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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821204/absence-of-cmv-viremia-in-high-grade-glioma-patients-under-low-dosage-glucocorticoid-treatment
#1
Martina Schneider, Eva-Maria Reitter, Marie-Theres Kastner, Jakob Thannesberger, Franz J J Rieder, Matthias Preusser, Christine Marosi, Christoph Steininger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820881/vector-competence-of-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-from-three-distinct-cities-in-kenya-for-chikungunya-virus
#2
Sheila B Agha, Edith Chepkorir, Francis Mulwa, Caroline Tigoi, Samwel Arum, Milehna M Guarido, Peris Ambala, Betty Chelangat, Joel Lutomiah, David P Tchouassi, Michael J Turell, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820468/resveratrol-in-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin-reduces-sleep-disturbance
#3
Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Caterina Gagliano, Michele Malaguarnera, Rita Bella, Antonio Maria Borzì, Roberto Madeddu, Filippo Drago, Giulia Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. AIM: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818572/ribavirin-inhibits-zika-virus-zikv-replication-in-vitro-and-suppresses-viremia-in-zikv-infected-stat1-deficient-mice
#4
Naganori Kamiyama, Ryusuke Soma, Shinya Hidano, Kei Watanabe, Hiroshi Umekita, Chiaki Fukuda, Kaori Noguchi, Yoshiko Gendo, Takashi Ozaki, Akira Sonoda, Nozomi Sachi, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yumako Miura, Etsuro Matsubara, Shigeru Tajima, Tomohiko Takasaki, Yuki Eshita, Takashi Kobayashi
Zika fever, a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), is an epidemic disease for which no effective therapy has been established. The recent outbreaks of ZIKV in Brazil and French Polynesia have been linked to a considerable increase in the incidence of fetal microcephaly and other diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Because there is currently no specific therapy or vaccine, the early exploitation of a method to prevent expansion of ZIKV is a high priority. To validate commonly used antiviral drugs, we evaluated the effect of ribavirin, a drug used to treat hepatitis C with interferon-β (IFN-β), on ZIKV replication...
August 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817720/targeting-of-cdk9-with-indirubin-3-monoxime-safely-and-durably-reduces-hiv-viremia-in-chronically-infected-humanized-mice
#5
Sandra Medina-Moreno, Thomas C Dowling, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Edward Sausville, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Alonso Heredia
Successful propagation of HIV in the human host requires entry into a permissive cell, reverse transcription of viral RNA, integration into the human genome, transcription of the integrated provirus, and assembly/release of new virus particles. Currently, there are antiretrovirals against each of these viral steps, except for provirus transcription. An inhibitor of HIV transcription could both increase potency of treatment and suppress drug-resistant strains. Cellular cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) serves as a cofactor for the HIV Tat protein and is required for effective transcription of the provirus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#6
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#7
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810810/reduced-expression-of-siglec-7-nkg2a-and-cd57-on-terminally-differentiated-cd56-cd16-nk-cell-subset-is-associated-with-nk-cell-dysfunction-in-chronic-hiv-1-clade-c-infection
#8
Michael Zulu, Kewreshini Naidoo, Zenele Mncube, Manjeetha Jaggernath, Philip Jr Goulder, Thumbi Ndung'u, Marcus Altfeld, Christina Fanesa Thobakgale
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 viremia has been shown to induce several phenotypic and functional abnormalities in natural killer (NK) cells. To assess immune defects associated with HIV viremia, we examined NK cell function, differentiation status and phenotypic alterations based on expression of inhibitory and activating receptors on NK cells in HIV-1 subtype C chronically infected participants from Durban, South Africa. METHODS: NK cell phenotypic profiles were characterized by assessing Siglec-7, NKG2A and NKG2C markers on frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from viremic, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-1 chronically infected participants (n=23), HIV-1 chronically infected participants who have been on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 12 months (n=23) compared to healthy donors (n=23)...
August 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809773/a-macaque-model-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-and-non-lymphogranuloma-venereum-chlamydia-trachomatis-impact-on-rectal-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquisition
#9
Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan, Rachael D Aubert, Monica R Morris, Chunxia Zhao, Christi Philips, George M Khalil, Frank Deyounks, Kristen Kelley, Jana M Ritter, C Y Chen, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl
BACKGROUND: Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. METHODS: Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3)...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809151/the-pentameric-complex-of-human-cytomegalovirus-cell-tropism-virus-dissemination-immune-response-and-vaccine-development
#10
Giuseppe Gerna, Maria Grazia Revello, Fausto Baldanti, Elena Percivalle, Daniele Lilleri
Between the 1980s and 1990s, three assays were developed for diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections: leuko (L)-antigenemia, l-viremia and l-DNAemia, detecting viral protein pp65, infectious virus and viral DNA, respectively, in circulating leukocytes Repeated initial attempts to reproduce the three assays in vitro using laboratory-adapted strains and infected cell cultures were consistently unsuccessful. Results were totally reversed when wild-type HCMV strains were used to infect either fibroblasts or endothelial cells...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802752/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-of-deglycosylated-chimeric-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-as-a-vaccine-candidate-and-its-realistic-revenue-impact-at-commercial-pig-production-level
#11
Jung-Ju Kim, Jung-Ah Lee, Hwi-Yeon Choi, Jang-Hyuck Han, Won Huh, Jae-Ho Pi, Jung-Keun Lee, Sangshin Park, Ki-Hyun Cho, Joong-Bok Lee
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective method to control the disease. In a previous study, a chimeric PRRSV named as K418 which had a genome composed of ORF 1 from the FL12 strain and ORF 2-7 from the Korean representative LMY strain was created. We constructed K418DM, K418 with deglycosylated glycoprotein 5 (GP5), to improve its humoral immunity. In the follow-up on in vivo and in vitro virological and serological tests, no back mutation in amino acids of GP5 associated with deglycosylation was shown after 9 passages on MARC-145 cells, whereas only one case of back mutation was detected after single passage in pig...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802168/impact-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-on-hbsag-kinetics-interferon-inducible-protein-10-level-and-recurrence-of-viremia
#12
Amr Shaaban Hanafy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Persistent HBs antigenemia >1000IU/ml has a possibility of viral reactivation and HCC in 8%, so we investigated the effect of HBV vaccine on HBsAg, IP-10, and recurrence of viremia. METHODS: Group I: inactive carriers(n=100). Group II: CHB exposed to nucleos(t)ides (n=120) till 1year after HBe seroconversion and HBV DNA disappearance in HBeAg positive (n=60) or3years after DNA disappearance in HBeAg negativepatients (n=60). All showed persistent HBs antigenemia...
August 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801074/rational-heart-transplant-from-hepatitis-c-donor-new-antiviral-weapons-conquer-the-trojan
#13
Robert L Gottlieb, Teena Sam, Suzanne Y Wada, James F Trotter, Sumeet K Asrani, Brian Lima, Susan M Joseph, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Stawinski, Shelley A Hall
BACKGROUND: Donors with hepatitis C (HCV) viremia are rarely utilized for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTx) due to post-transplant risks. New, highly effective HCV antivirals may alter the landscape. METHODS: An adult patient unsuitable for bridging mechanical support therapy accepted a heart transplant offer from a donor with HCV viremia. Upon daily logarithmic rise in HCV viral load and adequate titers to ensure successful genotyping, once daily sofosbuvir 400 mg / velpatasvir 100 mg (Epclusa) was initiated empirically pending HCV genotype (genotype 3a confirmed after initiation of therapy)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800601/sequence-homology-between-hla-bound-cytomegalovirus-and-human-peptides-a-potential-trigger-for-alloreactivity
#14
Charles E Hall, Vishal N Koparde, Maximilian Jameson-Lee, Abdelrhman G Elnasseh, Allison F Scalora, David J Kobulnicky, Myrna G Serrano, Catherine H Roberts, Gregory A Buck, Michael C Neale, Daniel E Nixon, Amir A Toor
Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) reactivation may often coincide with the development of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) in stem cell transplantation (SCT). Seventy seven SCT donor-recipient pairs (DRP) (HLA matched unrelated donor (MUD), n = 50; matched related donor (MRD), n = 27) underwent whole exome sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generating alloreactive peptide libraries for each DRP (9-mer peptide-HLA complexes); Human CMV CROSS (Cross-Reactive Open Source Sequence) database was compiled from NCBI; HLA class I binding affinity for each DRPs HLA was calculated by NetMHCpan 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799906/of-mice-macaques-and-men-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-immunotherapy-for-hiv-1
#15
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Nishimura, Malcolm A Martin
The neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein have been a major focus for HIV therapy. Early studies with anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) administered to infected individuals showed some promise, as they resulted in transient reductions in plasma viremia in some recipients. However, resistant viral variants rapidly emerged. A major development during the past 6 to 7 years has been the isolation and characterization of highly potent and broadly neutralizing mAbs (bNAbs) from infected individuals known as "elite neutralizers...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797778/cytomegalovirus-reactivation-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-late-onset-invasive-fungal-disease-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-multi-centre-study-in-the-current-era-of-viral-load-monitoring
#16
Michelle K Yong, Michelle Ananda-Rajah, Paul U Cameron, C Orla Morrissey, Andrew Spencer, David Ritchie, Allen C Cheng, Sharon R Lewin, Monica Slavin
Opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and invasive fungal disease (IFD) cause significant morbidity and mortality to recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We aimed to characterise the risk and relationship of CMV reactivation post-HSCT to IFD in the current era of CMV viral load monitoring using highly sensitive plasma DNA. A multi-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted of consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT from January 2006 to December 2010 in Melbourne, Australia...
August 7, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797025/censoring-of-hiv-viremia-data-of-reincarcerated-individuals-a-response-to-wohl-et-al
#17
Ana-Maria Drobeniuc, Anne Spaulding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795238/efficacy-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-based-interferon-free-therapy-the-management-of-rheumatologic-extrahepatic-manifestations-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-c%C3%A2-virus-infection
#18
A A Shahin, H S Zayed, M Said, S A Amer
BACKGROUND: The use of pegylated interferon alpha (IFN) has been of concern in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with rheumatologic extrahepatic manifestations (EHM) due to the immunostimulatory effects of IFN. AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based, IFN-free antiviral therapy in chronic HCV patients with rheumatologic EHM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Group A included 24 patients with arthropathy (arthralgia or arthritis, n = 15) or vasculitis (n = 9) who received sofosbuvir and ribavirin (n = 17) or sofosbuvir and simeprevir (n = 7)...
August 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794282/partial-efficacy-of-a-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-against-cell-associated-shiv-infection
#19
Matthew S Parsons, Sarah B Lloyd, Wen Shi Lee, Anne B Kristensen, Thakshila Amarasena, Rob J Center, Brandon F Keele, Jeffrey D Lifson, Celia C LaBranche, David Montefiori, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Kristine M Swiderek, Vanessa Venturi, Miles P Davenport, Stephen J Kent
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) protect macaques from cell-free simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge, but their efficacy against cell-associated SHIV is unclear. Virus in cell-associated format is highly infectious, present in transmission-competent bodily fluids, and potentially capable of evading antibody-mediated neutralization. The PGT121 BnAb, which recognizes an epitope consisting of the V3 loop and envelope glycans, mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and neutralization of cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission...
August 9, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791125/nkg2c-memory-like-nk-cells-contribute-to-the-control-of-hiv-viremia-during-primary-infection-optiprim-anrs-147
#20
Françoise Gondois-Rey, Antoine Chéret, Samuel Granjeaud, Françoise Mallet, Ghislain Bidaut, Camille Lécuroux, Mickaël Ploquin, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Christine Rouzioux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Alessandro Moretta, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Daniel Olive
Natural-killer (NK) cells are important immune effectors during a viral infection. Latent CMV infection is widely spread and was demonstrated to shape the NK cell repertoire through the NKG2C receptor. An expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells has been reported during primary HIV infection (PHI), but their role is not known. We previously found a correlation between the maturation state of the NK cell compartment and a lower viral load by studying patients from the ANRS 147 Optiprim trial. We investigated here extensively the NKG2C(+) NK cells at the time of PHI and its evolution after 3 months of early antiretroviral therapy (combination antiretroviral therapy (cART))...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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