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Guideline guidelines

Qingfei Zeng, Erik Jeppesen, Xiaohong Gu, Zhigang Mao, Huihui Chen
The spatial-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their source, and potential health risks were determined in overlying water and surface sediments from Chinese Lake Guchenghu, adjacent commercial mitten crab ponds and the connected Wushen Canal to assess the contamination profile of the area. The total PAHs concentrations in sediment and water were 86.7-1790 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and 184-365 ng L-1 in summer and 184-3140 ng g-1 dw and 410-1160 ng L-1 in winter. Two- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant compounds in water, while PAHs with 4-6 rings dominated in the sediment at both upstream and downstream sites...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
E M Murtagh, A T Barnes, J McMullen, P J Morgan
OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development...
March 12, 2018: Public Health
Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti, Célia Pereira Caldas, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To identify the diseases that lead older persons to hospitalizations in the public health system in the state of Rio de Janeiro and, through a study of spatial distribution among hospitalization rates of the municipal districts, discuss the social contexts involved in the hospitalization of the elderly. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from the Brazilian hospital information system from the period 2009 to 2015 was performed...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Emily Wonder, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Pablo Scodeller, Ramsey N Majzoub, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Kai K Ewert, Tambet Teesalu, Cyrus R Safinya
Cationic liposome-nucleic acid (CL-NA) complexes, which form spontaneously, are a highly modular gene delivery system. These complexes can be sterically stabilized via PEGylation [PEG: poly (ethylene glycol)] into nanoparticles (NPs) and targeted to specific tissues and cell types via the conjugation of an affinity ligand. However, there are currently no guidelines on how to effectively navigate the large space of compositional parameters that modulate the specific and nonspecific binding interactions of peptide-targeted NPs with cells...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Christoph Höchsmann, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVES: To examine cardiorespiratory exertion during mini trampoline exercises of different intensities in both endurance-trained athletes and overweight-obese adults. METHODS: Physically healthy participants (Group A: normal-weight, endurance-trained athletes; Group B: inactive, overweight-obese adults) participated in two measurement appointments and three training sessions in between appointments, in which participants familiarized themselves with the use of the mini trampoline and the execution of the exercises...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Pavithra Madhavi Naullage, Yuqing Qiu, Valeria Molinero
Cold-adapted organisms produce antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins to control the growth, melting and recrystallization of ice. It has been proposed that these molecules pin the crystal surface, creating a surface curvature that arrests its growth and melting. Here we use thermodynamic modeling and molecular simulations to elucidate how does the curvature of the metastable ice front depend on the temperature and distance between pinned molecules, and what determines the thermal hysteresis on melting and freezing, i...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Myung Han Hyun, Young-Sun Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Chan Uk Lee, Young Kul Jung, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun
According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of surgery has been expanded beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm. We compared primary hepatectomy (PH) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with intermediate to advanced (BCLC stage-B/C) stage HCC to determine the current evidence. Through database search, we included 18 high-quality studies (1 randomized controlled trial [RCT], 5 propensity-score matching non-randomized comparative trials [NRCT], and 12 NRCTs) that compared survival outcomes of 5,986 patients after PH and TACE...
March 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Claire M Lawlor, Charles A Riley, John M Carter, Kimsey H Rodriguez
Importance: The 1996 Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy Inpatient Guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) Pediatric Otolaryngology Committee recommended that children younger than 3 years be admitted following tonsillectomy. Recommendations for hospital observation were not included as a key action statement in the 2011 AAO-HNS Clinical Practice Guidelines for Tonsillectomy in Children. Objective: To examine the association between posttonsillectomy complication rate and the age and weight of the child at the time of surgery...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Cherian K Kandathil, Emily A Spataro, Katri Laimi, Sami P Moubayed, Sam P Most, Mikhail Saltychev
Importance: While functional rhinoplasty has been broadly studied, to our knowledge no systematic review and meta-analysis of lateral wall repair has been done previously. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repair of the lateral nasal wall in adult patients with nasal airway obstruction. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Central, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and reference lists were searched for clinical and observational studies...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Manuel Corpas, Nadezda V Kovalevskaya, Amanda McMurray, Fiona G G Nielsen
It is generally acknowledged that, for reproducibility and progress of human genomic research, data sharing is critical. For every sharing transaction, a successful data exchange is produced between a data consumer and a data provider. Providers of human genomic data (e.g., publicly or privately funded repositories and data archives) fulfil their social contract with data donors when their shareable data conforms to FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) principles. Based on our experiences via Repositive (https://repositive...
March 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Nina Zupanič, Maša Hribar, Urška Pivk Kupirovič, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Consumption of industrially produced trans -fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Vanessa Lin Lin Lee, Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Yin-Sir Chung, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Metabolic epilepsy is a metabolic abnormality which is associated with an increased risk of epilepsy development in affected individuals. Commonly used antiepileptic drugs are typically ineffective against metabolic epilepsy as they do not address its root cause. Presently, there is no review available which summarizes all the treatment options for metabolic epilepsy. Thus, we systematically reviewed literature which reported on the treatment, therapy and management of metabolic epilepsy from four databases, namely PubMed, Springer, Scopus and ScienceDirect...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
B M Kamath, A Baker, R Houwen, L Todorova, N Kerkar
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an inherited multisystem disorder typically manifesting as cholestasis, and potentially leading to end-stage liver disease and death. AIM: To perform the first systematic review of the epidemiology, natural history and burden of ALGS with a focus on the liver component. METHODS: Electronic databases and proceedings from key congresses were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 guidelines...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Liv Reidun Tverelv, Sveinung Wergeland Sørbye, Finn Egil Skjeldestad
OBJECTIVE: The Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme recommends follow-up of histologically confirmed normal/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 with combined cytology and human papillomavirus testing within 6 to 12 months. This study examines adherence to guidelines and subsequent risk for CIN 3+ within this subset of women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged 25 to 69 years attending the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme in Norway's 2 northernmost counties were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Jaime Fernández-Sarmiento, Joseph A Carcillo, Claudia M Salinas, Edgar F Galvis, Paula A López, Andrés Jagua-Gualdrón
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate adherence to the sepsis bundle before and after an educational strategy and its impact on hospital stay. DESIGN: A prospective, analytic, before-and-after study of children with severe sepsis and septic shock who presented to the emergency department. SETTING: Carried out from January to December 2014 in the emergency department of a quaternary care hospital. PATIENTS: Of a total of 19,836 children who presented to the emergency department, 4,383 had an infectious pathology, with 203 of these showing severe sepsis and septic shock (124 pre intervention, and 79 post intervention)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Annika Selvick, Rita Lloyd
The Nuss procedure has become the predominant reason for the use of metal implants by pediatric general and thoracic surgeons. Current guidelines recommend preimplant testing for all patients undergoing the Nuss procedure, which differs from the guidelines for all other orthopedic procedures. This review was done to further evaluate this discrepancy.
February 28, 2018: Dermatitis
Peter Kranke, Sergio D Bergese, Harold S Minkowitz, Timothy I Melson, David G Leiman, Keith A Candiotti, Ngai Liu, Leopold Eberhart, Ashraf S Habib, Jan Wallenborn, Anthony L Kovac, Pierre Diemunsch, Gabriel Fox, Tong J Gan
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting causes distress for patients and can prolong care requirements. Consensus guidelines recommend use of multiple antiemetics from different mechanistic classes as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The prophylactic efficacy of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride in combination with other antiemetics was investigated. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, international, multicenter trial was conducted in 1,147 adult surgical patients having three or four postoperative nausea and vomiting risk factors...
March 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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