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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228519/large-scale-surveillance-study-of-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-entecavir-in-korean-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Chang Wook Kim, Chang Seop Kim, Hee Yeon Kim, Chang Don Lee, Kyungha Yu, Cyril Llamoso, Heon Ju Lee
Background/Aims: Entecavir (ETV) is effective and safe antiviral agent against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in clinical and real-world setting but, most studies were performed in single institute or have limitation in patient's number. A large-scale nation-wide real-world surveillance study was carried out to investigate safety, efficacy and clinical effectiveness of ETV in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: Between 2006 and 2012, 3,444 patients were enrolled from 132 Korean institutions...
December 13, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228501/hcv-clearance-by-direct-acting-antiviral-treatments-reverses-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#2
Luigi E Adinolfi, Riccardo Nevola, Barbara Guerrera, Giovanni D'Alterio, Aldo Marrone, Mauro Giordano, Luca Rinaldi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic hepatitis C (HCV), particularly genotype 1, is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We evaluated the impact of HCV clearance by all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) treatments on IR and glycemic control. METHODS: Included in this prospective case-control study were 133 consecutive HCV-genotype 1 patients with advance liver fibrosis (F3-F4) without type 2 diabetes. Sixty-eight treated with DAAs and 65 untreated. Liver fibrosis was assessed by transient elastography...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228368/the-oncolytic-virus-mg1-targets-and-eliminates-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-implications-for-an-hiv-cure
#3
Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S Sandstrom, Stephanie C Burke Schinkel, Sandra C Côté, Jonathan B Angel
Latently HIV-infected cells evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbour intracellular signalling defects including impairment of the antiviral, type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers, and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate latently HIV-1-infected cells, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in latently HIV-1-infected cell lines...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228279/in-vitro-model-of-fully-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-rhinovirus-reveals-epithelium-initiated-immune-responses
#4
Kai Sen Tan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Chunwei Li, Yew Kwang Ong, Kim Thye Thong, Hyung Won Choi, De-Yun Wang, Vincent T Chow
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the commonest cause of the common cold. While less pathogenic compared to other respiratory viruses, it is frequently associated with exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases such as rhinosinusitis and asthma exacerbation. Currently, there are limited studies on HRV infection of nasal epithelial cells despite being the first site of viral contact, immune initiation, and airway inter-connectivity. Hence, we established a model of HRV infection of in vitro differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) derived from multiple individuals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227203/therapeutic-charm-of-quercetin-and-its-derivatives-a-review-of-research-and-patents
#5
Ajay Sharma, Dharambir Kashyap, Katrin Sak, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Anil K Sharma
Bioactive polyphenolic compounds derived from plants are being utilized for prevention of various chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Quercetin, a potential poly-phenolic flavonol, found in onions, apples and berries, has been implicated against cancer proliferation, chronic inflammation and various other oxidative manifestations. Evidences suggested that quercetin negatively regulates the numerous crucial signaling pathways associated with life-threatening diseases. Major signaling pathways including NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K-AKT and mTOR are found to be regulated by quercetin...
December 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227001/antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-during-second-pregnancies
#6
Yasuhiro Wakano, Tokio Sugiura, Takeshi Endo, Koichi Ito, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Hitoshi Tajiri, Yasuhito Tanaka, Shinji Saitoh
Mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern for infected mothers, especially after their first child has become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis. Eight mothers whose first child had become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis were referred for antiviral therapy during the subsequent pregnancy. All pregnant women were seropositive for both the hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen. In the treatment group (three receiving lamivudine and two receiving tenofovir), mother-to-child transmission of the HBV was successfully prevented in all infants (5/5)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226391/experience-with-leflunomide-as-treatment-and-as-secondary-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-lung-transplant-recipients-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Jose Tiago Silva, Virginia Pérez-González, Francisco López-Medrano, Rodrigo Alonso-Moralejo, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Rafael San-Juan, Patricia Brañas, María Dolores Folgueira, José María Aguado, Alicia de Pablo-Gafas
Data concerning the use of leflunomide -a drug approved for rheumatoid arthritis with in vitro anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity- in lung transplant (LT) recipients are scarce. We performed a single center retrospective study including LT recipients who received leflunomide for CMV infection or as secondary prophylaxis after viremia clearance. We also conducted a full systematic PubMed search until June 30, 2017. We identified 5 LT recipients in our center, plus 7 patients reported in the literature. All patients had previously received ganciclovir (GCV) and foscarnet, with drug-induced adverse effects described in 6 recipients (50%)...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226127/the-kinase-stk3-interacts-with-the-viral-structural-protein-vp1-and-inhibits-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-replication
#8
Huisheng Liu, Qiao Xue, Qiaoying Zeng, Zixiang Zhu, Haixue Zheng
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The structural protein VP1 plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. However, the interacting partners of VP1 in host cells and the effects of these interactions in FMDV replication remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we identified a porcine cell protein, serine/threonine kinase 3 (STK3), which interacts with FMDV VP1 using the yeast two-hybrid system. The VP1-STK3 interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments in human embryonic kidney 293T and porcine kidney 15 (PK-15) cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226102/timing-of-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-in-liver-transplant-candidates-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#9
REVIEW
George Cholankeril, Mairin Joseph-Talreja, Brandon J Perumpail, Andy Liu, Eric R Yoo, Aijaz Ahmed, Aparna Goel
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States. While most patients with chronic HCV infection remain asymptomatic, up to one-third develop progressive liver disease resulting in cirrhosis. LT is often the only curative treatment once significant hepatic decompensation develops. However, antiviral therapy for HCV infection has advanced markedly in the past 5 years with the discovery and approval of direct-acting antiviral agents. These new regimens are well tolerated, of short duration and highly effective, unlike the traditional treatment with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226101/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-due-to-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed Babiker, Jean Jeudy, Seth Kligerman, Miriam Khambaty, Anoop Shah, Shashwatee Bagchi
Hepatitis C (HCV) infection has an estimated global prevalence of 2.5%, causing chronic liver disease in 170 million people worldwide. Recent data has identified HCV infection as a risk factor for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), but these data have been mixed and whether HCV is an independent risk factor for development of CVD remains controversial. In this review, we present the literature regarding the association of HCV with subclinical and clinical CVD and the possible underlying mechanisms leading to increased CVD among those infected with HCV...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226099/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-taking-proton-pump-inhibitors
#11
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Supavit Chesdachai, Charat Thongprayoon, Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Patompong Ungprasert, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Background and Aims: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is the cornerstone of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Eradication of HCV, predicted by the attainment of a sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 weeks following DAA therapy, is the goal of this treatment. Interestingly, recent studies have reported the possible association between HCV-infected patients with DAA therapy concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and lower odds of achieving SVR. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize all available data and to estimate this potential association...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226082/the-novel-mitochondria-localization-of-influenza-a-virus-ns1-visualized-by-flash-labeling
#12
Chuan-Fu Tsai, Hsin-Yi Lin, Wei-Li Hsu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai
The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the influenza A virus (IAV) is a multifunctional protein that counteracts host cell antiviral responses and inhibits host cell pre-mRNA processing. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals that facilitate NS1 shuttling between cytoplasm and nucleus. In this study, we initially observed the novel mitochondria localization of NS1 in a subset of transfected cells. We then further monitored the localization dynamics of the NS1 protein in live cells infected with IAV expressing NS1 with insertion of a tetracysteine-tag...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225923/experimental-adaptation-of-human-echovirus-11-to-ultraviolet-radiation-leads-to-resistance-to-disinfection-and-ribavirin
#13
Anna Carratalà, Hyunjin Shim, Qingxia Zhong, Virginie Bachmann, Jeffrey D Jensen, Tamar Kohn
Ultraviolet light in the UVC range is a commonly used disinfectant to control viruses in clinical settings and water treatment. However, it is currently unknown whether human viral pathogens may develop resistance to such stressor. Here, we investigate the adaptation of an enteric pathogen, human echovirus 11, to disinfection by UVC, and characterized the underlying phenotypic and genotypic changes. Repeated exposure to UVC lead to a reduction in the UVC inactivation rate of approximately 15 per cent compared to that of the wild-type and the control populations...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225673/update-on-hepatitis-c-and-implications-for-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Post
Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection occurs in a significant minority of cases and the diagnosis, treatment and cure of hepatitis C virus infection with direct acting antivirals prior to pregnancy can eliminate this risk in almost all cases. Women with hepatitis C virus infection have increased risks of adverse events in pregnancy and poor perinatal outcomes for their children, although the contribution of hepatitis C virus per se is difficult to determine. Altering the mode of delivery does not reduce mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection, although avoidance of fetal scalp electrodes and other potential high risk procedures is recommended during pregnancy and delivery...
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224735/a-novel-three-dimensional-cell-culture-method-enhances-antiviral-drug-screening-in-primary-human-cells
#15
Robert Koban, Markus Neumann, Aila Daugs, Oliver Bloch, Andreas Nitsche, Stefan Langhammer, Heinz Ellerbrok
Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation...
December 7, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224370/authenticating-apple-cider-vinegar-s-home-remedy-claims-antibacterial-antifungal-antiviral-properties-and-cytotoxicity-aspect
#16
Judy Gopal, Vimala Anthonydhason, Manikandan Muthu, Enkhtaivan Gansukh, Somang Jung, Sechul Chul, Sivanesan Iyyakkannu
These are the days when one would go online first seeking home remedies before seeing a doctor. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is one such popular yet scientifically under-validated remedy. Our results prove the unequivocal antimicrobial activity of ACV to be true at full strength concentrations. However, the activity cannot be generalised because although strong antibacterial activity was observed at 25% concentrations, in terms of antifungal activity, yeasts, especially Candida were found to be less susceptible...
December 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223580/modeling-hiv-disease-progression-and-transmission-at-population-level-the-potential-impact-of-modifying-disease-progression-in-hiv-treatment-programs
#17
Jennifer M Ross, Roger Ying, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Katherine K Thomas, Pamela M Murnane, Heidi van Rooyen, James P Hughes, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Suppressive treatment of HIV-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) with valacyclovir, an HSV-2 antiviral, can lower HIV viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive ART on population HIV transmission has not been estimated...
December 5, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223449/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-peganum-harmala-l-and-isolation-of-the-active-compound
#18
Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Adele Papetti, Majdi Hammami, Abderrazak Smaoui, Ferid Limam
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (ACV) are the usual therapy for treating HSV infection. However, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. In this objective, Peganum harmala was investigated for its HSV-2 activity. The organic extracts of the different plant organs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells by the MTT test and anti HSV-2 activity by plaque reduction assay...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223371/planning-and-prioritizing-direct-acting-antivirals-treatment-for-hcv-patients-in-countries-with-limited-resources-lessons-from-the-egyptian-experience
#19
Aisha Elsharkawy, Maissa El Raziky, Wafaa El Akel, Kadry El Saeed, Rasha Eletreby, Mohamed Hassany, Manal Hamdy El-Sayed, Khaled Kabil, Sohier A Ismail, Magdy El-Serafy, Ashraf Omar Abdelaziz, Mohamed Kamal Shaker, Ayman Yosry, Wahid Doss, Yehia El Shazly, Gamal Esmat, Imam Waked
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The introduction of direct acting antivirals for HCV in Egypt led to massive treatment uptake to become the largest HCV treatment program worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present the Egyptian experience in planning and prioritizing mass treatment for HCV patients, highlighting the difficulties and limitations of the program as guide to other countries of similar limited resources. METHODS: Baseline data of 337,042 patients who started treatment from October 2014 to March 2016 were grouped into three equal time intervals of 6 months each...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223151/the-power-and-limitations-of-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-assays
#20
REVIEW
N B Ustinov, E G Zavyalova, I G Smirnova, A M Kopylov
Influenza virus hemagglutinins (HAs) are surface proteins that bind to sialic acid residues at the host cell surface and ensure further virus internalization. Development of methods for the inhibition of these processes drives progress in the design of new antiviral drugs. The state of the isolated HA (i.e. combining tertiary structure and extent of oligomerization) is defined by multiple factors, like the HA source and purification method, posttranslational modifications, pH, etc. The HA state affects HA functional activity and significantly impacts the results of numerous HA assays...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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