequence elements...
September 13, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916982/chemical-shift-assignments-and-the-secondary-structure-of-the-est3-telomerase-subunit-in-the-yeast-hansenula-polymorpha
#2
Sofia S Mariasina, Sergey V Efimov, Olga A Petrova, Elena V Rodina, Alexander N Malyavko, Maria I Zvereva, Vladimir V Klochkov, Olga A Dontsova, Vladimir I Polshakov
Telomerase is a multisubunit ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is essential for continuous cellular proliferation. A key role of telomerase in cancer and ageing makes it a promising target for the development of cancer therapies and treatments of other age-associated diseases, since telomerase allows unlimited proliferation potential of cells in the majority of cancer types. However, the structure and molecular mechanism of telomerase action are still poorly understood. In budding yeast, telomerase consists of the catalytic subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase or Est2 protein, telomerase RNA (TLC1) and two regulatory subunits, Est1 and Est3...
September 15, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914418/spermidine-rescues-proximal-tubular-cells-from-oxidative-stress-and-necrosis-after-ischemic-acute-kidney-injury
#3
Jinu Kim
Kidney ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with a high mortality rate, which is attributed to tubular oxidative stress and necrosis; however, an effective approach to limit IRI remains elusive. Spermidine, a naturally occurring polyamine, protects yeast cells against aging through the inhibition of oxidative stress and necrosis. In the present study, spermidine supplementation markedly attenuated increases in plasma creatinine concentration and tubular injury score after IRI. In addition, exogenous spermidine potently inhibited oxidative stress, especially lipid peroxidation after IRI in kidneys and exposure to hydrogen peroxide in kidney proximal tubular cells, suppressing plasma membrane disruption and necrosis...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913346/live-fast-die-fast-principle-in-a-single-cell-of-fission-yeast
#4
COMMENT
Hidenori Nakaoka
Growth and death are both fundamental macroscopic properties for all living matters, and thus cell division and mortality rates are good parameters for characterizing cellular physiology in a given environment. While population growth rates in various conditions have been reported in literature, death rate is rarely measured, especially in favorable culture conditions where cells grow exponentially. In our recent study (Nakaoka and Wakamoto, 2017), we developed a microfluidics-based platform to track multiple single cell lineages until death...
August 13, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906250/the-aaa-protein-msp1-mediates-clearance-of-excess-tail-anchored-proteins-from-the-peroxisomal-membrane
#5
Nicholas R Weir, Roarke A Kamber, James S Martenson, Vladimir Denic
Msp1 is a conserved AAA ATPase in budding yeast localized to mitochondria where it prevents accumulation of mistargeted tail-anchored (TA) proteins, including the peroxisomal TA protein Pex15. Msp1 also resides on peroxisomes but it remains unknown how native TA proteins on mitochondria and peroxisomes evade Msp1 surveillance. We used live-cell quantitative cell microscopy tools and drug-inducible gene expression to dissect Msp1 function. We found that a small fraction of peroxisomal Pex15, exaggerated by overexpression, is turned over by Msp1...
September 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891112/candida-albicans-isolates-from-a-single-hospital-show-low-phenotypical-specialization
#6
Enikő Boros, Walter P Pfliegler, Renátó Kovács, Ágnes Jakab, László Majoros, Zoltán Barta, István Pócsi
Candida albicans is the best-studied opportunistic human pathogenic yeast species, and its virulence factors, susceptibility to antimycotics, the diversity of its physiological properties and the determinative factors of these traits are interesting from a clinical as well as from an evolutionary perspective. By applying statistical modeling for the phenotypical differences observed among a collection of 63 C. albicans isolates originating from different clinical care units, from a diverse group of patients with or without mycosis, collected in a Hungarian clinic, we found that (i) host-related aspects like anatomical source, care unit of isolation, patients' age, sex, and disease severity, or ABC genotypes of the isolates had less effect on the phenotypic features of this opportunistic pathogen than host-independent aspects, for example, year or month of isolation; (ii) different phenotypic traits did not show any significant correlations with each other; and (iii) different genotypes displayed no anatomical specialization and rarely showed any significant correlation with parameters of isolation either...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887594/do-long-telomeres-affect-cellular-fitness
#7
REVIEW
Yaniv Harari, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres protect the chromosome ends and maintain the genome stability; they, therefore, play important roles in aging and cancer. Despite the wide variability in telomere length among eukaryotes, in all telomerase-expressing cells telomere length is strictly controlled within a very narrow range. In humans, telomeres shorten with age, and it has been proposed that telomere shortening may play a causal role in aging. Using yeast strains with genetically or physiologically generated differences in telomere length, we have explored the question of whether having long telomeres affects telomere function and fitness or cellular lifespan...
September 8, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887004/-mycological-profile-of-hand-onychomycosis-amongs-garba-sellers-in-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#8
P C M Kiki-Barro, A Konaté, F K Kassi, E K Angora, H Bosson-Vanga, A V Bedia-Tanoh, V Djohan, W Yavo, E I H Menan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and the fungi involved in onychomycosis located on fingers in Abidjan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study includes the sellers of cooked cassava semolina served with fried tuna fish called "garba". Fines squames specimen was processed with 30% KOH for a direct microscope examination. Serous collection were done in physiological serum. Part of the original sample was cultured on Sabouraud medium with antibiotics (chloramphénicol, actidione)...
September 5, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879348/the-elemental-role-of-iron-in-dna-synthesis-and-repair
#9
REVIEW
Sergi Puig, Lucía Ramos-Alonso, Antonia María Romero, María Teresa Martínez-Pastor
Iron is an essential redox element that functions as a cofactor in many metabolic pathways. Critical enzymes in DNA metabolism, including multiple DNA repair enzymes (helicases, nucleases, glycosylases, demethylases) and ribonucleotide reductase, use iron as an indispensable cofactor to function. Recent striking results have revealed that the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerases also contains conserved cysteine-rich motifs that bind iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters that are essential for the formation of stable and active complexes...
September 7, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877373/prevalence-of-onychomycosis-among-patients-with-nail-psoriasis-who-are-not-receiving-immunosuppressive-agents-results-of-a-pilot-study
#10
Aikaterini Tsentemeidou, Timoleon-Achilleas Vyzantiadis, Aikaterini Kyriakou, Dimitrios Sotiriadis, Aikaterini Patsatsi
Nail psoriasis and onychomycosis can often be hard to differentiate clinically and may coexist, complicating each other's course. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis among patients with nail psoriasis not being treated with immunosuppressive agents, which constitute an independent risk factor for fungal infections. A cross-sectional study was performed. All adult patients with nail psoriasis who were not receiving antifungal and/or immunosuppressive treatment were recruited at the 2nd University Dermatology Department of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki from 10/2016 till 02/2017...
September 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873660/formation-of-polymeric-pigments-in-red-wines-through-sequential-fermentation-of-flavanol-enriched-musts-with-non-saccharomyces-yeasts
#11
Carlos Escott, Juan Manuel Del Fresno, Iris Loira, Antonio Morata, Wendu Tesfaye, María Del Carmen González, José Antonio Suárez-Lepe
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts may contribute to enrich wine aroma while promoting the formation of stable pigments. Yeast metabolites such as acetaldehyde and pyruvate participate in the formation of stable pigments during fermentation and wine aging. This work evaluated the formation of polymeric pigments in red musts added with (+)-Catechin, ProcyanidinB2 and ProcyanidinC1. The non-Saccharomyces yeasts used were Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequential fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871606/risk-and-outcomes-of-pulmonary-fungal-infection-after-pediatric-lung-transplantation
#12
E Ammerman, S Sweet, M Fenchel, G A Storch, C Conrad, D Hayes, A Faro, S Goldfarb, E Melicoff, M Schecter, G Visner, N Williams, L Danziger-Isakov
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies to determine associated risk factors and related outcomes for pulmonary fungal infection (PFI) after pediatric lung transplant (PLT) are lacking. METHODS: NIH-sponsored Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children enrolled PLT candidates, collecting data prospectively for 2 years post-transplant. Demographics, signs/symptoms, radiology, pathology and microbiology were collected. Analyses evaluated for PFI-related risks and outcomes...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869384/micromycetes-infection-in-patients-with-thermal-trauma
#13
B Lipový, J Holoubek, H Řihová, Y Kaloudová, M Hanslianová, M Cvanová, J Jarkovský, I Suchánek, P Brychta
GOAL: Determination of basic epidemiological parameters of burn patients with micromycetes infection. Identification of the most important micromycetes in burn patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Monocentre retrospective study enrolling all adult burn patients who were hospitalized between 2007 and 2015 and in whom micromycetes were isolated during hospitalization. ABSI index (Abbreviated Burn Severity Index) was used to evaluate severity of thermal trauma. Results were statistically analysed...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864920/discovery-of-mutations-in-homologous-recombination-genes-in-african-american-women-with-breast-cancer
#14
Yuan Chun Ding, Aaron W Adamson, Linda Steele, Adam M Bailis, Esther M John, Gail Tomlinson, Susan L Neuhausen
African-American women are more likely to develop aggressive breast cancer at younger ages and experience poorer cancer prognoses than non-Hispanic Caucasians. Deficiency in repair of DNA by homologous recombination (HR) is associated with cancer development, suggesting that mutations in genes that affect this process may cause breast cancer. Inherited pathogenic mutations have been identified in genes involved in repairing DNA damage, but few studies have focused on African-Americans. We screened for germline mutations in seven HR repair pathway genes in DNA of 181 African-American women with breast cancer, evaluated the potential effects of identified missense variants using in silico prediction software, and functionally characterized a set of missense variants by yeast two-hybrid assays...
September 2, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861889/red-yeast-rice-prevents-atherosclerosis-through-regulating-inflammatory-signaling-pathways
#15
Min Wu, Wen-Gao Zhang, Long-Tao Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of red yeast rice (RYR) on blood lipid levels, aortic atherosclerosis (AS), and plaque stability in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. METHODS: Twenty-four ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat diet starting from 6 weeks of age. Mice were randomized into three groups (n = 8 in each group): model group (ApoE-/- group), RYR group (ApoE-/- + RYR group), and simvastatin group (ApoE-/- + simvastatin group). Eight 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned as the control group and fed with a basic diet...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857727/fungal-endocarditis-in-paediatrics-a-review-of-192-cases-1971-2016
#16
Vithiya Ganesan, Shunmuga Sundaram Ponnusamy, Raja Sundaramurthy
BACKGROUND: The aims of this article were to review the published literature on fungal endocarditis in children and to discuss the aetiology and diagnosis, with emphasis on non-invasive methods and various treatment regimes. METHODS: We systematically reviewed published cases and case series of fungal endocarditis in children. We searched the literature, including PubMed and individual references for publications of original articles, single cases, or case series of paediatric fungal endocarditis, with the following keywords: "fungal endocarditis", "neonates", "infants", "child", and "cardiac vegetation"...
October 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855418/analyses-of-selenotranscriptomes-and-selenium-concentrations-in-response-to-dietary-selenium-deficiency-and-age-reveal-common-and-distinct-patterns-by-tissue-and-sex-in-telomere-dysfunctional-mice
#17
Lei Cao, Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Ryan Ty Wu, Tung-Lung Wu, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity.Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice.Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854190/population-structure-and-molecular-genetic-characterization-of-clinical-candida-tropicalis-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kuwait-reveal-infections-with-unique-strains
#18
Khaled Al-Obaid, Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Ziauddin Khan
Candida tropicalis is a frequently isolated yeast species causing bloodstream, urinary tract and other infections particularly in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) and those requiring prolonged urinary catheterization (UC) or receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). This study investigated clinical characteristics and genetic relatedness among C. tropicalis strains isolated from patients at Al-Amiri Hospital in Kuwait. C. tropicalis strains (n = 63) isolated from blood, genito-urinary, respiratory (RT) and digestive (GIT) tracts and wound sites from 54 patients were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851852/long-telomeres-do-not-affect-cellular-fitness-in-yeast
#19
Yaniv Harari, Shira Zadok-Laviel, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres, the ends of the eukaryotic chromosomes, help to maintain the genome's integrity and thus play important roles in aging and cancer. Telomere length is strictly controlled in all organisms. In humans, telomeres shorten with age, and it has been proposed that telomere shortening may play a causal role in aging. We took advantage of the availability of yeast strains with genetically or physiologically generated differences in telomere length to measure the effect that telomere length may have on cellular growth...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836369/wide-scale-comparative-analysis-of-longevity-genes-and-interventions
#20
Hagai Yanai, Arie Budovsky, Thomer Barzilay, Robi Tacutu, Vadim E Fraifeld
Hundreds of genes, when manipulated, affect the lifespan of model organisms (yeast, worm, fruit fly, and mouse) and thus can be defined as longevity-associated genes (LAGs). A major challenge is to determine whether these LAGs are model-specific or may play a universal role as longevity regulators across diverse taxa. A wide-scale comparative analysis of the 1805 known LAGs across 205 species revealed that (i) LAG orthologs are substantially overrepresented, from bacteria to mammals, compared to the entire genomes or interactomes, and this was especially noted for essential LAGs; (ii) the effects on lifespan, when manipulating orthologous LAGs in different model organisms, were mostly concordant, despite a high evolutionary distance between them; (iii) LAGs that have orthologs across a high number of phyla were enriched in translational processes, energy metabolism, and DNA repair genes; (iv) LAGs that have no orthologs out of the taxa in which they were discovered were enriched in autophagy (Ascomycota/Fungi), G proteins (Nematodes), and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions (Chordata)...
August 24, 2017: Aging Cell
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