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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656086/hiv-1-non-r5-tropism-correlates-with-a-larger-size-of-the-cellular-viral-reservoir-and-a-detectable-residual-viremia-in-patients-under-suppressive-art
#1
Francesca Lombardi, Simone Belmonti, Lucrezia Rapone, Alberto Borghetti, Arturo Ciccullo, Roberta Gagliardini, Gianmaria Baldin, Francesca Montagnani, Davide Moschese, Arianna Emiliozzi, Barbara Rossetti, Andrea De Luca, Simona Di Giambenedetto
BACKGROUND: The influence of HIV-1 co-receptor usage on the course of therapy in subjects fully responding to ART has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between co-receptor tropism and cellular reservoir size, residual viremia and subsequent virological outcome in ART-treated patients with HIV-1 RNA stable <50 copies/mL. STUDY DESIGN: Viral co-receptor usage was predicted by viral env DNA sequencing with geno2pheno interpretation (FPR20%) and classified as R5 and non-R5...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652854/phylogenetic-analysis-and-pathogenicity-assessment-of-the-emerging-recombinant-subgroup-k-of-avian-leukosis-virus-in-south-china
#2
Zijun Zhao, Mingzhang Rao, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag , pol , long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652096/rapid-reconstitution-of-cmv-specific-t-cells-after-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Thomas Widmann, Urban Sester, Tina Schmidt, Barbara C Gärtner, Jörg Schubert, Michael Pfreundschuh, Martina Sester
OBJECTIVE: As reconstitution of virus-specific T-cells is critical to control CMV-viremia following stem-cell transplantation (SCT) we characterized the dynamics in CMV-specific T-cell reconstitution after SCT. METHODS: CMV-specific T-cells from 51 SCT-recipients were prospectively quantified and phenotypically characterised by intracellular cytokine-staining after specific stimulation and HLA class-I specific pentamers using flow-cytometry. RESULTS: CMV-specific CD4 T-cells reconstituted after a median of 2...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649002/jak1-2-inhibition-with-baricitinib-in-the-treatment-of-autoinflammatory-interferonopathies
#4
Gina A Montealegre Sanchez, Adam Reinhardt, Suzanne Ramsey, Helmut Wittkowski, Philip J Hashkes, Yackov Berkun, Susanne Schalm, Sara Murias, Jason A Dare, Diane Brown, Deborah L Stone, Ling Gao, Thomas Klausmeier, Dirk Foell, Adriana A de Jesus, Dawn C Chapelle, Hanna Kim, Samantha Dill, Robert Colbert, Laura Failla, Bahar Kost, Michelle O'Brien, James C Reynolds, Les R Folio, Katherine R Calvo, Scott M Paul, Nargues Weir, Alessandra Brofferio, Ariane Soldatos, Angélique Biancotto, Edward W Cowen, John G Digiovanna, Massimo Gadina, Andrew J Lipton, Colleen Hadigan, Steven M Holland, Joseph Fontana, Ahmad S Alawad, Rebecca J Brown, Kristina I Rother, Theo Heller, Kristina M Brooks, Parag Kumar, Stephen R Brooks, Meryl Waldman, Harsharan K Singh, Volker Nickeleit, Maria Silk, Apurva Prakash, Jonathan M Janes, Seza Ozen, Paul G Wakim, Paul A Brogan, William L Macias, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
BACKGROUND: Monogenic Interferon (IFN)-mediated autoinflammatory diseases present in infancy with systemic inflammation, an IFN-response-gene-signature (IRS), inflammatory organ damage and high mortality. We used the janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor baricitinib with IFN-blocking activity in vitro, to ameliorate disease. METHODS: Between October 2011 and February 2017, 10 patients with CANDLE (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperatures), 4 with SAVI (Stimulator of IFN genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy), and 4 patients with other interferonopathies were enrolled in an Expanded Access Program...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645287/seroprevalence-molecular-epidemiology-and-quantitation-of-parvovirus-b19-dna-levels-in-iranian-blood-donors
#5
Maryam Zadsar, Arezoo Aghakhani, Mohammad Banifazl, Monireh Kazemimanesh, Seyed Morteza Tabatabaei Yazdi, Setareh Mamishi, Anahita Bavand, Mona Sadat Larijani, Amitis Ramezani
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is common among blood donors, and healthy blood donors can transmit virus via transfusion. Due to resistance of B19 to viral inactivation methods, there is a potential concern regarding transfusion safety in blood products. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and quantitation of B19 DNA levels in blood donors in Tehran, Iran. 500 blood donors from Blood Transfusion Research Center were studied. ELISA was used for detection of B19 IgG and IgM and nested PCR was carried out for detection of B19 DNA...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644247/quantification-of-torque-teno-virus-and-epstein-barr-virus-is-of-limited-value-for-predicting-the-net-state-of-immunosuppression-after-lung-transplantation
#6
Rickard Nordén, Jesper Magnusson, Anna Lundin, Ka-Wei Tang, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Gerdt C Riise, Johan Westin
Background: Major hurdles for survival after lung transplantation are rejections and infectious complications. Adequate methods for monitoring immune suppression status are lacking. Here, we evaluated quantification of torque teno virus (TTV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as biomarkers for defining the net state of immunosuppression in lung-transplanted patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study included 98 patients followed for 2 years after transplantation...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643242/rlrs-and-tlrs-signaling-pathways-cause-aberrant-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-chemokines-in-an-sftsv-infection-mouse-model
#7
Shintaro Yamada, Masayuki Shimojima, Ryo Narita, Yuta Tsukamoto, Hiroki Kato, Masayuki Saijo, Takashi Fujita
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a tick-borne phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae , the SFTS virus (SFTSV). Wild type and type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor 1-deficient (IFNAR1-/- ) mice have been established as non-lethal and lethal models of SFTSV infection, respectively. However, the mechanisms of IFN-I production in vivo and the factors causing the lethal disease are not well understood. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that IFN-I signaling in hematopoietic cells was essential for survival from lethal SFTSV infection...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628513/hot-news-impact-of-low-level-viremia-on-treatment-outcomes-during-art-is-it-time-to-revise-the-definition-of-virological-failure
#8
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626514/control-of-cytomegalovirus-viremia-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-review-on-cmv-specific-t-cell-reconstitution
#9
REVIEW
P L J van der Heiden, W A F Marijt, J H F Falkenburg, I Jedema
Recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) are at risk for reactivation of endogenous herpesviruses due to profound and prolonged T cell deficiency following conditions such as GVHD, immunosuppression and/or T cell depletion. Reactivation of endogenous CMV is the most frequently occurring herpesvirus reactivation following alloSCT. Antiviral medication is often used in pre-emptive treatment strategies initiated when increases in CMV viral loads are detected as a result of active reactivation of the virus...
April 4, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625021/hepatitis-c-viral-load-in-hcv-monoinfected-and-hcv-hiv-1-hcv-htlv-1-2-and-hcv-hiv-htlv-1-2-co-infected-patients-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#10
Fabiana Aparecida Alves, Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Marcílio Figueiredo Lemos, Regina Célia Moreira, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Co-infections of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and either human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) or type 2 (HTLV-2) have been described as having an impact on HCV viremia and subsequent disease progression. HCV load in serum samples from 622 patients (343 males, 279 females; median age 50.8 years) from São Paulo/southeast Brazil was analyzed using the Abbott Real Time HCV assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., IL, USA). Samples were obtained from HCV-monoinfected (n=548), HCV/HIV-1- (n=41), HCV/HTLV-1- (n=16), HCV/HTLV-2- (n=8), HCV/HIV/HTLV-1- (n=4), and HCV/HIV/HTLV-2-co-infected (n=5) patients, and results were compared among the groups and according to sex...
April 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624673/the-bone-marrow-is-patrolled-by-nk-cells-that-are-primed-and-expand-in-response-to-systemic-viral-activation
#11
Idan Milo, Ronnie Blecher-Gonen, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Raz Bar-Ziv, Orna Tal, Irina Gurevich, Tali Feferman, Ingo Drexler, Ido Amit, Philippe Bousso, Guy Shakhar
The bone marrow hosts NK cells whose distribution, motility and response to systemic immune challenge are poorly understood. At steady state, two-photon microscopy of the bone marrow in Ncr1gfp/+ mice captured motile NK cells interacting with dendritic cells. NK cells expressed markers and effector molecules of mature cells. Following poly (I:C) injection, RNA-Seq of NK cells revealed three phases of transcription featuring immune response genes followed by posttranscriptional processes and proliferation. Functionally, poly (I:C) promoted upregulation of granzyme B, enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and, in the same individual cells, triggered proliferation...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621783/prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Fatemeh Farshadpour, Reza Taherkhani, Mohammad Reza Ravanbod, Seyed Sajjad Eghbali
<br>This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of HCV infection among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).<br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>A total of 556 consecutive patients with confirmed type 2 DM attending the diabetic clinic of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and 733 non-diabetic subjects as control group were included in this study. Levels of FBS, ALT, AST, TCH and TG were measured by enzymatic colorimetric method, and the presence of anti-HCV antibodies were determined by ELISA...
April 5, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621617/genetic-characterization-and-pathogenicity-of-japanese-porcine-deltacoronavirus
#13
Tohru Suzuki, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Naoto Imai, Takehisa Yamamoto, Seiichi Ohashi
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) have recently emerged in several swine producing countries. Our survey found that in addition to porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), PDCoV has also been a causative enteric pathogen of diarrhoeic outbreaks occurring at swine farms around Japan since late 2013. Phylogenetic analysis using the complete genomes of PDCoVs detected in Japan in 2014 demonstrated that the PDCoVs from Japan may be closely related to the PDCoVs from the U.S. and Korea during 2013 to 2014 but not the PDCoVs from China and Hong Kong during 2004 to 2016 and from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos during 2015 to 2016...
April 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617955/duration-of-zika-viremia-in-serum
#14
Albin Fontaine, Franck de Laval, Didier Belleoud, Sébastien Briolant, Séverine Matheus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615247/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-transmission-potential-to-na%C3%A3-ve-calves-by-direct-and-indirect-exposure-routes
#15
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can cause both acute and persistent infections in cattle. Exposure to BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals results in transmission of the virus to a naïve animal which causes a transient acute infection. While it is known that direct exposure to PI animals is a highly efficient means of transmission, less information is available regarding the potential for transmission from acutely infected either by direct or indirect exposure to naïve animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for spread of the virus from calves acutely infected, with typical virulence field viruses know to have minimal shedding and viremia, to naïve contact animals either by direct or indirect exposure...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614127/regulatory-t-cells-suppress-virus-specific-antibody-responses-to-friend-retrovirus-infection
#16
Tyler C Moore, Ronald J Messer, Kim J Hasenkrug
Recent vaccine studies with experimental antigens have shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) constrain the magnitude of B cell responses. This homeostatic Treg-mediated suppression is thought to reduce the potential of germinal center (GC) responses to generate autoreactive antibodies. However, essentially opposite results were observed in live influenza infections where Tregs promoted B cell and antibody responses. Thus, it remains unclear whether Tregs dampen or enhance B cell responses, especially during live viral infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614069/prediction-of-extended-high-viremia-among-newly-hiv-1-infected-persons-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Kimberly A Powers, Matthew A Price, Etienne Karita, Anatoli Kamali, William Kilembe, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter, Linda-Gail Bekker, Shabir Lakhi, Mubiana Inambao, Omu Anzala, Mary H Latka, Patricia E Fast, Jill Gilmour, Eduard J Sanders
OBJECTIVE: Prompt identification of newly HIV-infected persons, particularly those who are most at risk of extended high viremia (EHV), allows important clinical and transmission prevention benefits. We sought to determine whether EHV could be predicted during early HIV infection (EHI) from clinical, demographic, and laboratory indicators in a large HIV-1 incidence study in Africa. DESIGN: Adults acquiring HIV-1 infection were enrolled in an EHI study assessing acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) symptoms and viral dynamics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606355/fetal-neuropathology-in-zika-virus-infected-pregnant-female-rhesus-monkeys
#18
Amanda J Martinot, Peter Abbink, Onur Afacan, Anna K Prohl, Roderick Bronson, Jonathan L Hecht, Erica N Borducchi, Rafael A Larocca, Rebecca L Peterson, William Rinaldi, Melissa Ferguson, Peter J Didier, Deborah Weiss, Mark G Lewis, Rafael A De La Barrera, Edward Yang, Simon K Warfield, Dan H Barouch
The development of interventions to prevent congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) has been limited by the lack of an established nonhuman primate model. Here we show that infection of female rhesus monkeys early in pregnancy with Zika virus (ZIKV) recapitulates many features of CZS in humans. We infected 9 pregnant monkeys with ZIKV, 6 early in pregnancy (weeks 6-7 of gestation) and 3 later in pregnancy (weeks 12-14 of gestation), and compared findings with uninfected controls. 100% (6 of 6) of monkeys infected early in pregnancy exhibited prolonged maternal viremia and fetal neuropathology, including fetal loss, smaller brain size, and histopathologic brain lesions, including microcalcifications, hemorrhage, necrosis, vasculitis, gliosis, and apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells...
March 28, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604984/neuropharmacology
#19
Alan Winston, Hadi Manji
With virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy, immune system recovery is now achievable for persons living with HIV (PLWH). This immune recovery is associated with dramatic reductions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses including HIV dementia. However, milder form of cognitive disturbances are widely reported in PLWH despite effective antiretroviral therapy. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these cognitive disturbances remain elusive, with many potential pathogenic mechanisms including residual brain damage prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and neuroinflammation and ongoing immune system disturbances despite antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599935/bk-virus-associated-collecting-duct-carcinoma-of-the-renal-allograft-in-a-kidney-pancreas-allograft-recipient
#20
Myriam Dao, Adrien Pécriaux, Thomas Bessede, Antoine Dürrbach, Charlotte Mussini, Catherine Guettier, Sophie Ferlicot
BK polyomavirus (BKV) nephropathy is a major concern in renal transplantation. Its main consequence is graft loss, which occurs in more than 50% of the cases. De novo renal cell carcinoma in renal allograft is a very rare event. Most of these tumors are papillary or clear cell carcinomas. We report herein the first case of collecting duct carcinoma of the renal allograft in a kidney-pancreas allograft adult recipient. Collecting duct carcinoma occurs long after the cure of a BKV nephropathy. At this time, BKV viremia and viruria were negative as well as the immunostaining for SV40 in the non-tumor kidney...
March 13, 2018: Oncotarget
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