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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432369/sensitivity-to-antibiotics-of-bacteria-exposed-to-gamma-radiation-emitted-from-hot-soils-of-the-high-background-radiation-areas-of-ramsar-northern-iran
#1
Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, Samira Zarei, Mohammad Taheri, Saeed Tajbakhsh, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi, Sahar Ranjbar, Fatemeh Momeni, Samaneh Masoomi, Leila Ansari, Mohammad Mehdi Movahedi, Shahram Taeb, Sina Zarei, Masood Haghani
BACKGROUND: Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. OBJECTIVE: To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415538/fabrication-of-polypropylene-silver-nanocomposites-for-biocidal-applications
#2
Washington Luiz Oliani, Duclerc Fernandes Parra, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki Komatsu, Nilton Lincopan, Vijaya Kumar Rangari, Ademar Benevolo Lugao
This paper presents a study on biocidal effect of polymer nanocomposite films of gamma irradiated polypropylene (PP) and silver nanoparticles. The modified polypropylene was obtained from isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in pellets form by irradiation with gamma rays in the presence of acetylene. A new morphology with long chain branching of PP and distinct rheology is obtained by this process. The blend of 50/50wt% neat PP and PP modified by gamma radiation were further mixed using a twin screw extruder. The AgNPs were infused into this polymer blend at different concentrations of: 0...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406770/frequency-and-antibiogram-of-isolates-from-surgical-units-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-quetta
#3
Maria Mushtaq Gill, Muhammad Junaid Khan, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Sarfraz Khan Janjua
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and antibiogram of the isolates from infected patients in surgical units of a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Microbiology, Combined Military Hospital, Quetta, from March to October 2015. METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples from the surgical units received in Department of Microbiology for culture and sensitivity were analyzed by Gram stain, culture and biochemical tests for identification of the isolates; and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392317/novel-mutations-in-gyra-and-parc-among-shigella-sonnei-strains-from-jiangsu-province-of-china-2002-2011
#4
Bing Gu, Ting-Ting Qin, Wen-Ting Fan, Ru-Ru Bi, Ying Chen, Ying Li, Ping Ma
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: To investigate fluoroquinolone resistance and associated mechanism of Shigella sonnei isolates in Jiangsu Province of China between 2002 and 2011. METHODS: All 337 unduplicated S. sonnei isolates were collected from hospitals in Jiangsu Province from January 2002 to December 2011. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was characterized by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and direct nucleotide sequencing of genes of the quinolone resistance determining regions were conducted...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389536/whole-genome-sequencing-of-drug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-dairy-cattle-and-humans-in-new-york-and-washington-states-reveals-source-and-geographic-associations
#5
Laura M Carroll, Martin Wiedmann, Henk den Bakker, Julie Siler, Steven Warchocki, David Kent, Svetlana Lyalina, Margaret Davis, William Sischo, Thomas Besser, Lorin D Warnick, Richard V Pereira
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica can be spread from cattle to humans through direct contact with animals shedding Salmonella, as well as through the food chain, making MDR Salmonella a serious threat to human health. The objective of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing to compare antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) S. Typhimurium, Newport, and Dublin isolated from dairy cattle and humans in Washington state and New York state at a genotypic and phenotypic level. A total of 90 isolates were selected for the study (37 Typhimurium, 32 Newport, 21 Dublin)...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386280/bacterial-isolates-and-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-wound-infections-among-inpatients-and-outpatients-attending-the-university-of-gondar-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#6
Aynalem Mohammed, Mengistu Endris Seid, Teklay Gebrecherkos, Moges Tiruneh, Feleke Moges
Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384863/comparative-evaluation-of-fosfomycin-activity-with-other-antimicrobial-agents-against-e-coli-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infections
#7
Ahmed Sardar, Sreekanth Reddy Basireddy, Anwar Navaz, Manisha Singh, Vasanti Kabra
INTRODUCTION: Fosfomycin is a broad spectrum anti-microbial agent with activity against various bacterial agents. It is a bactericidal antibiotic which interferes with cell wall synthesis. Fosfomycin is rapidly absorbed orally and majority of the drug is excreted unchanged in urine with very high concentration levels achieved in urine after a single oral dose. Urine levels remain high for prolonged period which makes it a suitable drug in the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380515/prevalence-of-multi-drug-antimicrobial-resistance-in-isolated-from-high-risk-stocker-cattle-at-arrival-and-two-weeks-after-processing
#8
E Snyder, B Credille, R Berghaus, S Giguère
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in North American beef cattle. () is the bacterial pathogen most frequently isolated from cattle with BRD and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in this pathogen has been increasing. Administration of antimicrobials to prevent BRD is commonplace in stocker cattle, but the impact of this practice on emergence of resistance in is unknown. High risk, sale barn origin bull and steer calves ( = 169) were transported to a stocker facility in central Georgia and sampled via deep nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at arrival processing...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367217/bacteriological-profile-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-bacteria-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-from-children-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#9
Salu Rai, Uday Narayan Yadav, Narayan Dutt Pant, Jaya Krishna Yakha, Prem Prasad Tripathi, Asia Poudel, Binod Lekhak
In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of oxacillin...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367024/carba-np-as-a-simpler-rapid-cost-effective-and-a-more-sensitive-alternative-to-other-phenotypic-tests-for-detection-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-routine-diagnostic-laboratories
#10
Shivani Shinde, Rajarshi Gupta, Shweta S Raut, Gita Nataraj, Preeti R Mehta
PURPOSE: Resistance to carbapenems due to carbapenemases has been increasingly noticed in Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has recommended the latest Carba NP (CNP) test as a confirmatory test for carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae. Low sensitivity of disk diffusion (DD) and modified Hodge test (MHT) may result in missing out of resistant strains which can adversely affect clinical management. The present study compares three phenotypic tests - CNP test, DD, and MHT for detection of carbapenemase production...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359833/first-report-in-africa-of-two-clinical-isolates-of-proteus-mirabilis-carrying-salmonella-genomic-island-sgi1-variants-sgi1-pmabb-and-sgi1-w
#11
Ahmed M Soliman, Ashraf M Ahmed, Toshi Shimamoto, Ramadan A El-Domany, Hirofumi Nariya, Tadashi Shimamoto
Two Proteus mirabilis strains, designated PmTAN59 and PmKAF126, were isolated from two different Egyptian cities in 2014 and 2015, respectively. PmTAN59 was isolated from a sputum swab from a pneumonia patient in Tanta University Teaching Hospital. PmKAF126 was isolated from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in a hospital in the city of Kafr El-Sheikh. The two isolates were identified with bacterial small ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplification and sequencing and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay...
March 28, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353451/the-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kosovo
#12
Greta Lila, Gjyle Mulliqi-Osmani, Rrezarta Bajrami, Arsim Kurti, Elvir Azizi, Lul Raka
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that continues to a leading cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. The rapid increase in drug resistance in clinical isolates of this pathogen is a worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution rate, prevalence and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in clinical specimens from the University Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UCCK). During a three-year period, 553 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from patients admitted to a variety of UCCK units...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335201/size-and-shape-dependent-antibacterial-studies-of-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-wet-chemical-routes
#13
Muhammad Akram Raza, Zakia Kanwal, Anum Rauf, Anjum Nasim Sabri, Saira Riaz, Shahzad Naseem
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm...
April 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#14
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330484/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-production-among-the-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#15
Ankit Belbase, Narayan Dutt Pant, Krishus Nepal, Bibhusan Neupane, Rikesh Baidhya, Reena Baidya, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: The increasing drug resistance along with inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of Staphylococcus aureus are present as the serious problems to the successful treatment of the infections caused by S. aureus. So, the main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns along with the rates of inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of S...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321788/characteristics-of-aerococcus-viridans-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis-and-its-effect-on-milk-scc-yield-and-composition
#16
Meng Sun, Jian Gao, Tariq Ali, Dan Yu, Shiyao Zhang, Saeed U Khan, Séamus Fanning, Bo Han
Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303826/prevalence-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-in-adults-%C3%A2-50-years-of-age
#17
Chand Wattal, Neeraj Goel, S P Byotra
CONTEXT: Currently, majority of studies on antibiotic resistance and serotype prevalence in Streptococcus pneumoniae are in paediatric population and there is limited epidemiologic data pertaining to elderly Indian population. AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess antibiotic resistance pattern and the coverage of the polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPV23) in the elderly population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective 2-year pneumococcal surveillance study in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal infections of ≥50 years' age group on fifty isolates of S...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303246/cytotoxicity-and-antimicrobial-effects-of-a-new-fast-set-mta
#18
Michelle Shin, Jung-Wei Chen, Chi-Yang Tsai, Raydolfo Aprecio, Wu Zhang, Ji Min Yochim, Naichia Teng, Mahmoud Torabinejad
Purpose. To compare the biocompatibility and antimicrobial effectiveness of the new Fast-Set MTA (FS-MTA) with ProRoot MTA (RS-MTA). Methods. The agar overlay method with neutral red dye was used. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were cultured. The liquid and oil extracts and solid test material were placed on the agar overlay, four samples for each material. Phenol was used as the positive control and cottonseed oil and MEM extracts were used as negative controls. Cytotoxicity was examined by measuring the zones of decolorization and evaluating cell lysis under an inverted microscope using the established criteria after 24 and 48 hours...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297749/endophytic-diaporthe-sp-ed2-produces-a-novel-anti-candidal-ketone-derivative
#19
Woei Yenn Tong, Chean Ring Leong, Wen Nee Tan, Melati Khairuddean, Latiffah Zakaria, Darah Ibrahim
This study was aimed to ascertain the anti-candidal efficacy of a novel ketone derivative isolated from Diaporthe sp. ED2, an endophytic fungus residing in medicinal herb Orthosiphon stamieus Benth. The ethyl acetate extract of the fungal culture was separated by open column and reverse phase- high performance liquid chromatography. The eluent of the second peak at retention time 5.64 minute in the HPLC system was the only peak that exhibited anti-candidal activity on Kirby Bauer assay. The structure of the compound was also elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy techniques...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280293/cervicovaginal-bacteriology-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-among-women-with-premature-rupture-of-membranes-in-mulago-hospital-kampala-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Milton W Musaba, Mike N Kagawa, Charles Kiggundu, Paul Kiondo, Julius Wandabwa
Background. A 2013 Cochrane review concluded that the choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in PROM is not clear. In Uganda, a combination of oral erythromycin and amoxicillin is the 1st line for prophylaxis against ascending infection. Our aim was to establish the current cervicovaginal bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods. Liquor was collected aseptically from the endocervical canal and pool in the posterior fornix of the vagina using a pipette. Aerobic cultures were performed on blood, chocolate, and MacConkey agar and incubated at 35-37°C for 24-48 hrs...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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