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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243405/bluetongue-virus-serotype-27-experimental-infection-of-goats-sheep-and-cattle-with-three-btv-27-variants-reveal-atypical-characteristics-and-likely-direct-contact-transmission-btv-27-between-goats
#1
E Bréard, C Schulz, C Sailleau, C Bernelin-Cottet, C Viarouge, D Vitour, B Guillaume, G Caignard, A Gorlier, H Attoui, M Gallois, B Hoffmann, S Zientara, M Beer
Bluetongue virus (BTV) hitherto consisted of 26 recognized serotypes, of which all except BTV-26 are primarily transmitted by certain species of Culicoides biting midges. Three variants of an additional 27th bluetongue virus serotype (BTV-27v01-v03) were recently detected in asymptomatic goats in Corsica, France, 2014-2015. Molecular characterization revealed genetic differences between the three variants. Therefore, in vivo characteristics were investigated by experimental infection of a total of 15 goats, 11 sheep and 4 cattle with any one of the three variants in separated animal trials...
December 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243133/symptomatic-cerebrospinal-fluid-hiv-1-escape-with-no-resistance-associated-mutations-following-low-level-plasma-viremia
#2
Mattia Trunfio, Sarah Beth Joseph, Valeria Ghisetti, Alessandra Romito, Caterina Martini, Jessica Cusato, Sabrina Audagnotto, Laura Pesci Kincer, Micol Ferrara, Arianna Sala, Daniele Imperiale, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno
The majority of neurologically symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 escape cases are connected with resistance-associated mutations and potentially explained by low cerebrospinal fluid antiretroviral concentrations. However, there are still significant knowledge gaps regarding the physiopathology and long-term management of neurosymptomatic viral escape. We report a case of Parkinson-like syndrome following cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 escape in a 40-year-old female patient with an history of persistent low-level plasma viremia under treatment...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239894/temporal-variation-in-hiv-specific-igg-subclass-abs-during-acute-infection-differentiates-spontaneous-controllers-from-chronic-progressors
#3
Saheli Sadanand, Jishnu Das, Amy W Chung, Matthew K Schoen, Sophie Lane, Todd J Suscovich, Hendrik Streeck, Davey Smith, Susan Little, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Douglas Richman, Galit Alter
OBJECTIVE: Given the emerging appreciation for the role of antibody-dependent effector functions and IgG subclass distribution among spontaneous controllers of HIV, we sought to determine whether antibody-associated features diverged in early HIV infection between subjects who ultimately became controllers versus those who became progressors. METHODS: IgG was purified from plasma from nine acutely infected subjects who subsequently controlled HIV spontaneously (controllers) and ten acutely infected individuals who did not control viremia (progressors)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237843/human-parvovirus-b19-utilizes-cellular-dna-replication-machinery-for-viral-dna-replication
#4
Wei Zou, Zekun Wang, Min Xiong, Aaron Yun Chen, Peng Xu, Safder S Ganaie, Yomna Badawi, Steve Kleiboeker, Hiroshi Nishimune, Shui Qing Ye, Jianming Qiu
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237252/usefulness-of-valacyclovir-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-anti-thymocyte-globulin-as-rejection-therapy
#5
Eun Jeong Ko, Ji Hyun Yu, Chul Woo Yang, Byung Ha Chung
Background/Aims: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment for acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) can increase the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of valacyclovir prophylaxis against CMV infection after ATG administration as anti-rejection therapy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 55 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving ATG for steroid resistant TCMR. In all KTRs, we used intravenous ganciclovir during ATG injection...
December 15, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229308/lymphocyte-dominant-encephalitis-and-meningitis-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Lisa M Mangus, Sarah E Beck, Suzanne E Queen, Samuel A Brill, Erin N Shirk, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Dillon C Muth, Robert J Adams, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements, Joseph L Mankowski
A retrospective neuropathologic review of 30 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was conducted. Seventeen animals with lymphocyte-dominant inflammation in the brain and/or meninges that clearly was morphologically distinct from prototypic SIV encephalitis and human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis were identified. Central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates in cART-treated macaques primarily comprised CD20+ B cells and CD3+ T cells with fewer CD68+ macrophages...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228016/prevalence-and-molecular-profiling-of-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-among-healthy-blood-donors-from-different-nationalities-in-qatar
#7
Maria K Smatti, Hadi M Yassine, Raed AbuOdeh, Asmaa AlMarawani, Sara A Taleb, Asmaa A Althani, Gheyath K Nasrallah
BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar. METHODS: Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India) were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM), nuclear (EBNA; IgG), and early (EA-D; IgG) antigens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227462/psychiatric-disorders-antiretroviral-medication-adherence-and-viremia-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults
#8
Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Stephanie Benson, Patricia Warne, Elaine J Abrams, Katherine S Elkington, Curtis Dolezal, Andrew Wiznia, Claude Ann Mellins
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at risk for sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and mental health and substance use problems that, in HIV-infected adults, predict non-adherence. Studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) and adherence among PHIV+ AYA are limited, but may be important to informing evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from three annual follow-up interviews (FU2-4, N=179) in a longitudinal study of PHIV+ AYA...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226391/experience-with-leflunomide-as-treatment-and-as-secondary-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-lung-transplant-recipients-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Jose Tiago Silva, Virginia Pérez-González, Francisco López-Medrano, Rodrigo Alonso-Moralejo, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Rafael San-Juan, Patricia Brañas, María Dolores Folgueira, José María Aguado, Alicia de Pablo-Gafas
Data concerning the use of leflunomide -a drug approved for rheumatoid arthritis with in vitro anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity- in lung transplant (LT) recipients are scarce. We performed a single center retrospective study including LT recipients who received leflunomide for CMV infection or as secondary prophylaxis after viremia clearance. We also conducted a full systematic PubMed search until June 30, 2017. We identified 5 LT recipients in our center, plus 7 patients reported in the literature. All patients had previously received ganciclovir (GCV) and foscarnet, with drug-induced adverse effects described in 6 recipients (50%)...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226098/occult-hcv-infection-oci-diagnosis-in-cirrhotic-and-non-cirrhotic-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-by-intra-pbmc-nested-viral-rna-pcr
#10
Mohamed Darwish Ahmed Abd Alla, Saleh Ahmed Elibiary, George Y Wu, Mostafa Kamel El-Awady
Background and Aims: Occult HCV infections (OCIs) include IgG antibody seronegative cryptogenic (COCIs), as well as seropositive secondary naïve (SNOCIs) and experienced (SEOCIs) cases. We used peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell (PBMC)-PCR to evaluate COCIs and SNOCIs prevalence, serum HCV spontaneous disappearance (SCSD) in naïve cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics, intra-PBMC HCV-RNA strands in relation to cirrhosis density in naïve non-viremia cases, and HCV-RNA seroconversion after 1 year of solitary naïve intra-PBMC infection...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222360/antiviral-treatment-of-bk-virus-viremia-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Andrew D Santeusanio, Benjamin E Lukens, Judy Eun
PURPOSE: The various antiviral treatment options in the management of BK virus (BKV) viremia and BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) are reviewed. SUMMARY: Review of the PubMed database from 1990 to 2016 for all English language case series, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials detailing antiviral treatment of BKV viremia or BKVAN in kidney transplant recipients returned only 16 published reports. The majority of these reports were based on small case series or protocol-based cohort studies, with no prospective head-to-head data and only modest benefit reported for cidofovir, leflunomide, i...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220498/nkg2c-deletion-is-a-risk-factor-for-human-cytomegalovirus-viremia-and-disease-after-lung-transplantation
#12
Hannes Vietzen, Karin Pollak, Claudia Honsig, Peter Jaksch, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication is limited by HCMV-specific natural-killer (NK) cell response. Distinct genetic polymorphisms, which are potentially involved in antiviral NK-cell response, have been described. Here, the association between polymorphisms at IgG1 GM3/17, FcγRIIIα/CD16a-158V/F, NKG2Cwt/del, CD226/rs727088 and rs763361, respectively, and HCMV-viremia and disease was investigated in 98 lung transplant recipients (LTRs), within 9 months after stop of post-transplant HCMV-prophylaxis. From all variants, only the NKG2Cwt/wt genotype was significantly associated with freedom from HCMV-viremia (P= 0...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217388/impact-of-cytomegalovirus-cmv-viral-load-on-probability-of-spontaneous-clearance-and-response-to-pre-emptive-therapy-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
Jose F Camargo, Erik Kimble, Rossana Rosa, Luis A Shimose, Maria X Bueno, Nikeshan Jeyakumar, Michele I Morris, Lilian M Abbo, Jacques Simkins, Maritza C Alencar, Cara Benjamin, Eric Wieder, Antonio Jimenez, Amer Beitinjaneh, Mark Goodman, John J Byrnes, Lazaros J Lekakis, Denise Pereira, Krishna V Komanduri
The optimal viral load threshold to initiate pre-emptive cytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients remains to be defined. In an effort to address this question we conducted a retrospective study of 174 allogeneic HCT recipients transplanted at a single center between August 2012 and April 2016. During this period, pre-emptive therapy started at the discretion of the treating clinician. 109 (63%) patients developed CMV viremia. Median time to reactivation was 17 (IQR, 7-30) days post-HCT...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217381/adiponectin-levels-and-insulin-resistance-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#14
Raoni Freitas Carvalho, Ajax Mercês Atta, Isabela Silva de Oliveira, Taciana Pereira Sant'Ana Santos, João Pedro A Santos, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Maria Luiza Brito de Sousa-Atta
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), rapid disease progression, and decreased virological response to antiviral treatment. In addition, obesity is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis C evolution and is associated with IR. As adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity and IR, this study aimed to investigate serum levels of adiponectin among patients with HCV infection and IR. Thirty-three patients with untreated HCV infection underwent testing of serum adiponectin levels (capture ELISA) and were compared to 30 healthy subjects with similar body mass indexes (BMI)...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215460/comparison-of-preemptive-therapy-and-antiviral-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-in-seropositive-liver-transplant-recipients
#15
Amy W Liu, Kamonwan Jutivorakool, Cynthia E Fisher, Robert M Rakita, Jorge D Reyes, Renuka B Bhattacharya, Keith R Jerome, Ajit P Limaye
BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly compared preemptive therapy (PET) and antiviral prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in CMV seropositive (R+) orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients. METHODS: We prospectively assessed CMV disease and clinical outcomes among 160 consecutive R+ OLT recipients who received PET (weekly plasma CMV PCR for 3 months, oral valganciclovir 900 mg twice daily for CMV viremia >250 IU/mL, until 2 consecutive negative weekly PCR results) and compared them to a historical cohort of 156 R+ recipients who received AP (valganciclovir 900 mg daily for 3 months)...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212951/glycolytic-requirement-for-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-and-cytomegalovirus-control
#16
Annelise Y Mah, Armin Rashidi, Molly P Keppel, Nermina Saucier, Emily K Moore, Joshua B Alinger, Sandeep K Tripathy, Sandeep K Agarwal, Emily K Jeng, Hing C Wong, Jeffrey S Miller, Todd A Fehniger, Emily M Mace, Anthony R French, Megan A Cooper
NK cell activation has been shown to be metabolically regulated in vitro; however, the role of metabolism during in vivo NK cell responses to infection is unknown. We examined the role of glycolysis in NK cell function during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection and the ability of IL-15 to prime NK cells during CMV infection. The glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-deoxy-ᴅ-glucose (2DG) impaired both mouse and human NK cell cytotoxicity following priming in vitro. Similarly, MCMV-infected mice treated with 2DG had impaired clearance of NK-specific targets in vivo, which was associated with higher viral burden and susceptibility to infection on the C57BL/6 background...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212716/a-randomized-controlled-safety-efficacy-trial-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-hiv-infected-individuals-who-initiated-antiretroviral-therapy-early-in-infection
#17
Michael C Sneller, J Shawn Justement, Kathleen R Gittens, Mary E Petrone, Katherine E Clarridge, Michael A Proschan, Richard Kwan, Victoria Shi, Jana Blazkova, Eric W Refsland, Daryl E Morris, Kristen W Cohen, M Juliana McElrath, Rong Xu, Michael A Egan, John H Eldridge, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Susan Moir, Tae-Wook Chun, Anthony S Fauci
Despite substantial clinical benefits, complete eradication of HIV has not been possible using antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone. Strategies that can either eliminate persistent viral reservoirs or boost host immunity to prevent rebound of virus from these reservoirs after discontinuation of ART are needed; one possibility is therapeutic vaccination. We report the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a therapeutic vaccine regimen in patients in whom ART was initiated during the early stage of HIV infection and whose immune system was anticipated to be relatively intact...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211658/letermovir-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#18
Francisco M Marty, Per Ljungman, Roy F Chemaly, Johan Maertens, Sanjeet S Dadwal, Rafael F Duarte, Shariq Haider, Andrew J Ullmann, Yuta Katayama, Janice Brown, Kathleen M Mullane, Michael Boeckh, Emily A Blumberg, Hermann Einsele, David R Snydman, Yoshinobu Kanda, Mark J DiNubile, Valerie L Teal, Hong Wan, Yoshihiko Murata, Nicholas A Kartsonis, Randi Y Leavitt, Cyrus Badshah
Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Letermovir is an antiviral drug that inhibits the CMV-terminase complex. Methods In this phase 3, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned CMV-seropositive transplant recipients, 18 years of age or older, in a 2:1 ratio to receive letermovir or placebo, administered orally or intravenously, through week 14 after transplantation; randomization was stratified according to trial site and CMV disease risk...
December 6, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210660/host-factors-predictors-in-long-term-nonprogressors-hiv-1-infected-with-distinct-viral-clades
#19
J S Santos, S M Almeida, G F Silveira, J Bordignon, S Lm Teixeira, Acm Lima, S M Raboni
BACKGROUND: HIV-1+ long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) maintain natural control of viral infection. This study sought to identify and characterize HIV- LTNPs series case, regarding the presence of possible host factors that may be associated with this status. METHODS: We evaluated the plasma levels of IP-10/IL-8 chemokines, HLA-B alleles, and IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism in 24 LTNPs who presented with infection by different clades of HIV-1. RESULTS: IL-8 chemokine was significantly higher in progressors than in LTNPs, but there was no difference between the LTNP subgroups...
December 6, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203516/alternative-splicing-transcripts-of-zebrafish-lgp2-gene-differentially-contribute-to-ifn-antiviral-response
#20
Qi-Min Zhang, Xiang Zhao, Zhi Li, Min Wu, Jian-Fang Gui, Yi-Bing Zhang
In mammals, RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) sense cytosolic viral RNA, leading to IFN antiviral response; however, LGP2 exhibits controversial functions. The same happens to fish LGP2. In this study we report that three zebrafish LGP2 splicing transcripts, a full-length LGP2, and two truncating variants, LGP2v1 and LGP2v2, play distinct roles during IFN antiviral response. Overexpression of the full-length LGP2 not only potentiates IFN response through the RLR pathway, in the absence or presence of poly(I:C) at limited concentrations, but also inhibits IFN response by relative high concentrations of poly(I:C) through functional attenuation of signaling factors involved in the RLR pathway; however, LGP2v1 and LGP2v2 only retain the inhibitory role...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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