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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457839/brincidofovir-as-salvage-therapy-for-adenovirus-disease-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients
#1
Nimisha Sulejmani, Shunji Nagai, Mohamed Safwan, Michael D Rizzari, Mohammad Raoufi, Marwan S Abouljoud, Mayur Ramesh
Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that typically cause mild self-limiting respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal infections. In immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients, the infection can be severe, with dissemination and multiorgan failure. In intestinal transplant recipients, the incidence is as high as 57%. To our knowledge, no standardized guidelines or United States Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for the treatment of adenovirus disease. We describe two isolated intestinal transplant recipients who developed adenovirus disease (viremia with viral enteritis) that was managed with a new experimental drug, brincidofovir (an oral lipid conjugate prodrug of cidofovir), as salvage therapy...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457490/demonstration-of-resistant-or-wild-type-virus-in-recurrent-viremia-after-ganciclovir-resistant-cytomegaloviral-infection
#2
Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Robert R Redfield, Jeannina A Smith, Didier A Mandelbrot
BACKGROUND: Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (GR-CMV) is a serious complication of transplantation. Recurrence after primary infection is common. Little is known about CMV drug resistance and latency. OBJECTIVE: Review CMV genotype during episodes of recurrent CMV viremia after prior documentation of ganciclovir resistance to evaluate if resistance is redemonstrated. METHODS: All adult transplant recipients with history of GR-CMV viremia from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015, were screened; those with subsequent laboratory evidence of recurrent CMV viremia and genotyping were included...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456407/analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-pres1-variability-and-prevalence-of-the-rs2296651-polymorphism-in-a-spanish-population
#3
Rosario Casillas, David Tabernero, Josep Gregori, Irene Belmonte, Maria Francesca Cortese, Carolina González, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Rosa Maria López, Josep Quer, Rafael Esteban, Maria Buti, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías
AIM: To determine the variability/conservation of the domain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 region that interacts with sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (hereafter, NTCP-interacting domain) and the prevalence of the rs2296651 polymorphism (S267F, NTCP variant) in a Spanish population. METHODS: Serum samples from 246 individuals were included and divided into 3 groups: patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) ( n = 41, 73% Caucasians), patients with resolved HBV infection ( n = 100, 100% Caucasians) and an HBV-uninfected control group ( n = 105, 100% Caucasians)...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449904/expression-profiling-of-chromatin-modifying-enzymes-and-global-dna-methylation-in-cd4-t-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-hiv-infection-at-different-hiv-control-and-progression-states
#4
Roberta Nicoleta Bogoi, Alicia de Pablo, Eulalia Valencia, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Victoria Moreno, Helem Haydee Vilchez-Rueda, Victor Asensi, Rosa Rodriguez, Victor Toledano, Berta Rodés
Background: Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the host genome causes global disruption of the chromatin environment. The abundance level of various chromatin-modifying enzymes produces these alterations and affects both the provirus and cellular gene expression. Here, we investigated potential changes in enzyme expression and global DNA methylation in chronically infected individuals with HIV-1 and compared these changes with non-HIV infected individuals...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448955/analysis-of-the-genetic-diversity-and-mrna-expression-level-in-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccinated-pigs-that-developed-short-or-long-viremias-after-challenge
#5
Martí Cortey, Gaston Arocena, Tahar Ait-Ali, Anna Vidal, Yanli Li, Gerard Martín-Valls, Alison D Wilson, Allan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection alters the host's cellular and humoral immune response. Immunity against PRRSv is multigenic and vary between individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare several genes that encode for molecules involved in the immune response between two groups of vaccinated pigs that experienced short or long viremic periods after PRRSv challenge. These analyses include the sequencing of four SLA Class I, two Class II allele groups, and CD163, plus the analysis by quantitative realtime qRT-PCR of the constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 mRNA and other molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447156/west-nile-and-st-louis-encephalitis-viral-genetic-determinants-of-avian-host-competence
#6
Payal D Maharaj, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Stanley A Langevin, Michael Anishchenko, Richard A Bowen, William K Reisen, Aaron C Brault
West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Cross-neutralization of these viruses in avian sera has been proposed to explain the reduced circulation of SLEV since the introduction of WNV in North America; however, in 2015, both viruses were the etiologic agents of concurrent human encephalitis outbreaks in Arizona, indicating the need to re-evaluate host factors and cross-neutralization responses as factors potentially affecting viral co-circulation...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444087/safety-and-efficacy-of-anti-pd-l1-therapy-in-the-woodchuck-model-of-hbv-infection
#7
Scott Balsitis, Volodymyr Gali, Pamela J Mason, Susan Chaniewski, Steven M Levine, Michael J Wichroski, Michael Feulner, Yunling Song, Karen Granaldi, James K Loy, Chris M Thompson, Jacob A Lesniak, Catherine Brockus, Narendra Kishnani, Stephan Menne, Mark I Cockett, Renuka Iyer, Stephen W Mason, Daniel J Tenney
Immune clearance of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by broad and robust antiviral T cell responses, while virus-specific T cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are rare and exhibit immune exhaustion that includes programmed-death-1 (PD-1) expression on virus-specific T cells. Thus, an immunotherapy able to expand and activate virus-specific T cells may have therapeutic benefit for CHB patients. Like HBV-infected patients, woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) can have increased hepatic expression of PD-1-ligand-1 (PD-L1), increased PD-1 on CD8+ T cells, and a limited number of virus-specific T cells with substantial individual variation in these parameters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441145/epigenetic-regulation-of-hiv-1-latency-focus-on-polycomb-group-pcg-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Sheraz Khan, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Tariq, Shahid M Baig, Wasim Abbas
HIV-1 latency allows the virus to persist until reactivation, in a transcriptionally silent form in its cellular reservoirs despite the presence of effective cART. Such viral persistence represents a major barrier to HIV eradication since treatment interruption leads to rebound plasma viremia. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have recently got a considerable attention in regulating HIV-1 post-integration latency as they are involved in the repression of proviral gene expression through the methylation of histones...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439384/antibody-responses-to-marburg-virus-in-egyptian-rousette-bats-and-their-role-in-protection-against-infection
#9
Nadia Storm, Petrus Jansen Van Vuren, Wanda Markotter, Janusz T Paweska
Egyptian rousette bats (ERBs) are reservoir hosts for the Marburg virus (MARV). The immune dynamics and responses to MARV infection in ERBs are poorly understood, and limited information exists on the role of antibodies in protection of ERBs against MARV infection. Here, we determine the duration of maternal immunity to MARV in juvenile ERBs, and evaluate the duration of the antibody response to MARV in bats naturally or experimentally infected with the virus. We further explore whether antibodies in previously naturally exposed bats is fully protective against experimental reinfection with MARV...
February 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438131/improved-neurodevelopment-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children
#10
Laurén A Gómez, Claudia S Crowell, Irene Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Dalton Wamalwa, Daisy Chebet, Vincent Otieno, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Melissa Gladstone, Grace John-Stewart, Sarah Benki-Nugent
BACKGROUND: Late HIV diagnosis following severe co-morbidity remains common in resource limited settings. Neurodevelopmental recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART) for late-diagnosed children is understudied. We determined 6-month neurodevelopmental trajectories in HIV-infected children initiating ART during hospitalization. METHODS: HIV-infected children initiated ART following HIV diagnosis during hospitalization in Kenya. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) was administered after clinical stabilization within 1-month and at 6-months post-ART initiation...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433430/sesotho-trial-switch-either-near-suppression-or-thousand-switch-to-second-line-versus-who-guided-standard-of-care-for-unsuppressed-patients-on-first-line-art-with-viremia-below-1000-copies-ml-protocol-of-a-multicenter-parallel-group-open-label-randomized-clinical
#11
Alain Amstutz, Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala, Fiona Vanobberghen, Josephine Muhairwe, Tracy Renée Glass, Beatrice Achieng, Mamorena Sepeka, Katleho Tlali, Lebohang Sao, Kyaw Thin, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load (VL) measurement as the preferred monitoring strategy for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. The new WHO guidelines 2016 continue to define virologic failure as two consecutive VL ≥1000 copies/mL (at least 3 months apart) despite good adherence, triggering switch to second-line therapy. However, the threshold of 1000 copies/mL for defining virologic failure is based on low-quality evidence...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427908/kinetics-of-viral-load-and-cytokines-in-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#12
Ji-Soo Kwon, Min-Chul Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Na-Young Jeon, Byung-Han Ryu, Jeongmin Hong, Min-Jae Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China, Japan, and Korea, which is characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and high mortality. It is hypothesized that a cytokine storm plays an important role in the pathophysiology of SFTS. However, limited data have been published on the detailed kinetics of the viral load and cytokine profiles throughout the course of this disease. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the patterns of changes in cytokines and viral load in SFTS patients...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427516/mechanisms-of-cd8-t-cell-mediated-suppression-of-hiv-siv-replication
#13
REVIEW
Julia Bergild McBrien, Nitasha A Kumar, Guido Silvestri
In this article, we summarize the role of CD8+ T cells during natural and ART-treated HIV and SIV infections, discuss the mechanisms responsible for their suppressive activity, and review the rationale for CD8+ T cell-based HIV cure strategies. Evidence suggests that CD8+ T cells are involved in the control of virus replication during HIV and SIV infections. During early HIV infection, the cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells is responsible for control of viremia. However, it has been proposed that CD8+ T cells also use non-cytolytic mechanisms to control SIV infection...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#14
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425203/neutralization-of-antibody-enhanced-dengue-infection-by-vis513-a-pan-serotype-reactive-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-domain-iii-of-the-dengue-e-protein
#15
Yadunanda Budigi, Eugenia Z Ong, Luke N Robinson, Li Ching Ong, Kirk J Rowley, Alexander Winnett, Hwee Cheng Tan, Sven Hobbie, Zachary Shriver, Gregory J Babcock, Sylvie Alonso, Eng Eong Ooi
Dengue virus (DENV) infection imposes enormous health and economic burden worldwide with no approved treatment. Several small molecules, including lovastatin, celgosivir, balapiravir and chloroquine have been tested for potential anti-dengue activity in clinical trials; none of these have demonstrated a protective effect. Recently, based on identification and characterization of cross-serotype neutralizing antibodies, there is increasing attention on the potential for dengue immunotherapy. Here, we tested the ability of VIS513, an engineered cross-neutralizing humanized antibody targeting the DENV E protein domain III, to overcome antibody-enhanced infection and high but brief viremia, which are commonly encountered in dengue patients, in various in vitro and in vivo models...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424783/repeat-testing-of-low-level-hiv-1-rna-assay-performance-and-implementation-in-clinical-trials
#16
Kirsten White, Will Garner, Lilian Wei, Joseph J Eron, Lijie Zhong, Michael D Miller, Hal Martin, Andrew Plummer, Cecilia Tran-Muchowski, Kim Lindstrom, James Porter, David Piontkowsky, Angela Light, Heinz Reiske, Erin Quirk
OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. METHODS: To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417417/arterial-inflammation-in-young-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-cross-sectional-study-using-f-18-fdg-pet-ct
#17
Ismaheel O Lawal, Alfred O Ankrah, Gbenga O Popoola, Thabo Lengana, Mike M Sathekge
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with the risk of development of atherosclerosis at a younger age. We compared arterial inflammation in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with otherwise low-risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) using FDG PET/CT. METHODS: 242 patients aged 18-40 years with low-risk factors for CVD consisting of 121 HIV-infected patients and 121 HIV-uninfected age- and gender-matched controls were studied, mean age = 34.95 ± 5...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409017/varicella-zoster-virus-dna-in-blood-after-administration-of-herpes-zoster-vaccine
#18
Myron J Levin, Guang-Yun Cai, Katherine S Lee, Nadine G Rouphael, Aneesh K Mehta, Jennifer Canniff, Mark J Mulligan, Adriana Weinberg
We studied the relationship between varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNAemia and development of VZV-specific immunity after administration of live-attenuated zoster vaccine. VZV-DNAemia, detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and VZV-specific effector (Teff) and memory (Tmem) T cells, was measured in 67 vaccinees. PCR was positive in 56% (9 direct, 28 nested) on day 1 and in 16% (1 direct, 10 nested) on day 14. Teff progressively increased in direct-PCR-positive vaccinees up to day 30, but Tmem did not. Conversely, Tmem, but not Teff, increased in direct-PCR-negative vaccinees on day 7...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408661/a-one-step-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-the-universal-detection-of-all-currently-known-cchfv-genotypes
#19
Miriam A Sas, Ariel Vina-Rodriguez, Marc Mertens, Martin Eiden, Petra Emmerich, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Ali Mirazimi, Martin H Groschup
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal disease in humans, which is endemic in many countries of Africa, Southern Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by ixodid ticks, mainly of the genus Hyalomma. Animals like hares, hedgehogs, cattle, camels and small ruminants can become infected without developing clinical signs. Seroconversion occurs after a short viremia of up to two weeks, and thus seroprevalence studies in ruminants can be used to reveal risk areas for the human population...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405107/zika-virus-infection-in-syrian-golden-hamsters-and-strain-13-guinea-pigs
#20
Lynn J Miller, Farooq Nasar, Christopher W Schellhase, Sarah L Norris, Adrienne E Kimmel, Stephanie M Valdez, Suzanne E Wollen-Roberts, Joshua D Shamblin, Thomas R Sprague, Luis A Lugo-Roman, Richard G Jarman, In-Kyu Yoon, Maria T Alera, Sina Bavari, M Louise M Pitt, Andrew D Haddow
To evaluate potential immunocompetent small animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, we inoculated Syrian golden hamsters (subcutaneously or intraperitoneally) and strain 13 guinea pigs (intraperitoneally) with Senegalese ZIKV strain ArD 41525 or Philippines ZIKV strain CPC-0740. We did not detect viremia in hamsters inoculated subcutaneously with either virus strain, although some hamsters developed virus neutralizing antibodies. However, we detected statistically significant higher viremias (P = 0.0285) and a higher median neutralization titer (P = 0...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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