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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453971/prediction-value-of-serum-hbv-large-surface-protein-in-different-phases-of-hbv-infection-and-virological-response-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#1
Can Liu, Wennan Wu, Hongyan Shang, Sheng Lin, Zhen Xun, Er Huang, Jinpiao Lin, Bin Yang, Qishui Ou
BACKGROUND: Serum HBV large surface protein (HBV-LP) is an envelope protein that has a close relationship with HBV DNA level. This study is to explore the prediction value of HBV-LP in different phase of HBV infection and during antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2033 individuals, which included 1677 HBV infected patients in different phases and 356 healthy controls. HBV-LP, HBV serum markers and HBV DNA were detected by ELISA, CMIA and qRT-PCR, respectively...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453967/discovery-of-anti-viral-molecules-and-their-vital-functions-in-bombyx-mori
#2
REVIEW
Peng Lü, Ye Pan, Yanhua Yang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Qin Yao, Keping Chen
The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), a lepidopteran model organism, has become an important model for molecular biology researches with its genome completely sequenced. Silkworms confront different types of virus diseases, mainly including those caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1), Bombyx mori bidesovirus (BmBDV) which was termed as Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) or Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) before in sericulture. B. mori offers excellent models to study the molecular mechanisms of insect innate immune responses to viruses...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453856/defective-rna-sensing-by-rig-i-in-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Sofie Eg Jørgensen, Mette Christiansen, Laura Barrett Ryø, Hans Henrik Gad, Jakob Gjedsted, Peter Staeheli, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Merete Storgaard, Rune Hartmann, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
Influenza virus infection causes worldwide seasonal epidemics. Although influenza usually is a mild disease, a minority of patients experience very severe fulminating disease courses. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for type I interferon (IFN) in antiviral responses during influenza. However, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7 deficiency is so far the only genetic cause of severe influenza described in humans. In this study we present a patient with severe influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection during the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453610/hepatitis-c-cure-is-associated-with-decreased-healthcare-costs-in-cirrhotics-in-retrospective-veterans-affairs-cohort
#4
Marissa M Maier, Xiao-Hua Zhou, Michael Chapko, Steven L Leipertz, Xuan Wang, Lauren A Beste
BACKGROUND: Approximately 233,898 individuals in the Veterans Affairs healthcare network are hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected, making the Veterans Affairs the single largest provider of HCV care in the USA. Direct-acting antiviral treatment regimens for HCV offer high cure rates. However, these medications pose an enormous financial burden, and whether HCV cure is associated with decreased healthcare costs is poorly defined. AIMS: To measure downstream healthcare costs in a national population of HCV-infected patients up to 9 years post-HCV antiviral treatment, to compare downstream healthcare costs between cured and uncured patients, and to assess impact of cirrhosis status on cost differences...
February 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#5
(no author information available yet)
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characters-a-pilot-open-lable-randomized-study
#6
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children possesses a serious health problem worldwide. It remains unresolved how children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B should be treated, who were commonly characterized by HBeAg positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated ALT and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characters. METHODS: This is a pilot open-lable randomized controlled study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451520/-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-from-clinical-guidelines-to-clinical-practice-and-personalization-of-cure
#7
Pierluigi Toniutto
Although clinical guidelines provide clear indications on the treatment of patients with chronic HCV related liver disease, there are still clinical situations in which clinicians experience and judgment remain essential in the proper patient management. These are mainly represented by antiviral therapy in patients with decompensated liver disease, especially if they are candidates for liver transplantation or with significant comorbidities and complex pharmacological therapies. Antiviral retreatment of patients who failed a regimen containing an NS5A protease inhibitor still appears to be a delicate context in which no solid recommendations are provided, especially in patients with HCV genotype 3 and decompensated cirrhosis...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451519/-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-is-it-only-e-liver-disease
#8
Salvatore Petta
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely diffused in general population, and the likelihood that an infected individual is affected by other disesases is high. A lot of epidemiological and explicative studies, even if with different levels of evidence, reported a potential effect of HCV infection -by direct and indirect mechanisms- on the pathogenesis of extrahepatic comorbidities related to dysregulation of the immune system, or cardiometabolic comorbidities like diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular alterations, etc...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451518/-access-to-hepatitis-c-treatment-a-lesson-for-the-future
#9
Lucia Craxì
The new generation of direct acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection has revolutionized the previous scenario and has put the institutions under test because of the high cost of therapies. An analysis of what has happened over the last three years, especially in Italy, helps us understand how price negotiation has been managed, and what criteria were chosen at first to allow limited access on the basis of the need of patient care. This allows to focus on some important issues and to identify the challenges ahead in the near future...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451494/single-cell-transcriptional-dynamics-of-flavivirus-infection
#10
Fabio Zanini, Szu-Yuan Pu, Elena Bekerman, Shirit Einav, Stephen R Quake
Dengue and Zika viral infections affect millions of people annually and can be complicated by hemorrhage or neurological manifestations, respectively. However, a thorough understanding of the host response to these viruses is lacking, partly because conventional approaches ignore heterogeneity in virus abundance across cells. We present viscRNA-Seq (virus-inclusive single cell RNA-Seq), an approach to probe the host transcriptome together with intracellular viral RNA at the single cell level. We applied viscRNA-Seq to monitor dengue and Zika virus infection in cultured cells and discovered extreme heterogeneity in virus abundance...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451274/helicase-primase-inhibitor-amenamevir-for-herpesvirus-infection-towards-practical-application-for-treating-herpes-zoster
#11
K Shiraki
Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes...
November 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451090/study-of-changes-in-lipid-profile-and-insulin-resistance-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-in-the-era-of-daas
#12
Ghada El Sagheer, Elwy Soliman, Asmaa Ahmad, Lamiaa Hamdy
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with altered metabolism, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. These contribute to disease progression and influences the response to therapy. To investigate the relationships of new direct-acting antiviral drugs, simeprevir/sofosbuvir, with lipid profile and insulin resistance (IR). Eighty chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients were included; they were divided into four groups according to the severity of fibrosis as detected by fibroscan. Forty healthy persons volunteered as a control group...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450703/utilization-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-positive-grafts-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#13
Visagh Puthumana Udayakumar, Sudhindran Surendran, Uma Devi Padma
BACKGROUND: Utilization of liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive donors carries the risk of reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in recipients because of post-transplant immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who had received liver grafts from anti-HBc positive live donors between 2006 and 2016 at our institute. RESULTS: Out of 22 recipients [all males, mean age 45.4 years (range 18-64 years)], four patients were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive preoperatively and received entecavir post-transplantation...
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450210/sofosbuvir-based-direct-acting-antiviral-therapies-for-hcv-in-people-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-an-analysis-of-phase-3-studies
#14
Jason Grebely, Jordan J Feld, David Wyles, Mark Sulkowski, Liyun Ni, Joe Llewellyn, Heshaam M Mir, Nika Sajed, Luisa M Stamm, Robert H Hyland, John McNally, Diana M Brainard, Ira Jacobson, Stefan Zeuzem, Marc Bourlière, Graham Foster, Nezam Afdhal, Gregory J Dore
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapy is effective among people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST), but studies are limited by small numbers of nongenotype 1 (GT1) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment completion, adherence, SVR12, and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapies in HCV patients receiving and not receiving OST. Methods: Ten phase 3 studies of sofosbuvir-based regimens included ION (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin for 8, 12, or 24 weeks in GT1), ASTRAL (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in GT1-6), and POLARIS (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir in GT1-6)...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449555/intravenous-injections-of-the-oncolytic-virus-m1-as-a-novel-therapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#15
Cheng Hu, Ying Liu, Yuan Lin, Jian-Kai Liang, Wen-Wen Zhong, Ke Li, Wen-Tao Huang, De-Juan Wang, Guang-Mei Yan, Wen-Bo Zhu, Jian-Guang Qiu, Xin Gao
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is associated with low survival and high recurrence rates even in cases in which patients receive systemic treatments, such as surgery and chemotherapy. Here, we found that a naturally existing alphavirus, namely, M1, selectively kills bladder cancer cells but not normal cells, findings supported by our observations of changes in viral replication and MIBC and patient-derived MIBC cell apoptosis. Transcriptome analysis revealed that interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are expressed at low levels in sensitive bladder cancer cells and high levels in resistant cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448067/antiviral-resistance-due-to-deletion-in-the-neuraminidase-gene-and-defective-interfering-like-viral-polymerase-basic-2-rna-of-influenza-a-virus-subtype-h3n2
#16
Ramona Trebbien, Claus Bohn Christiansen, Thea Kølsen Fischer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antiviral treatment of influenza virus infections can lead to drug resistance of virus. This study investigates a selection of mutations in the full genome of H3N2 influenza A virus isolated from a patient in treatment with oseltamivir. STUDY DESIGN: Respiratory samples from a patient were collected before, during, and after antiviral treatment. Whole genome sequencing of the influenza virus by next generation sequencing, and low-frequency-variant analysis was performed...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448034/bombyx-mori-homolog-of-tumor-suppressor-p53-is-involved-in-apoptosis-mediated-antiviral-immunity-of-b-mori-cells-infected-with-nucleopolyhedrovirus
#17
Shizuka Makino, Rina Hamajima, Aya Saito, Moe Tomizaki, Asako Iwamoto, Michihiro Kobayashi, Hayato Yamada, Motoko Ikeda
Apoptosis is important in antiviral immunity and affects viral multiplication and pathogenesis. Here, we showed that Bombyx mori cells transiently expressing B. mori homolog of the tumor suppressor p53 (Bm-p53) protein underwent apoptosis accompanied by elevated caspase-3-like protease activity and processing of B. mori Dronc (Bm-Dronc). RNAi-mediated silencing of bm-p53 expression, which significantly diminished accumulation of bm-p53 transcript and Bm-p53 protein, prevented apoptosis of B. mori cells infected with a recombinant B...
February 12, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447988/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-cells-surface-antigens-i-cd19-cd20-and-cd52
#18
REVIEW
Małgorzata Mikulska, Simone Lanini, Carlota Gudiol, Lubos Drgona, Giuseppe Ippolito, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Bernd Salzberger
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD19, CD20 and CD52 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447987/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-soluble-immune-effector-molecules-ii-agents-targeting-interleukins-immunoglobulins-and-complement
#19
REVIEW
Kevin L Winthrop, Xavier Mariette, Jose T Silva, Esther Benamu, Leonard H Calabrese, Alexandre Dumusc, Josef S Smolen, José María Aguado, Mario Fernández-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447915/comparing-treatment-of-acute-retinal-necrosis-with-either-oral-valaciclovir-or-intravenous-aciclovir
#20
Julijana Baltinas, Sue Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
PURPOSE: To compare the visual outcomes of patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) treated initially with intravenous aciclovir versus oral valaciclovir therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. METHODS: 62 patients (68 eyes) with ARN, treated at Moorfields Eye Hospital (United Kingdom) between 1992 and 2016, were identified through the hospital's electronic database. Exclusion criteria included insufficient patient records or follow-up (<150 days)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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