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A S Hess, B R Trible, M K Hess, R R R Rowland, J K Lunney, G S Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Genetic and antigenic variability between Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) isolates has encumbered vaccine development. Here, the genetic basis of PRRSV antibody response was assessed using data from experimental infection trials of commercial crossbred weaner pigs across with one of two distinct PRRSV isolates, NVSL-97-7895 (~750 pigs) and KS-2006-72109 (~450 pigs). Objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of antibody response, measured as the sample to positive ratio (S:P) of PRRSV N-protein specific IgG in serum at 42 days post infection (dpi); assess the relationship of S:P at 42 dpi with serum viremia and growth under infection; and identify genomic regions associated with S:P at 42 dpi...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Manoela Heringer, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Flávia Barreto Dos Santos
Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the NS1 antigenemia and viremia in dengue fatal and non-fatal cases, as potential markers of progression to a fatal outcome. NS1 antigenemia and viremia were determined in Brazilian dengue fatal cases ( n = 40) and non-fatal cases ( n = 40), representative of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes...
June 14, 2018: Viruses
Nicole E Behrens, Anne Wertheimer, Stephen A Klotz, Nafees Ahmad
Several studies have shown an increased accumulation of terminally differentiated T cells during HIV infection, suggestive of exhaustion/senescence, causing dysregulation of T cell homeostasis and function and rapid HIV disease progression. We have investigated whether long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), which controls viremia and restores CD4 T cell counts, is correlated with reduction in terminally differentiated T cells, improved ratios of naïve to memory and function of T cells in 100 virologically controlled HIV-infected patients...
2018: PloS One
Kathleen Madden, Charles Janitell, Daniel Sower, Shangxin Yang
BK virus (BKPyV) associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) may affect up to 10% of renal transplant recipients, causing graft failure in the absence of intervention. The dilemma in monitoring BKPyVAN in renal transplant patients has been that only testing urine BK viral load represents higher sensitivity (earlier detection) but lower specificity, while testing plasma BK viral load represents lower sensitivity (later detection) but higher specificity. However, blindly testing both urine and plasma inevitably contributes to unnecessary medical cost...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Emmanouil Papasavvas, Steven M Lada, Jocelin Joseph, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Livio Azzoni, Karam Mounzer, Jay R Kostman, Douglas Richman, Luis J Montaner
OBJECTIVE: The impact of short-term analytical antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruptions on the levels of cellular HIV and of residual activation after subsequent ART-mediated plasma HIV viral load re-suppression remains under active investigation. DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 23 ART-suppressed, chronically HIV-1-infected subjects were evaluated at the initiation of an analytical treatment interruption (ATI), during ATI, and following plasma re-suppression of HIV with ART...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Alison J Hughes, Amadeia Rector, Veronica Jimenez, Jon Brock, Susan Scheer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize disparities in cumulative plasma HIV burden in a sample of adults accessing HIV care in San Francisco, California. DESIGN: Observational cohort and supplemental HIV surveillance data. METHODS: Data from the San Francisco Medical Monitoring Project 2012-2014 cycles and HIV surveillance data were used to create an analytic cohort followed for two years. Matched HIV viral load (VL) test results from HIV surveillance were used to create five viral outcome measures: any unsuppressed VL (>200 copies/mL), any transmittable VL (>1500 copies/mL), person-time spent unsuppressed, person-time spent transmittable, and 2-year viremia copy-years, a measure of cumulative plasma HIV burden...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Brian T Fisher, Craig L K Boge, Hans Petersen, Alix E Seif, Matthew Bryan, Richard L Hodinka, Ana Maria Cardenas, Dale R Purdy, Brandon Loudon, Adriana E Kajon
Background: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are associated with significant morbidity and death after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of HAdV infection among pediatric HCT recipients in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing era, identify risk factors for viremia among patients undergoing HAdV surveillance, and assess the effectiveness of preemptive cidofovir. Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort of patients who underwent a transplant within a 10-year period was assembled...
June 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Sara Lo Menzo, Enrico Biagi, Mariachiara Di Nuzzo, Anastasio Grilli, Carlo Contini
Directly-acting antivirals (DAA) have changed the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection therapeutic scenario allowing virus eradication in more than 95% of patients, independently from the genotype, with 12 to 24-week treatment regimens. We describe a 51-year-old Pakistani man with a chronic HCV-genotype 3 (GT3a) infection with moderate liver fibrosis, who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) 24 after a tripled dose of Daclatasvir (DCV) taken erroneously associated to Sofosbuvir (SOF). The patient had a concomitant intestinal TB infection whose treatment had been delayed in order to firstly eradicate HCV to reduce the liver toxicity of anti-mycobacterial drugs...
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Gary Wong, Zirui Zhang, Shihua He, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Kevin Tierney, Geoff Soule, Kaylie Tran, Lisa Fernando, Xiangguo Qiu
Ferrets are used for studying infections with wild-type Ebola virus isolates. Here, we investigated whether these animals are also susceptible to wild-type isolates of Marburg virus (MARV). Ferrets were challenged intramuscularly or intranasally with MARV strain Angola and monitored for 3 weeks. Unexpectedly, the animals neither showed observable signs of disease nor died of infection, and viremia was not detected after challenge. All animals were seropositive for MARV-specific immunoglobulin antibodies. Confirmatory studies with MARV strain Musoke and Ravn virus yielded the same outcomes...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Giada Frascaroli, Carina Lecher, Stefania Varani, Corinna Setz, Johannes van der Merwe, Wolfram Brune, Thomas Mertens
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistently infects 40-90% of the human population but in the face of a normal immune system, viral spread and dissemination are efficiently controlled thus preventing clinically signs and disease. HCMV-infected hosts produce a remarkably large amount of HCMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that can even reach 20-50% of total T memory cells in the elderly. How HCMV may elicit such large and long-lasting T-cell responses in the absence of detectable viremia has not been elucidated yet...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
K P Dalton, A Balseiro, R A Juste, A Podadera, I Nicieza, D Del Llano, R González, J M Martin Alonso, J M Prieto, F Parra, R Casais
RHDVb has become the dominant RHDV on the Iberian Peninsula. A better understanding of its pathogenicity is required to aid control measures. Thus, the clinical course, humoral immune response, viraemia and kinetics of RHDV-N11 (a Spanish RHDVb isolate) infection in different tissues at both viral RNA and protein levels were studied in experimentally infected young and adult rabbits. The case fatality rate differed between the two age groups, with 21% of kits succumbing while no deaths were observed in adults...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Udit Chaddha, Pradnya D Patil, Ashraf Omar, Rajat Walia, Tanmay S Panchabhai
A 47-year-old man who was a redo double lung transplant recipient (cytomegalovirus [CMV] status: donor positive/recipient positive; Epstein-Barr virus status: donor positive/recipient positive) presented to the hospital with 1 week of generalized malaise, low-grade fevers, and dry cough. His redo lung transplantation was necessitated by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and his previous lung transplantation 5 years earlier was for silicosis-related progressive massive fibrosis. He denied any difficulty breathing or chest pain...
June 2018: Chest
Liam Châtel, Xuefen Yang, François Cholette, Hugo Soudeyns, Paul Sandstrom, Carole Lavigne
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lower a patient's HIV plasma viral load to an undetectable level, but following cessation of ART viremia rapidly rebounds. It has been shown that ART does not eliminate latent viruses sequestered into anatomical and cellular reservoirs. Therefore, in patients that have ceased ART, the following rebound in HIV viremia is caused by the activation of latent HIV reservoirs. A major issue in HIV cure research is the quantification of these latent HIV reservoirs. Various reservoir measurement methods exist, but the gold standard technique remains the culture-based quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA)...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
Ithaisa Sologuren, María Teresa Martínez-Saavedra, Jordi Solé-Violán, Edgar de Borges de Oliveira, Eva Betancor, Inmaculada Casas, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Mónica Martínez-Gallo, Shen-Ying Zhang, Jose Pestano, Roger Colobran, Estefanía Herrera-Ramos, Carmen Pérez, Marta López-Rodríguez, José Juan Ruiz-Hernández, Nieves Franco, José María Ferrer, Cristina Bilbao, Miguel Andújar-Sánchez, Mercedes Álvarez Fernández, Michael J Ciancanelli, Felipe Rodríguez de Castro, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante, Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego
The pathogenesis of life-threatening influenza A virus (IAV) disease remains elusive, as infection is benign in most individuals. We studied two relatives who died from influenza. We Sanger sequenced GATA2 and evaluated the mutation by gene transfer, measured serum cytokine levels, and analyzed circulating T- and B-cells. Both patients (father and son, P1 and P2) died in 2011 of H1N1pdm IAV infection at the ages of 54 and 31 years, respectively. They had not suffered from severe or moderately severe infections in the last 17 (P1) and 15 years (P2)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Daniel P Strange, Richard Green, David N Siemann, Michael Gale, Saguna Verma
Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in seminal fluid months after clearance of viremia suggests that ZIKV can establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune privileged site of the testis. The seminiferous tubule epithelium is mainly composed of Sertoli cells that function to nourish and protect developing germ cells. We recently demonstrated that primary human Sertoli cells (hSeC) were highly susceptible to ZIKV as compared to dengue virus without causing cell death and thus may act as a reservoir for ZIKV in the testes...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
V Kesherwani, L F Guzman Vinasco, M Awaji, R G Bociek, J Meza, V K Shostrom, A G Freifeld, C Gebhart
In a retrospective case-control study, we aimed to assess the utility of plasma BK viral load value to predict hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) symptoms after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). During first 100 post-transplantation days of all adult AlloHSCT recipients at the University of Nebraska Medical Center from October 1, 2011, to June 30, 2014, 8 unexcluded cases of HC were identified and matched with 88 unexcluded unaffected control cases. Viral loads were determined for archived DNA extracted from plasma collected within 3 weeks before transplantation until ∼100 days after transplantation...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Feiyu Hong, Jana L Jacobs, Evgenia Aga, Anthony R Cillo, Elizabeth Fyne, Dianna L Koontz, Lu Zheng, John W Mellors
The relationships between HIV-1 DNA copy number, proviral transcriptional activity, and residual plasma viremia in individuals off and on ART are not well defined. To address this, we performed a cross-sectional study of 12 viremic donors and 23 ART-treated virologically suppressed (plasma HIV-1 RNA<20 copies/ml) donors. We report a strong association between HIV-1 DNA copy number and HIV-1 transcriptional activity in blood that persists on suppressive ART, but not between transcriptional activity and the levels of persistent viremia on ART...
June 4, 2018: Virology
Chun-Ming Chen, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Wei-Shan Chen, Che-Chen Lin, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Yueh-Han Hsu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The present study was conducted by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In this retrospective nationwide study, we included 3748 RA patients who received influenza vaccinations in 2008, 2009 and 2010, and 3748 matched RA patients who did not receive influenza vaccinations. We followed the patients from 4 weeks after influenza vaccination to the end of the influenza season in each year...
June 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Roberto Bruni, Umbertina Villano, Michele Equestre, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Dilyana Trandeva-Bankova, Maria Peleva-Pishmisheva, Tencho Tenev, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Giulio Pisani, Elitsa Golkocheva-Markova, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
BACKGROUND: In industrialized areas of the world, including Europe, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen. In fact, autochthonous cases caused by HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) are increasingly reported. Several studies described the human HEV-3 subtypes and strains circulating in West Europe countries; in contrast, very little is known about the HEV strains responsible for acute hepatitis E in countries of East Europe/Balkans, such as Bulgaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Anti-HEV IgM positive serum samples (n = 103) from acute hepatitis cases (2013-2015) from all over Bulgaria were analysed for HEV RNA by Real-Time PCR...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth Colston, Dennis Grasela, David Gardiner, R Pat Bucy, Blisse Vakkalagadda, Alan J Korman, Israel Lowy
Expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a negative regulator of T-cell function, is increased in chronic HIV-1 infection. It was hypothesized that CTLA-4 blockade may enhance immune response to HIV-1 and result in better control of viremia. This open-label, multiple ascending dose study (NCT03407105)-the first to examine ipilimumab in participants with HIV-1 infection-assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ipilimumab, as well as whether ipilimumab enhanced immune response to HIV-1 and improved control of viremia...
2018: PloS One
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