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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340374/ebola-virus-persistence-as-a-new-focus-in-clinical-research
#1
REVIEW
Katie Caviness, Jens H Kuhn, Gustavo Palacios
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe acute human disease with high lethality. Viremia is typical during the acute disease phase. However, EBOV RNA can remain detectable in immune-privileged tissues for prolonged periods of time after clearance from the blood, suggesting EBOV may persist during convalescence and thereafter. Eliminating persistent EBOV is important to ensure full recovery of survivors and decrease the risk of outbreak re-ignition caused by EBOV spread from apparently healthy survivors to naive contacts...
March 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331526/impaired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-replicative-fitness-in-atypical-viremic-non-progressor-individuals
#2
Jan Weber, Richard M Gibson, Lenka Sácká, Dmytro Strunin, Jan Hodek, Jitka Weberová, Marcela Pávová, David J Alouani, Robert Asaad, Benigno Rodriguez, Michael M Lederman, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu
BACKGROUND: Progression rates from initial HIV-1 infection to advanced AIDS vary significantly among infected individuals. A distinct subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals-termed viremic non-progressors (VNP) or controllers-do not seem to progress to AIDS, maintaining high CD4(+) T cell counts despite high levels of viremia for many years. Several studies have evaluated multiple host factors, including immune activation, trying to elucidate the atypical HIV-1 disease progression in these patients; however, limited work has been done to characterize viral factors in viremic controllers...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329334/turquoise-i-part-1b-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-with-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-1-coinfected-patients-on-darunavir
#3
David Wyles, Michael Saag, Rolando M Viani, Jacob Lalezari, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Laveeza Bhatti, Amit Khatri, Jennifer R King, Yiran B Hu, Roger Trinh, Nancy S Shulman, Peter Ruane
Background.: Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV) ± ribavirin (RBV) is approved for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) treatment in HIV-1 coinfected patients. In healthy controls, coadministration of OBV/PTV/r + DSV + darunavir (DRV) lowered DRV trough concentration (Ctrough) levels. To assess the clinical significance of this change, TURQUOISE-I, Part 1b, evaluated the efficacy and safety of OBV/PTV/r + DSV + RBV in coinfected patients on stable, DRV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329286/short-course-tlr9-agonist-treatment-impacts-innate-immunity-and-plasma-viremia-in-individuals-with-hiv-infection
#4
Line Vibholm, Mariane H Schleimann, Jesper F Højen, Thomas Benfield, Rasmus Offersen, Katrine Rasmussen, Rikke Olesen, Anders Dige, Jørgen Agnholt, Judith Grau, Maria Buzon, Burghardt Wittig, Mathias Lichterfeld, Andreas Munk Petersen, Xutao Deng, Mohammed Abdel-Mohsen, Satish K Pillai, Sofie Rutsaert, Wim Trypsteen, Ward De Spiegelaere, Linos Vandekerchove, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup, Ole S Søgaard
Background: Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRA) enhances HIV-1 transcription in vivo but only leads to modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule - a novel toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703 - could function as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo. Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label study, where 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 s...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#5
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328546/temporal-patterns-and-drug-resistance-in-csf-viral-escape-among-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults
#6
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David Lorenz, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian, Jennifer Lyons, Spyridon Chalkias, Alysse Wurcel, Deirdre Burke, Nagagopal Venna, Susan Morgello, Igor J Koralnik, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is an increasingly recognized clinical event among HIV-1-infected adults. We analyzed longitudinal data and drug-resistance mutations to characterize profiles of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with discordant CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. METHODS: Forty-one cases of CSF escape defined as detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA when plasma levels were undetectable, or HIV-1 RNA >0.5-log higher in CSF than plasma, were identified from Boston Hospitals and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) from 2005-2016...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326672/bk-polyomavirus-specific-9mer-cd8-t-cell-responses-correlate-with-clearance-of-bk-viremia-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-first-report-from-the-swiss-transplant-cohort-study-stcs
#7
Céline Leboeuf, Sabrina Wilk, Rita Achermann, Isabelle Binet, Dela Golshayan, Karin Hadaya, Cedric Hirzel, Matthias Hoffmann, Uyen Huynh-Do, Michael T Koller, Oriol Manuel, Nicolas J Mueller, Thomas F Mueller, Stefan Schaub, Christian van Delden, Fabian H Weissbach, Hans H Hirsch
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes premature kidney transplant (KT) failure in 1-15% of patients. Since antivirals are lacking, most programs screen for BKPyV-viremia and, if positive, reduce immunosuppression. To evaluate the relationship of viremia and BKPyV-specific immunity, we examined prospectively cryopreserved plasma and PBMCs at T0, T6, and T12 months post-transplant from 28 viremic KT patients and 68 non-viremic controls matched for the transplantation period. BKPyV-IgG seroprevalence was comparable between cases (89...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#8
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longencker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323897/hcv-coinfection-contributes-to-hiv-pathogenesis-by-increasing-immune-exhaustion-in-cd8-t-cells
#9
Norma Rallón, Marcial García, Javier García-Samaniego, Noelia Rodríguez, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Beatriz Álvarez, Rosa García, Miguel Górgolas, José M Benito
BACKGROUND: There are several contributors to HIV-pathogenesis or insufficient control of the infection. However, whether HIV/HCV-coinfected population exhibits worst evolution of HIV-pathogenesis remains unclear. Recently, some markers of immune exhaustion have been proposed as preferentially upregulated on T-cells during HIV-infection. Herein, we have analyzed T-cell exhaustion together with several other contributors to HIV-pathogenesis that could be affected by HCV-coinfection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-six patients with chronic HIV-infection (60 HIV-monoinfected and 36 HIV/HCV-coinfected), and 20 healthy controls were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323771/an-exception-to-the-rule-or-a-rule-for-the-exception-the-potential-of-using-hiv-positive-donors-in-canada
#10
Alissa J Wright, Caren Rose, Maeghan Toews, Michel Paquet, Daniel Corsilli, Jean-François Le Cailhier, John S Gill
Selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end organ failure can safely receive an organ transplant from an HIV uninfected donor. Recent demonstration of the short term safety of organ transplantation between HIV-infected persons prompted a change in US American law to allow such transplantations. Prompted by the recent completion of the first organ transplantation between HIV-infected persons in Canada, we review Canadian law regarding the use of organs from HIV-infected donors, estimate the number of potential HIV-infected donors in Canada, and critically review considerations related to advancing organ transplantation from HIV-infected donors in Canada...
April 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321697/robust-gene-expression-changes-in-the-ganglia-following-subclinical-reactivation-in-rhesus-macaques-infected-with-simian-varicella-virus
#11
Nicole Arnold, Christine Meyer, Flora Engelmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella during acute infection and establishes latency in the sensory ganglia. Reactivation of VZV results in herpes zoster, a debilitating and painful disease. It is believed that VZV reactivates due to a decline in cell-mediated immunity; however, the roles that CD4 versus CD8 T cells play in the prevention of herpes zoster remain poorly understood. To address this question, we used a well-characterized model of VZV infection where rhesus macaques are intrabronchially infected with the homologous simian varicella virus (SVV)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320417/impaired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-replicative-fitness-in-atypical-viremic-non-progressor-individuals
#12
Jan Weber, Richard M Gibson, Lenka Sácká, Dmytro Strunin, Jan Hodek, Jitka Weberová, Marcela Pávová, David J Alouani, Robert Asaad, Benigno Rodriguez, Michael M Lederman, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu
BACKGROUND: Progression rates from initial HIV-1 infection to advanced AIDS vary significantly among infected individuals. A distinct subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals-termed viremic non-progressors (VNP) or controllers-do not seem to progress to AIDS, maintaining high CD4(+) T cell counts despite high levels of viremia for many years. Several studies have evaluated multiple host factors, including immune activation, trying to elucidate the atypical HIV-1 disease progression in these patients; however, limited work has been done to characterize viral factors in viremic controllers...
March 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314593/25-hydroxycholesterol-protects-host-against-zika-virus-infection-and-its-associated-microcephaly-in-a-mouse-model
#13
Chunfeng Li, Yong-Qiang Deng, Shuo Wang, Feng Ma, Roghiyh Aliyari, Xing-Yao Huang, Na-Na Zhang, Momoko Watanabe, Hao-Long Dong, Ping Liu, Xiao-Feng Li, Qing Ye, Min Tian, Shuai Hong, Junwan Fan, Hui Zhao, Lili Li, Neda Vishlaghi, Jessie E Buth, Connie Au, Ying Liu, Ning Lu, Peishuang Du, F Xiao-Feng Qin, Bo Zhang, Danyang Gong, Xinghong Dai, Ren Sun, Bennett G Novitch, Zhiheng Xu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Genhong Cheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a public health threat due to its global transmission and link to severe congenital disorders. The host immune responses to ZIKV infection have not been fully elucidated, and effective therapeutics are not currently available. Herein, we demonstrated that cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) was induced in response to ZIKV infection and that its enzymatic product, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), was a critical mediator of host protection against ZIKV. Synthetic 25HC addition inhibited ZIKV infection in vitro by blocking viral entry, and treatment with 25HC reduced viremia and conferred protection against ZIKV in mice and rhesus macaques...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302457/mucosal-vaccination-with-heterologous-viral-vectored-vaccine-targeting-subdominant-siv-accessory-antigens-strongly-inhibits-early-viral-replication
#14
Huanbin Xu, Anne-Marie Andersson, Emeline Ragonnaud, Ditte Boilesen, Anders Tolver, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen, James L Blanchard, Alfredo Nicosia, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Riccardo Cortese, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Jan Pravsgaard Christensen, Ronald S Veazey, Peter Johannes Holst
Conventional HIV T cell vaccine strategies have not been successful in containing acute peak viremia, nor in providing long-term control. We immunized rhesus macaques intramuscularly and rectally using a heterologous adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine regimen encoding normally weakly immunogenic tat, vif, rev and vpr antigens fused to the MHC class II associated invariant chain. Immunizations induced broad T cell responses in all vaccinees. Following up to 10 repeated low-dose intrarectal challenges, vaccinees suppressed early viral replication (P=0...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301422/demographics-and-natural-history-of-hiv-1-infected-spontaneous-controllers-of-viremia-extremes-on-a-continuum
#15
Otto O Yang, William G Cumberland, Robert Escobar, Diana Liao, Kara W Chew
OBJECTIVES: HIV-1-infected persons spontaneously controlling viremia without treatment (SCV) are rare. Gender and race effects on prevalence and outcome are poorly defined, and it is unclear whether SCV qualitatively or quantitatively differs from typical infection. These issues are examined. DESIGN: Medical records of 46 524 persons receiving outpatient care for HIV-1 infection were reviewed. Of these, 29 811 had adequate viremia testing for SCV screening. METHODS: SCV was defined as ≥3 consecutive plasma viremia measurements <50 RNA copies/mL spanning ≥1 year without treatment...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301049/determining-the-rate-of-underrecognition-of-west-nile-virus-neurologic-disease-in-the-province-of-quebec-in-2012
#16
Gilles Delage, Sophie Dubuc, Yves Grégoire, Anne-Marie Lowe, France Bernier, Marc Germain
BACKGROUND: During a major outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the province of Quebec in 2012, public health authorities (PHAs) suspected underrecognition of West Nile neurologic disease (WNND). With data on acute infections detected in blood donors, an estimate of the degree of underrecognition was produced. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All 2012 donors were tested for WNV infection with the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
March 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298605/cxcr5-dependent-entry-of-cd8-t-cells-into-rhesus-macaque-b-cell-follicles-achieved-through-t-cell-engineering
#17
Victor I Ayala, Claire Deleage, Matthew T Trivett, Sumiti Jain, Lori V Coren, Matthew W Breed, Joshua A Kramer, James A Thomas, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, David E Ott
Follicular helper CD4 T cells, TFH, residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXCR5, the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296013/long-term-outcome-of-inactive-and-active-low-viremic-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-benign-course-towards-hbsag-clearance
#18
Filippo Oliveri, Lidia Surace, Daniela Cavallone, Piero Colombatto, Gabriele Ricco, Nicola Salvati, Barbara Coco, Veronica Romagnoli, Riccardo Gattai, Antonio Salvati, Francesco Moriconi, Quan Yuan, Ferruccio Bonino, Maurizia Rossana Brunetto
BACKGROUND/AIM: The difference between the long-term outcome of low-viremic (HBV-DNA≤20,000-IU/mL, LV-AC) and inactive HBsAg carriers (HBV-DNA≤2,000-IU/mL, IC) remains to be defined. We studied prospectively 153 HBeAg-negative HBsAg-carriers with baseline HBV-DNA≤20,000-IU/mL and normal transaminases. METHODS: IC, LV-AC or chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (HBV-DNA persistently ≤2,000-IU/mL, ≤20,000-IU/mL or >20,000-IU/mL, respectively) were diagnosed after 1-year, 3-monthly monitoring...
March 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295760/variability-in-assessing-for-bk-viremia-whole-blood-is-not-reliable-and-plasma-is-not-above-reproach-a-retrospective-analysis
#19
Neerja Agrawal, Ignacio A Echenique, Shane M Meehan, Ajit P Limaye, Linda Cook, Anthony Chang, Robert C Harland, Basit Javaid, Pradeep V Kadambi, Scott Matushek, James Williams, Michelle A Josephson
Polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) is a major complication of kidney transplantation. Most reports describe polyomavirus viremia either precedes or is detectable at the time of diagnosis of PVN. This association is the basis of current screening recommendations. We retrospectively reviewed the PCR results of blood and urine samples from 29 kidney transplant recipients with biopsy proven PVN. Biopsies were performed for a rise in serum creatinine or persistent high-level BK viruria. All biopsies had polyoma virus large T-antigen expression in tubular epithelium by immunohistochemistry...
March 14, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294590/successful-omalizumab-treatment-in-hiv-positive-patient-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-a-case-report
#20
E Iemoli, F Niero, L Borgonovo, M V Cossu, S Piconi
We described a case of a 56 year old homosexual HIV positive man who presented a history of CSU since one year (2012). All the allergologic, immunologic and microbiologic tests to evaluate the pathogenesis of wheals resulted negative. Therefore in June 2015 we decided to start therapy with Omalizumab while the patient kept on effective antiretroviral therapy with 310 cells/mm3 TCD4 counts and undetectable HIV viremia. After two monthly subcutaneuous injection of 150 mg of Omalizumab the patient had no more urticarial symptoms...
March 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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