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Acute rheumatic fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319894/antibiotic-prescribing-for-endodontic-therapies-a-comparative-survey-between-general-dental-practitioners-gdps-and-final-year-bachelor-of-dental-surgery-bds-students-in-cardiff-uk
#1
A A Al Masan, P M H Dummer, D J J Farnell, M E Vianna
AIM: To evaluate the views of final-year dental surgery (BDS; G1) students at Cardiff University and general dental practitioners (GDPs; G2) within the city of Cardiff, Wales on antibiotic prescribing for endodontic conditions, and investigate the potential differences between the two groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional online questionnaire-based survey of 12 qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed to 76 final-year BDS Cardiff University students and 55 dental practices within Cardiff, UK...
January 10, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250657/streptococcal-tonsillitis-related-reactive-arthritis-clinical-ultrasound-imaging-and-immunohistochemical-study
#2
Anca Emanuela Muşetescu, Marius Florea, Mircea Cătălin ForŢofoiu, Ana Maria Bumbea, Andreea Daniela Tudorancea, Cristina Criveanu, Cristina Elena GofiŢă, Paulina Lucia Ciurea, Alexandru Ştefănescu, Ştefan Cristian Dinescu, Carmen Aurelia Mogoantă
In clinical practice and literature studies, the most common condition associated to streptococcal tonsillitis used to be acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Several publications in the late years report a more frequent and distinctive entity from ARF following β-hemolytic group A streptococcus infection in patients with post-infectious arthritis, that do not fulfill the modified Jones criteria, the so-called post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). A distinctive pattern of clinical framing and biological profile in patients with PSRA following streptococcal tonsillitis is described, with a non-migratory, additive, recent onset (7-10 days) arthritis that affects small and large joints as well, with a bimodal peak of incidence at 8-14 and 21-37 years of age, with variate response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and has a tendency for recurrence and persistence...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236994/group-g-streptococcus-induces-an-autoimmune-il-17a-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-carditis-in-the-lewis-rat-model-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#3
Suchandan Sikder, Natasha L Williams, Alanna E Sorenson, Md A Alim, Miranda E Vidgen, Nicole J Moreland, Catherine M Rush, Robert S Simpson, Brenda L Govan, Robert E Norton, Madeleine W Cunningham, David J McMillan, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Natkunam Ketheesan
Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (ARF/RHD) have long been described as autoimmune sequelae of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Both antibody and T-cell responses against immunodominant GAS virulence factors including M-protein, cross-react with host tissue proteins triggering an inflammatory response leading to permanent heart damage. However, in some ARF/RHD endemic regions, throat carriage of GAS is low. As Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), also known as β-hemolytic groups C and G streptococci (GCS/GGS) also express M-protein, we postulated that streptococci other than GAS may have the potential to initiate or exacerbate ARF/RHD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208066/estimating-the-likely-true-changes-in-rheumatic-fever-incidence-using-two-data-sources
#4
J Oliver, N Pierse, D A Williamson, M G Baker
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) continues to produce a significant burden of disease in New Zealand (NZ) Māori and Pacific peoples. Serious limitations in national surveillance data mean that accurate case totals cannot be generated. Given the changing epidemiology of ARF in NZ and the major national rheumatic fever prevention programme (2012-2017), we updated our previous likely true case number estimates using capture-recapture analyses. Aims were to estimate the likely true incidence of ARF in NZ and comment on the changing ability to detect cases...
December 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189607/the-effect-of-the-oral-probiotic-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-on-group-a-streptococcus-pharyngitis-a-pragmatic-trial-in-schools
#5
Hélène Doyle, Nevil Pierse, Ramona Tiatia, Deborah Williamson, Michael Baker, Julian Crane
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the oral probiotic S. salivarius K12 (K12) in preventing Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in 5-14 year old children at high risk of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). New Zealand has high rates of ARF amongst Māori and Pacific children. Children were already enrolled in a school based Ministry of Health throat swabbing and treatment program. Children self-identified and reported sore throats daily and were swabbed twice weekly...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170852/t-cell-subsets-an-integral-component-in-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#6
REVIEW
Devinder Toor, Neha Sharma
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a consequence of pharyngeal infection of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Carditis is the most common manifestation of ARF which occurs in 30-45% of the susceptible individuals. Overlooked ARF cases might further progress towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in susceptible individuals, which ultimately leads to permanent heart valve damage. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins is the most widely accepted theory to describe the pathogenesis of RHD...
November 23, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168587/effect-of-secondary-penicillin-prophylaxis-on-valvular-changes-in-patients-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-far-north-queensland
#7
Shankar Haran, Natalie Crane, Saniya Kazi, Louise Axford-Haines, Andrew White
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of secondary penicillin prophylaxis (SPP) on echocardiographic diagnosed valvular changes in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) or history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in the Townsville Health district. DESIGN: Patients with known ARF/RHD were identified from the North Queensland RHD register, serial echocardiogram results and number of SPP doses received in 2014 were collated. Descriptive statistics were utilised. SETTING: Townsville Hospital and outreach clinics within the Townsville Health catchment zone...
November 23, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168244/using-preceding-hospital-admissions-to-identify-children-at-risk-of-developing-acute-rheumatic-fever
#8
Jane Oliver, Tim Foster, Deborah A Williamson, Nevil Pierse, Michael G Baker
AIMS: New Zealand (NZ) Māori and Pacific children have high rates of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Around 150 new cases arise each year. As part of the national ARF prevention programme, funding is available to improve housing. To obtain maximum benefit from interventions, an effective tool is needed for targeting high-risk children. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of using hospitalisations for identifying children at risk of subsequent ARF. METHODS: Three potentially avoidable hospitalisation (PAH) groups were investigated, including diseases thought to be influenced by housing...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149897/enablers-and-barriers-to-secondary-prophylaxis-for-rheumatic-fever-among-m%C3%A4-ori-aged-14-21-in-new-zealand-a-framework-method-study
#9
Hilary Barker, John G Oetzel, Nina Scott, Michelle Morley, Polly E Atatoa Carr, Keri Bolton Oetzel
BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) rates have declined to near zero in nearly all developed countries. However, in New Zealand rates have not declined since the 1980s. Further, ARF diagnoses in New Zealand are inequitably distributed--occurring almost exclusively in Māori (the indigenous population) and Pacific children--with very low rates in the majority New Zealand European population. With ARF diagnosis, secondary prophylaxis is key to prevent recurrence. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived enablers and barriers to secondary recurrence prophylaxis following ARF for Māori patients aged 14-21...
November 17, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146122/health-and-wellbeing-of-indigenous-adolescents-in-australia-a-systematic-synthesis-of-population-data
#10
Peter S Azzopardi, Susan M Sawyer, John B Carlin, Louisa Degenhardt, Ngiare Brown, Alex D Brown, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121626/wh%C3%A4-nau-perceptions-and-experiences-of-acute-rheumatic-fever-diagnosis-for-m%C3%A4-ori-in-northland-new-zealand
#11
Anneka Anderson, Clair Mills, Kyle Eggleton
AIM: In New Zealand, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) remains a significant health problem with persistent ethnic inequities. Māori children 5-15 years of age in Northland have some of the highest ARF rates nationally. This study explored Māori whānau experiences of ARF, including pathways to primary healthcare and barriers and facilitators for diagnosis of ARF. METHODS: The study applied a qualitative kaupapa Māori approach including eight whānau, two individual interviews and participant observations with 36 participants...
November 10, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067722/ventricular-dyssynchrony-as-a-marker-of-latent-carditis-in-children-with-acute-rheumatic-fever-a-tissue-doppler-imaging
#12
Ragab A Mahfouz, Waleed S Alawady, Abdelhakeem Salem
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that the presence of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in children with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) children may be a predictor of latent rheumatic carditis. METHODS: Eighty-nine children with ARF and 45 healthy control children were included the study. LV dyssynchrony was investigated by color-coded tissue Doppler imaging. RESULTS: LV dyssynchrony parameters including Ts-SD-12, Ts-12, Ts-SD-6, and Ts-6 were found to be prolonged in children with ARF than in controls (P < ...
October 25, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065944/pulse-therapy-combined-with-oral-corticosteroids-in-the-management-of-severe-rheumatic-carditis-and-rebound
#13
Renato P A Torres, Rômulo F A Torres, Rafael A Torres, Rosângela S L A Torres
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical course, laboratory tests, and the cardiac involvement in rheumatic carditis patients in functional class III and IV, submitted to pulse therapy combined with oral prednisone. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with severe carditis due to acute rheumatic fever were treatment with three cycles of pulse therapy combined with oral corticosteroids. The patients were followed up from the hospital admission until the end of the treatment and returned after 30, 60, and 90 days to control...
October 25, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042984/bmi1-and-brg1-drive-myocardial-repair-by-regulating-cardiac-stem-cell-function-in-acute-rheumatic-heart-disease
#14
Pingxi Xiao, Kai Zhang, Zhiwen Tao, Niannian Liu, Bangshun Ge, Min Xu, Xinzheng Lu
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) occurs due to the accumulation of complications associated with rheumatic fever, and it results in high morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases of RHD are diagnosed in the chronic stages, when treatment options are limited. A small reservoir of cardiac stem cells is responsible for maintaining cardiac homeostasis and repairing tissue damage. Understanding the role of cardiac stem cells and the various proteins responsible for their functions in different pathological stages of RHD is an important area of investigation...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983760/chikungunya-virus-associated-disease
#15
REVIEW
C Hua, B Combe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has become increasingly prevalent in the last decade not only across the southern hemisphere but also, because of a recently documented viral mutation, in southern Europe and the USA. With the global spread of CHIKV infection, practitioners should know its epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical features. RECENT FINDINGS: The acute phase of CHIKV disease is characterised by a fever-arthralgia-rash syndrome...
October 5, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974446/assessment-of-cpa-scl1-and-scl2-in-clinical-group-a-streptococcus-isolates-and-patients-from-north-india-an-evaluation-of-the-host-pathogen-interaction
#16
Priyanka Chaudhary, Rajesh Kumar, Vivek Sagar, Subendu Sarkar, Rupneet Singh, Sujata Ghosh, Surjit Singh, Anuradha Chakraborti
Group A streptococcus (GAS) infection remains a major concern due to multiple diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). It uses different adhesins and virulence factors like Cpa (collagen binding protein) and Scl (collagen-like protein) in its pathogenicity. Scl having similarities with human collagen may contribute to inducing autoimmunity in the host. Here we assessed gene expression, antibody titer of Cpa, Scl1 and Scl2 in both clinical GAS isolates (n = 45) and blood (n = 45) obtained from pharyngitis, ARF (acute rheumatic fever) and RHD respectively...
September 30, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971103/towards-developing-a-vaccine-for-rheumatic-heart-disease
#17
REVIEW
Geethanjali Devadoss Gandhi, Navaneethakrishnan Krishnamoorthy, Ussama M Abdel Motal, Magdi Yacoub
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious manifestations of rheumatic fever, which is caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS or Streptococcus pyogenes) infection. RHD is an auto immune sequelae of GAS pharyngitis, rather than the direct bacterial infection of the heart, which leads to chronic heart valve damage. Although antibiotics like penicillin are effective against GAS infection, improper medical care such as poor patient compliance, overcrowding, poverty, and repeated exposure to GAS, leads to acute rheumatic fever and RHD...
March 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964871/anti-ulcer-and-anti-helicobacter-pylori-potentials-of-the-ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-physalis-alkekengi-l-var-franchetii-solanaceae-in-rodent
#18
Yong Wang, Sui Lou Wang, Jiong Yi Zhang, Xiao Ning Song, Zhi Yong Zhang, Jing Feng Li, Song Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Solanaceae) has been widely used in Chinese folk medicine due to its wide distribution throughout the country, for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including heat and cold, sore throat, fever, fungal infection, inflammation, toothache, rheumatism, burn, analgesic, ulcer and urinary diseases. However, the effect of P. alkekengi var. franchetii on ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection has not been reported to date...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951419/group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-immune-responses-involved-in-bacterial-clearance-and-gas-associated-immunopathologies
#19
REVIEW
Amelia T Soderholm, Timothy C Barnett, Matthew J Sweet, Mark J Walker
Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism. However, until recently, little was known about the host responses elicited during infection...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906537/the-changing-spectrum-of-rheumatic-mitral-regurgitation-in-soweto-south-africa
#20
Ruchika Meel, Ferande Peters, Elena Libhaber, Mohammed Rafique Essop
OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of contemporary patients with rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 84 patients with isolated moderate or severe rheumatic MR who underwent clinical and echocardiographic assessment. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 44 ± 15.3 years (84% females). Acute rheumatic fever was rare...
July 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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