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ChAT Golgi

Lingxiao Deng, Yiwen Ruan, Chen Chen, Christian Corbin Frye, Wenhui Xiong, Xiaoming Jin, Kathryn Jones, Dale Sengelaub, Xiao-Ming Xu
After spinal cord injury (SCI), poor regeneration of damaged axons of the central nervous system (CNS) causes limited functional recovery. This limited spontaneous functional recovery has been attributed, to a large extent, to the plasticity of propriospinal neurons, especially the descending propriospinal neurons (dPSNs). Compared with the supraspinal counterparts, dPSNs have displayed significantly greater regenerative capacity, which can be further enhanced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
March 2016: Experimental Neurology
Annabelle Le Parc, Edith Honvo Houéto, Natascha Pigat, Sophie Chat, Joëlle Leonil, Eric Chanat
Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1)-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells...
2014: PloS One
K Vijayalakshmi, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Shampa Ghosh, V K Prasanna, B C Sagar, A Nalini, T N Sathyaprabha, T R Raju
We have earlier reported that intrathecal injection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients (ALS-CSF) into neonatal rats and supplementation of rat spinal cord cultures with ALS-CSF induces motor neuron degeneration via aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation and Golgi apparatus fragmentation. Intracellular aggregates immunoreactive to ubiquitin, phosphorylated neurofilaments and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) were prominently seen in NSC-34 cells exposed to ALS-CSF...
March 2011: Neurobiology of Disease
Stefanie Rungaldier, Christine Pomikal, Johannes Streicher, Roland Blumer
Classical proprioceptors, like Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles are absent in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of most mammals. Instead, a nerve end organ was detected in the EOMs of each species including sheep, cat, rabbit, rat, monkey, and human examined so far: the palisade ending. Until now no clear evidence appeared that palisade endings are also present in canine EOMs. Here, we analyzed dog EOMs by confocal laser scanning microscopy, 3D reconstruction, and transmission electron microscopy. In EOM wholemount preparations stained with antibodies against neurofilament and synaptophysin we could demonstrate typical palisade endings...
November 20, 2009: Neuroscience Letters
Stefanie Rungaldier, Stefan Heiligenbrunner, Regina Mayer, Christiane Hanefl-Krivanek, Marietta Lipowec, Johannes Streicher, Roland Blumer
PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the structural and molecular features of classic proprioceptors like muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) and putative proprioceptors (palisade endings) in sheep extraocular muscle (EOMs). METHODS: The EOMs of four sheep were analyzed. Frozen sections or wholemount preparations of the samples were immunohistochemically labeled and analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Triple labeling with different combinations of antibodies against neurofilament, synaptophysin, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as well as alpha-bungarotoxin and phalloidin, was performed...
December 2009: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Guillaume P Dugué, Nicolas Brunel, Vincent Hakim, Eric Schwartz, Mireille Chat, Maxime Lévesque, Richard Courtemanche, Clément Léna, Stéphane Dieudonné
Tonic motor control involves oscillatory synchronization of activity at low frequency (5-30 Hz) throughout the sensorimotor system, including cerebellar areas. We investigated the mechanisms underpinning cerebellar oscillations. We found that Golgi interneurons, which gate information transfer in the cerebellar cortex input layer, are extensively coupled through electrical synapses. When depolarized in vitro, these neurons displayed low-frequency oscillatory synchronization, imposing rhythmic inhibition onto granule cells...
January 15, 2009: Neuron
S G Kalinichenko, Iu V Dudina, P A Motavkin
The neurogliaform cells (NGFC) localized in area 4 of the human motor cortex were found to express choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), GABA, and calbindin. ChAT-positive neurons were located in cortical layer II. Their dendrites lay in a close proximity to those of pyramid cells, neighbouring neurogliaform cells, and bodies and dendrites of other cortical neurons. The NGFCs revealed by Golgi staining fell into two groups. Cells of the first group had locally (within cortical layer II) spreading axons, while those of the second group had axons extending into the adjacent layers...
2006: Tsitologiia
Mette Larsen, Carsten R Bjarkam, Karen Østergaard, Mark J West, Jens C Sørensen
This study provides a light-microscopic description of the organization, morphology and number of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the Göttingen minipig. It is based on histological material stained with Nissl, Golgi and autometallographic techniques, and employs design-based stereological estimation of the total neuron number. The organization of several neurotransmitters in the STN has been evaluated in histological preparations stained for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and immunostained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and glutamate...
June 2004: Anatomy and Embryology
E Katada, K Ojika, S Mitake, R Ueda
A novel peptide, hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), originally purified from young rat hippocampus, affects the development of specific cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system in vitro. In this study, HCNP-like-immunoreactive nerve processes and nerve cell bodies were identified by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry in the rat small intestine. Labeled nerve processes were numerous in the circular muscle layer and around the submucosal blood vessels. In the submucosal and myenteric plexuses, some HCNP-like-immunopositive nerve cell bodies and nerve fibers were present...
March 2000: Journal of Neurocytology
R Anadón, P Molist, I Rodríguez-Moldes, J M López, I Quintela, M C Cerviño, P Barja, A González
Although the distribution of cholinergic cells is remarkably similar across the vertebrate species, no data are available on more primitive species, such as cartilaginous fishes. To extend the evolutionary analysis of the cholinergic systems, we studied the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the brain and rostral spinal cord of Scyliorhinus canicula by immunocytochemistry using an antibody against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Western blot analysis of brain extracts of dogfish, sturgeon, trout, and rat showed that this antibody recognized similar bands in the four species...
May 1, 2000: Journal of Comparative Neurology
F Prada, J I Medina, M López-Gallardo, R López, A Quesada, A Spira, C Prada
The chick retina has three types of cholinergic amacrine cells. We have found that Types I and II differentiate from a common population of postmitotic cells temporarily located in the inner plexiform layer (IPL cells). Golgi staining and immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were used to trace the development and fate of IPL cells. Transformation of the shape of IPL cells into those typical of both conventional amacrine cells and those displaced to the ganglion cell layer are seen...
August 2, 1999: Journal of Comparative Neurology
D Jaarsma, T J Ruigrok, R Caffé, C Cozzari, A I Levey, E Mugnaini, J Voogd
We have studied the source and ultrastructural characteristics of ChAT-immunoreactive fibers in the cerebellum of the rat, and the distribution of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the cerebellum of the rat, rabbit, cat and monkey, in order to define which of the cerebellar afferents may use ACh as a neurotransmitter, what target structures are they, and which cholinergic receptor mediate the actions of these pathways. Our data confirm and extend previous observations that cholinergic markers occur at relatively low density in the cerebellum and show not only interspecies variability, but also heterogeneity between cerebellar lobules in the same species...
1997: Progress in Brain Research
C T Lan, J Y Shieh, C Y Wen, C K Tan, E A Ling
This study reports the reactivities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in some of the nonneuronal elements in the external cuneate nucleus (ECN) of gerbils. AChE reaction products were localized in some oligodendrocytes in their cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope and Golgi saccules. The basal lamina lining the capillary endothelia also displayed AChE reactivity. In ChAT immunocytochemistry, the reaction products were found to be associated with the vascular basal lamina as well as the endothelial plasma membrane facing the lumen...
August 1996: Anatomy and Embryology
D Jaarsma, A I Levey, A Frostholm, A Rotter, J Voogd
Recent studies on the effects of intrafloccular injections of muscarinic agonists and antagonists on compensatory eye movements in rabbit, indicate that muscarinic receptors may play a modulatory role in the rabbit cerebellar circuitry. It was previously demonstrated by Neustadt et al. (1988), that muscarinic receptors in rabbit cerebellar cortex are distributed into alternating longitudinal zones of very high and very low receptor density. In the present study, the zonal and cellular distribution of muscarinic receptors in the rabbit cerebellar cortex is investigated in detail using in vitro ligand autoradiography with the non-selective high-affinity antagonist [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and the M2-specific antagonist [3H]AF-DX384, and immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody specific for the cloned m2 muscarinic receptor protein...
December 1995: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
M L Gilmor, N R Nash, A Roghani, R H Edwards, H Yi, S M Hersch, A I Levey
A cholinergic locus has recently been identified consisting of a unique mammalian genomic arrangement containing the genes for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and a putative vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Although transcripts for ChAT and VAChT protein have been localized in cholinergic neurons, little is known about the encoded VAChT protein. Here we describe production of highly specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies, generated using a VAChT C-terminus/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein, and immunological characterization of the native VAChT protein...
April 1, 1996: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
M Conley, B Friederich-Ecsy
This is the first of two papers describing the organization and connections of the ventral lateral geniculate complex (GLv) in the tree shrew. Using a combination of Nissl, Golgi, histochemical, and immunocytochemical methods, we have identified two major divisions (lateral and medial) of GLv, both of which can be further subdivided. The lateral division contains three subdivisions, external, internal and intergeniculate leaflet. The medial division contains two subdivisions, medio-rostral and medio-caudal...
February 1, 1993: Journal of Comparative Neurology
R Heumann, M Schwab, R Merkl, H Thoenen
In previous experiments it has been demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF), subsequent to its binding to specific membrane receptors, is internalized. Ultrastructurally, this internalized NGF is localized in membrane-confined compartments which ultimately fuse with lysosomes. The present experiments were designed, first, to evaluate whether a very small but functionally important portion of the internalized NGF might reach the free cytoplasm (and subsequently the nuclear chromatin) and might be responsible for the induction of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in PC12 cells...
December 1984: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
H Kondo, H Kuramoto, B H Wainer, N Yanaihara
The distribution and fine structure of cholinergic amacrine cells of the rat retina were observed using monoclonal anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antibody. The ChAT-immunoreactive cholinergic cells were located in the innermost zone of the inner nuclear layer and in the outer zone of the ganglion cell layer, and they formed two distinct bands in the inner plexiform layer. The ChAT-immunoreactive materials were diffusely localized throughout the cytoplasm except for the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and the interior of the endoplasmic reticulum and vesicular components...
March 15, 1985: Neuroscience Letters
M DiFiglia
Cholinergic neurons in the monkey neostriatum were examined at the light and electron microscopic level by immunohistochemical methods in order to localize choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme for acetylcholine. At the light microscopic level a sparse distribution of cholinergic neurons was identified throughout the caudate nucleus. Neurons had large (25-30 microns) somata, eccentric invaginated nuclei, primary dendrites of unequal diameters, and varicosities on distal dendritic branches...
January 8, 1987: Journal of Comparative Neurology
M Frotscher
This chapter deals with the septohippocampal cholinergic projection in the rodent brain. A monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was used to label the cells of origin in the medial septum/diagonal band complex (MSDB) and cholinergic fibers and synapses in the hippocampal formation. The target neurons of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents were identified by combining immunocytochemistry with Golgi impregnation or by double immunolabeling. Types of cholinergic synapses very similar to those found in the hippocampal formation were also observed in other brain regions containing cholinergic neurons and terminals...
1989: EXS
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