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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438110/temporal-progression-of-lesions-in-guinea-pigs-infected-with-lassa-virus
#1
T M Bell, C I Shaia, J J Bearss, M E Mattix, K A Koistinen, S P Honnold, X Zeng, C D Blancett, G C Donnelly, J D Shamblin, E R Wilkinson, K A Cashman
Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437872/low-level-viremia-in-hepatitis-b-patients-on-antiviral-treatment-can-we-ignore-it
#2
EDITORIAL
Albert D Min
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435678/screening-for-immune-response-against-dengue-virus-in-vietnamese-non-human-primates-implications-for-vaccine-developers
#3
Laura Lazo Vázquez, Edith Suzarte Portal, Jorge Castro Velazco, Phuong Yen, Le Trung Dung, Lázaro Gil González, Iris Valdés Prado, Ernesto Marcos López, Karem Cobas Acosta, Nguyen Dang Hien, Gerardo Guillén Nieto, Lisset Hermida Cruz
One of the major problems faced for the development of a vaccine against Dengue virus is the lack of a suitable animal model. Although non-human primates do not show overt signs of disease, these animals develop viremia after the infection and are the best model to evaluate vaccine candidates against this pathogen. However, for that purpose, the screening of all animals is mandatory to discard those with previous natural immunity. The most common technique used in the screening is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427961/evidence-for-enzootic-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-among-livestock-in-cameroon
#4
M Rissmann, M Eiden, A Wade, R Poueme, S Abdoulkadiri, H Unger, U Ziegler, T Homeier, M H Groschup
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen, causing serious epidemics in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In Cameroon serological data indicate the presence of RVFV, but active circulation of RVFV, causing clinical infections has not been proven yet. For this purpose we carried out a serological and molecular study on a total of 1,953 randomly selected serum samples of small ruminants and cattle, which were collected in years 2013 and 2014 in Cameroon. In a first step, sera were screened serologically using a variety of assay formats to reveal RVFV specific antibodies...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427875/easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#5
Pietro Lampertico, Kosh Agarwal, Thomas Berg, Maria Buti, Harry L A Janssen, George Papatheodoridis, Fabien Zoulim, Frank Tacke
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426825/levels-of-hiv-1-persistence-on-antiretroviral-therapy-are-not-associated-with-markers-of-inflammation-or-activation
#6
Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Joshua C Cyktor, Bernard J Macatangay, Charles R Rinaldo, Sharon A Riddler, Evelyn Hogg, Catherine Godfrey, Ann C Collier, Joseph J Eron, John W Mellors
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces levels of HIV-1 and immune activation but both can persist despite clinically effective ART. The relationships among pre-ART and on-ART levels of HIV-1 and activation are incompletely understood, in part because prior studies have been small or cross-sectional. To address these limitations, we evaluated measures of HIV-1 persistence, inflammation, T cell activation and T cell cycling in a longitudinal cohort of 101 participants who initiated ART and had well-documented sustained suppression of plasma viremia for a median of 7 years...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426533/hiv-dna-content-in-different-cd4-t-cell-subsets-correlates-with-cd4-cd8-ratio-or-length-of-efficient-treatment
#7
Lara Gibellini, Simone Pecorini, Sara de Biasi, Elena Bianchini, Margherita Digaetano, Marcello Pinti, Gianluca Carnevale, Vanni Borghi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Milena Nasi
OBJECTIVES: HIV establishes a latent infection at different degrees within naïve (TN) or central (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4+ T cell. Studying patients in whom HIV production was suppressed by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), our main aim was to find which factors are related or can influence intracellular viral reservoir in different CD4+ T cell subsets. METHODS: We enrolled 32 HIV+ patients successfully treated for > 2 years, with a CD4+ T cell count > 500 cells/μL and plasma viremia undetectable from at least one year...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426459/the-association-between-cmv-viremia-or-endoscopic-features-and-histopathological-characteristics-of-cmv-colitis-in-patients-with-underlying-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Hong Yang, Weixun Zhou, Hong Lv, Dongsheng Wu, Yunlu Feng, Huijun Shu, Meng Jin, Lingling Hu, Qiang Wang, Dong Wu, Jie Chen, Jiaming Qian
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been shown to be related to severe or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) flare-ups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic and pathological characteristics of CMV colitis in patients with UC and to assess the predictive value of the endoscopic and pathological features of CMV colitis. METHODS: A total of 50 consecutive UC patients with CMV infection who were admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2015 were enrolled in this study...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425959/the-cost-of-arbovirus-disease-prevention-in-europe-area-wide-integrated-control-of-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-in-emilia-romagna-northern-italy
#9
Massimo Canali, Stefano Rivas-Morales, Philippe Beutels, Claudio Venturelli
Aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) has become the most invasive mosquito species worldwide, in addition to being a well-known vector of diseases, with a proven capacity for the transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses in Europe as well as the Zika virus in Africa and in laboratory settings. This research quantifies the cost that needs to be provided by public-health systems for area-wide prevention of arboviruses in Europe. This cost has been calculated by evaluating the expenditure of the plan for Aedes albopictus control set up in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) after a chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2007...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425327/a-cross-sectional-quantitative-rt-pcr-study-of-feline-coronavirus-viremia-and-replication-in-peripheral-blood-of-healthy-shelter-cats-in-southern-california
#10
Eric J Fish, Pedro Paulo Vp Diniz, Yen-Chen Juan, Frank Bossong, Ellen W Collisson, Yvonne Drechsler, Bernhard Kaltenboeck
Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of feline coronavirus (FCoV) viremia, and its replication in peripheral blood using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) methodology in a population of 205 healthy shelter cats in Southern California, as well as to assess any possible connection to longitudinal development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Methods The study was performed on buffy-coat samples from EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples of 205 healthy shelter cats. From 50 of these cats, fecal samples were also examined...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424253/identification-of-acute-hiv-1-infection-by-hologic-aptima-hiv-1-rna-qualitative-assay
#11
Mark M Manak, Leigh Anne Eller, Jennifer Malia, Linda L Jagodzinski, Rapee Trichavaroj, Joseph Oundo, Cornelia Lueer, Fatim Cham, Mark de Souza, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Sheila A Peel
The Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Qualitative RNA assay was used in a rigorous screening approach designed to identify individuals at the earliest stage of HIV-1 infection for enrollment into subsequent studies of cellular and viral events in early infection (RV217/Early Capture HIV Cohort - ECHO Study). Volunteers at high risk of HIV-1 infection were recruited from study sites in Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya with high HIV-1 prevalence rates among the populations examined. Small volume blood samples were collected by finger-stick at twice-weekly intervals and tested by Aptima...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423140/arboviruses-emerging-in-brazil-challenges-for-clinic-and-implications-for-public-health
#12
Maria Rita Donalisio, André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Andrea Paula Bruno Von Zuben
Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses' capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome...
April 10, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422792/progress-in-hiv-1-antibody-research-using-humanized-mice
#13
Henning Gruell, Florian Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent discoveries of highly potent broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies provide new opportunities to successfully prevent, treat, and potentially cure HIV-1 infection. To test their activity in vivo, humanized mice have been shown to be a powerful model and were used to investigate antibody-mediated prevention and therapy approaches. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in humanized mice that have informed on the potential use of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 in humans...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422784/b-cell-abnormalities-and-impact-on-antibody-response-in-hiv-infection
#14
Alessandra Noto, Giuseppe Pantaleo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to provide an update on the current development in the field of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) and their potential use in the prevention and therapeutic settings, and an evaluation of the B-cell abnormalities that may impair antibody responses in HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of bNabs directed against different vulnerable regions of HIV Envelope (Env)...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422752/t-bet-b-cells-are-induced-by-human-viral-infections-and-dominate-the-hiv-gp140-response
#15
James J Knox, Marcus Buggert, Lela Kardava, Kelly E Seaton, Michael A Eller, David H Canaday, Merlin L Robb, Mario A Ostrowski, Steven G Deeks, Mark K Slifka, Georgia D Tomaras, Susan Moir, M Anthony Moody, Michael R Betts
Humoral immunity is critical for viral control, but the identity and mechanisms regulating human antiviral B cells are unclear. Here, we characterized human B cells expressing T-bet and analyzed their dynamics during viral infections. T-bet+ B cells demonstrated an activated phenotype, a distinct transcriptional profile, and were enriched for expression of the antiviral immunoglobulin isotypes IgG1 and IgG3. T-bet+ B cells expanded following yellow fever virus and vaccinia virus vaccinations and also during early acute HIV infection...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422425/negativization-of-viremia-prior-to-liver-transplant-reduces-early-allograft-dysfunction-in-hepatitis-c-recipients
#16
Silvia Martini, Francesco Tandoi, Lodovico Terzi di Bergamo, Silvia Strona, Bruna Lavezzo, Marco Sacco, Francesca Maione, Federica Gonella, Paolo Strignano, Dominic Dell Olio, Mauro Salizzoni, Giorgio Maria Saracco, Renato Romagnoli
Although early allograft dysfunction (EAD) negatively impacts on survival from the first months following liver transplantation (LT), direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized HCV therapy. We investigated the EAD definition best predicting 90-day graft loss and identified EAD risk factors in HCV positive recipients. From 11-2002 to 06-2016, 603 HCV-positive patients (hepatocellular carcinoma 53.4%) underwent a first LT with HCV-negative donors. Median recipient MELD score 15, median donor age 63 years...
April 19, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422412/histological-evolution-of-bk-virus-associated-nephropathy-importance-of-integrating-clinical-and-pathological-findings
#17
Cinthia B Drachenberg, John C Papadimitriou, Muhammad R Chaudhry, Richard Ugarte, Manju Mavanur, Beje Thomas, Charles Cangro, Nadiesda Costa, Emilio Ramos, Matthew R Weir, Abdolreza Haririan
Long term clinicopathological studies of BK-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) are not available. We studied 206 biopsies (71 patients), followed 3.09±1.46y after immunosuppression reduction. The biopsy features (% SV40+staining and inflammation +/- acute rejection) were correlated with viral load dynamics and serum creatinine to define the clinicopathological status (PyVCPS). Incidence of acute rejection was 28% in the 2(nd) biopsy and 50% subsequently (25% mixed TCMR+AMR; rejection overall affected 38% of patients (>50% AMR)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420392/tissue-tropisms-infection-kinetics-histologic-lesions-and-antibody-response-of-the-mr766-strain-of-zika-virus-in-a-murine-model
#18
Anna B Kawiecki, E Handly Mayton, M Fausta Dutuze, Brad A Goupil, Ingeborg M Langohr, Fabio Del Piero, Rebecca C Christofferson
BACKGROUND: The appearance of severe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in the most recent outbreak has prompted researchers to respond through the development of tools to quickly characterize transmission and pathology. We describe here another such tool, a mouse model of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis using the MR766 strain of virus that adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding ZIKV kinetics in small animal models. METHODS: We infected mice with the MR766 strain of ZIKV to determine infection kinetics via serum viremia...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#19
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416661/single-cell-analysis-of-hiv-1-transcriptional-activity-reveals-expression-of-proviruses-in-expanded-clones-during-art
#20
Ann Wiegand, Jonathan Spindler, Feiyu F Hong, Wei Shao, Joshua C Cyktor, Anthony R Cillo, Elias K Halvas, John M Coffin, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney
Little is known about the fraction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviruses that express unspliced viral RNA in vivo or about the levels of HIV RNA expression within single infected cells. We developed a sensitive cell-associated HIV RNA and DNA single-genome sequencing (CARD-SGS) method to investigate fractional proviral expression of HIV RNA (1.3-kb fragment of p6, protease, and reverse transcriptase) and the levels of HIV RNA in single HIV-infected cells from blood samples obtained from individuals with viremia or individuals on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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