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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915464/experimental-study-designs-examining-social-context-and-smoking-scientific-challenges-and-considerations
#1
Zeena Harakeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915291/the-landscape-of-microbial-phenotypic-traits-and-associated-genes
#2
Maria Brbić, Matija Piškorec, Vedrana Vidulin, Anita Kriško, Tomislav Šmuc, Fran Supek
Bacteria and Archaea display a variety of phenotypic traits and can adapt to diverse ecological niches. However, systematic annotation of prokaryotic phenotypes is lacking. We have therefore developed ProTraits, a resource containing ∼545 000 novel phenotype inferences, spanning 424 traits assigned to 3046 bacterial and archaeal species. These annotations were assigned by a computational pipeline that associates microbes with phenotypes by text-mining the scientific literature and the broader World Wide Web, while also being able to define novel concepts from unstructured text...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915224/the-relative-and-absolute-reliability-of-center-of-pressure-trajectory-during-gait-initiation-in-older-adults
#3
Roya Khanmohammadi, Saeed Talebian, Mohammad Reza Hadian, Gholamreza Olyaei, Hossein Bagheri
It has been thought that for scientific acceptance of a parameter, its psychometric properties such as reliability, validity and responsiveness have critical roles. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate how many trials are required to obtain a reliable center of pressure (COP) parameter during gait initiation (GI) and to investigate the effect of number of trials on the relative and absolute reliability. Twenty older adults participated in the study. Subjects began stepping over the force platform in response to an auditory stimulus...
November 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915126/stroke-risk-stratification-and-its-validation-using-ultrasonic-echolucent-carotid-wall-plaque-morphology-a-machine-learning-paradigm
#4
Tadashi Araki, Pankaj K Jain, Harman S Suri, Narendra D Londhe, Nobutaka Ikeda, Ayman El-Baz, Vimal K Shrivastava, Luca Saba, Andrew Nicolaides, Shoaib Shafique, John R Laird, Ajay Gupta, Jasjit S Suri
Stroke risk stratification based on grayscale morphology of the ultrasound carotid wall has recently been shown to have a promise in classification of high risk versus low risk plaque or symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques. In previous studies, this stratification has been mainly based on analysis of the far wall of the carotid artery. Due to the multifocal nature of atherosclerotic disease, the plaque growth is not restricted to the far wall alone. This paper presents a new approach for stroke risk assessment by integrating assessment of both the near and far walls of the carotid artery using grayscale morphology of the plaque...
November 27, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914993/-solid-paediatricians-in-fluid-times-reviving-professionalism
#5
Carmen Martínez González, María Tasso Cereceda, Marta Sánchez Jacob, Isolina Riaño Galán
Professionalism is rarely taught formally. It is learned by osmosis through the hidden curriculum: a set of attitudes that each one of us transmits unconsciously to students, medical residents, and colleagues. All of us are a model or counter-model of professionalism through a series of values that have been the pillars of our profession since Hippocrates. Values that do not seem to be strong enough to pass our time. There are specific factors of the 21st century such as the financial crisis, the highly technical nature of medicine, bureaucratisation or trivialisation of the medical process that could explain, but not justify, the decline in the values of our profession: Empathy, integrity, solidarity, the altruism, or confidentiality...
November 30, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914991/antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenases-deficiency-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-reappraisal-for-clinical-and-interventional-cardiologists
#6
REVIEW
Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli, Mauro Carraro, Maria Paola Galasso, Fabio Dell'Avvocata, Rossella Paolini, Giovanni Zuliani, Loris Roncon
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency represents one of the most common erythrocyte enzymopathy. In the era of drug-eluting stents (DESs), the use of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin (ASA) and thienopyridine (clopidogrel or ticlopidine) has become mandatory in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the use of ASA, and more in general of antiplatelet drugs in patients with G6PD deficiency remains controversial, also for the absence of specific guidelines and scientific evidences...
November 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914909/benefits-pitfalls-and-risks-of-phytotherapy-in-clinical-practice-in-otorhinolaryngology
#7
O Laccourreye, A Werner, L Laccourreye, P Bonfils
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the benefits, pitfalls and risks of phytotherapy in the clinical practice of otorhinolaryngology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: phytotherapy, phytomedicine, herbs, otology, rhinology, laryngology, otitis, rhinitis, laryngitis and otorhinolaryngology. Seventy-two articles (18 prospective randomized studies, 4 Cochrane analyses, 4 meta-analysis and 15 reviews of the literature) devoted to clinical studies were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914793/challenges-in-translational-development-of-pharmaceutical-cocrystals
#8
Dnyaneshwar P Kale, Sandeep S Zode, Arvind K Bansal
The last 2 decades have witnessed increased research in the area of cocrystals resulting in deeper scientific understanding, increase in intellectual property landscape, and evolution in the regulatory environment. Pharmaceutical cocrystals have received significant attention as a new solid form on account of their ability to modulate poor physicochemical properties of drug molecules. However, pharmaceutical development of cocrystals could be challenging, thus limiting their translation into viable drug products...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914775/assessment-of-background-gamma-radiation-levels-using-airborne-gamma-ray-spectrometer-data-over-uranium-deposits-cuddapah-basin-india-a-comparative-study-of-dose-rates-estimated-by-agrs-and-pgrs
#9
D Srinivas, V Ramesh Babu, I Patra, Shailesh Tripathi, M S Ramayya, A K Chaturvedi
The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah Basin. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914771/overview-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Allison M Glasser, Lauren Collins, Jennifer L Pearson, Haneen Abudayyeh, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Andrea C Villanti
CONTEXT: Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914754/antiparasitic-and-disease-modifying-activity-of-nyctanthes-arbor-tristis-linn-in-malaria-an-exploratory-clinical-study
#11
Chhaya S Godse, Prakash S Tathed, Sameer S Talwalkar, Rama A Vaidya, Ashok J Amonkar, Akhil B Vaidya, Ashok D B Vaidya
BACKGROUND: An unceasing threat of drug resistance continuously poses demand for new antimalarial drugs. A scientific assessment of traditionally used antimalarial plants through reverse pharmacology is crucial for a fast track drug discovery. An Ayurvedic plant Nyctanthesarbor-tristis Linn. - (Parijat) had shown antimalarial activity, with a parasite clearance in 76.6% of 120 patients, in an earlier clinical study. OBJECTIVE: To further explore antimalarial potential of the plant through additional objective markers...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914718/surfing-amongst-oil-tankers-connecting-emerging-research-fields-to-the-current-international-landscape
#12
Bénédicte Charrier, Juliet C Coates, Ioanna Stavridou
The COST Action Phycomorph (FA1406) was initiated in 2015 from a handful of academic researchers, and now joins together 19 European countries and nine international partners. Phycomorph's goal is to coordinate and develop research on developmental biology in macroalgae. This is an ambitious project, as the related scientific community is small, the concepts are complex, and there is currently limited knowledge of these organisms and there are few technologies to study them. Here we report the first step in achieving this enterprise, the creation of the Phycomorph network...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914574/biological-therapies-immunomodulatory-drugs-worsening-of-psoriasis-and-rebound-effect-new-evidence-of-similitude
#13
REVIEW
Marcus Zulian Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Employing the secondary action or adaptative reaction of the organism as therapeutic response, homeopathy uses the treatment by similitude (similia similibus curentur) administering to sick individuals the medicines that caused similar symptoms in healthy individuals. Such homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is scientifically explained through the rebound effect of drugs, which cause worsening of symptoms after withdrawal of several palliative treatments. Despite promoting an improvement in psoriasis at the beginning of the treatment, modern biological therapies provoke worsening of the psoriasis (rebound psoriasis) after discontinuation of drugs...
November 2016: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914507/psychiatric-psychological-injury-and-law-introduction
#14
EDITORIAL
Gerald Young
This special issue on psychiatric/psychological injury and law covers major developments in the field, and illustrates the complexities for mental health professionals in dealing with psychiatric/psychological injuries in court. The articles vary in the range of topics covered, and include ones on posttraumatic stress disorder, other trauma reactions, dissociation, disability, pain, and traumatic brain injury, in particular but also new areas, such as the effects of early penile injury. Work in the area of psychiatric/psychological injury and law needs to be scientifically-informed, comprehensive, and impartial, and the series of articles to follow will help workers in the area meet this standard...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914359/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-arrhythmia-a-systemic-review
#15
EDITORIAL
Nirav Patel, Caroline Donahue, Abhishek Shenoy, Arpan Patel, Nabil El-Sherif
There is a growing consensus in the scientific community that suggests a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular (CVD) conditions and events, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. We reviewed evidence on the relationship between OSA and arrhythmia. Our conclusion, based on our review of the literature, is that the evidence supports a strong link between OSA and cardiovascular mortality, which warrants treating OSA...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914323/quantitative-farm-to-fork-human-norovirus-exposure-assessment-of-individually-quick-frozen-raspberries-and-raspberry-puree
#16
L Jacxsens, A Stals, A De Keuckelaere, B Deliens, A Rajkovic, M Uyttendaele
A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913954/the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-two-major-withanolides-from-physalis-minima-via-acting-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-stat3-and-ho-1-in-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-cells
#17
Rui-Jun Li, Cai-Yun Gao, Chao Guo, Miao-Miao Zhou, Jun Luo, Ling-Yi Kong
Physalis minima has been traditionally used as a folk herbal medicine in China for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory constituents and associated molecular mechanisms. In our study, withaphysalin A (WA) and 2, 3-dihydro-withaphysalin C (WC), two major withanolide-type compounds, were obtained from the anti-inflammatory fraction of P. minima. Both WA and WC significantly inhibited the production of nitrite oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264...
December 2, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#18
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913842/alfonso-luis-herrera-and-the-beginnings-of-evolutionism-and-studies-in-the-origin-of-life-in-mexico
#19
Ismael Ledesma-Mateos, H James Cleaves
Alfonso Luis Herrera (1868-1942) was a Mexican biologist, and significant as the principal promoter of Darwinian thought in that country. However, Herrera's thinking went beyond the evolution of living beings, and extended to the question of the origin of life itself and the place of living phenomena in the larger context of the cosmos. Perhaps more significantly, though now largely forgotten, Herrera was among the first to embark on an experimental program to understand the origin of life, one which may be seen as foundational for later workers, most notably Sidney Fox and Alexander Oparin, and which has been resuscitated recently...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913560/cohort-profile-the-diabetes-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-ditto-study-in-pakistan
#20
Fatima Mukhtar, Zahid A Butt
PURPOSE: Pakistan is faced with an increasing prevalence of diabetes in addition to its existing high burden of tuberculosis (TB). Diabetes has a detrimental effect on treatment outcomes of patients with TB, which may hinder achieving the goals of the End-TB strategy by 2030. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine difference between treatment outcomes among patients with diabetes and new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and patients without diabetes and new PTB. This would help generate contextual and valid scientific evidence from a developing country like Pakistan with its unique interplay of sociocultural, economic and health system factors to inform policy and practice...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
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