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Indigenous health

Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Adam C Lipus, Juan S Leon, Susana C Calle, Karen L Andes
The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Ghanshyam Kumar Satyapal, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Amrita Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar Ranjan, Krishna Prakash, Rizwanul Haque, Nitish Kumar
In middle Gangetic plain, high arsenic concentration is present in water, which causes a significant health risk. Total 48 morphologically distinct arsenite resistant bacteria were isolated from middle Gangetic plain. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of arsenite varied widely in the range 1-15 mM of the isolates. On the basis of their MIC, two isolates, AK1 (KY569423) and AK9 (KY569424) were selected. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of selected isolates revealed that they are belong to the genus Pseudomonas ...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Nely Cristina Medeiros Caires, Luciana Carla Neves de Brito, Leda Quercia Vieira, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro Sobrinho
The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological profile of oral health of Sateré-Mawé indigenous people living in Barreirinha, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, and the Tikuna indigenous people living in the urban area of Manaus (AM), in addition to characterizing the need for endodontic treatment between the two ethnic groups. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study, of whom 98 were Tikuna and 40 were Sateré-Mawé; they were distributed in age groups ranging from seven to 75 years. A very high prevalence of caries was observed in both ethnic groups...
March 8, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Awah-Ndukum, M M M Mouiche, H N Bayang, V Ngu Ngwa, E Assana, K J M Feussom, T K Manchang, P A Zoli
A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted on cattle in the North and Adamawa Regions of Cameroon to investigate the status of bovine brucellosis and identify potential risk factors. The diagnosis was carried out using the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA), while questionnaires were used to evaluate risk factors for bovine brucellosis in cattle. The Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity. The overall individual level ( n = 1031) and herd level ( n = 82) seroprevalence were 5...
2018: Veterinary Medicine International
Jonathan McGavock, Anita Durksen, Brandy Wicklow, Sayma Malik, Elizabeth Ac Sellers, Tom Blydt-Hansen, Dan Chateau, Allison Dart
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the readiness for adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors was associated with mental health and comorbid conditions in youth with T2D. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison of various measures of mental health (distress, stress, resilience) and comorbid conditions (glycated hemoglobin, adiposity, hypertension) was conducted within a cohort of indigenous youth with T2D living in Canada, stratified according to their readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors based on Prochaska's transtheoretical model...
March 13, 2018: Obesity
Aaron Parkhurst
In light of increasingly high rates of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity among citizens of the Arabian Gulf, popular health discourse in the region has emphasised the emergent Arab genome as the primary etiological basis of major health conditions. However, after many years of public dissemination of genomic knowledge in the region, and widespread acceptance of this knowledge among Gulf Arab citizens, the rates of chronic illness continue to increase. This paper briefly explores the clash between indigenous Islamic knowledge systems and biomedical knowledge systems imported into the United Arab Emirates...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Caitriona Monahan, Mathew Coleman
OBJECTIVES: Despite research showing higher use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in rural areas, limited research has examined the epidemiology of ATS-related presentations and admissions to remote regional centres. To determine the epidemiology of ATS-related (a) Emergency Department (ED) presentations and (b) inpatient admissions over a five-year period at the Hedland Health Campus (HHC) in remote Western Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Katherine J Harmon, Marilyn Goss Haskell, Courtney H Mann, Anna E Waller
INTRODUCTION: North Carolina (NC) is home to more than 30 species of indigenous venomous and nonvenomous snakes. Snakebites can cause debilitating and potentially fatal injuries. However, there is a lack of current information available describing the incidence of snakebites in NC. Therefore, we performed this study of snakebites treated in NC emergency departments (EDs) using the statewide syndromic surveillance system, the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT)...
March 9, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Lily Kpobi, Leslie Swartz
BACKGROUND: Traditional healing methods are considered central to mental health care in low-income countries such as Ghana, because they are perceived to be more easily accessible, more affordable and generally ascribe similar causal beliefs to those of the patients. However, not much is known about the work of traditional healers largely because their methods are shrouded in mysticism and secrecy. There is a need to understand the ideology and beliefs of traditional healers surrounding mental disorders, including knowledge about their practices in mental health care...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Ashok Malla, Jai Shah, Srividya Iyer, Patricia Boksa, Ridha Joober, Neil Andersson, Shalini Lal, Rebecca Fuhrer
In this article we have provided a perspective on the importance and value of youth mental health services for society and argued that advancing youth mental health services should be the number one priority of health services in Canada. Using the age period of 12-25 years for defining youth, we have provided justification for our position based on scientific evidence derived from clinical, epidemiological and neurodevelopmental studies. We have highlighted the early onset of most mental disorders and substance abuse as well as their persistence into later adulthood, the long delays experienced by most help seekers and the consequence of such delays for young people and for society in general...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Josef R Bober, Chase L Beisel, Nikhil U Nair
An increasing number of studies have strongly correlated the composition of the human microbiota with many human health conditions and, in several cases, have shown that manipulating the microbiota directly affects health. These insights have generated significant interest in engineering indigenous microbiota community members and nonresident probiotic bacteria as biotic diagnostics and therapeutics that can probe and improve human health. In this review, we discuss recent advances in synthetic biology to engineer commensal and probiotic lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides for these purposes, and we provide our perspective on the future potential of these technologies...
March 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Ranjan Bhattacharyya
The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Canaan Aumua, Sanjeev Krishna, Udaya Samarakkody, Danny de Lore
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether racial disparities in healthcare exist within a New Zealand pediatric surgical outreach service in a high indigenous Māori population. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study assessed all pediatric surgical procedures performed within a secondary center in New Zealand between May 2014 and May 2016. The days between the date of surgery booking on the waiting list and actual date of surgery were calculated and compared to their corresponding elective surgery waiting target times set by the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Tamasin Taylor, Yijiao Wang, William Rogerson, Lynda Bavin, Cindy Sharon, Grant Beban, Nicholas Evennett, Greg Gamble, Timothy Cundy
BACKGROUND: Factors such as ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status may play a role in both access to and attrition from bariatric programs before surgery is undertaken. New Zealand (NZ) has high rates of obesity in its Pacific population and the indigenous Māori. These groups also experience poorer health outcomes and therefore have the greatest need for surgery. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 704 people referred for and accepted onto a publicly funded bariatric surgery from 2007 to 2016...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Rica Dela Cruz, Jeanolivia Grant, Julia E Heck, Haley L Cash
INTRODUCTION: Although other studies have found evidence for perinatal health disparities among Pacific Islanders in other regions, no studies have evaluated racial/ethnic disparities in adverse perinatal health outcomes in the small US island territory of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). METHODS: We used retrospective cohort data on 8,427 singleton births from 2007 to 2014 at the Commonwealth Healthcare Corporation (CHCC), the only hospital in the CNMI...
March 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Mohammed S Al-Omary, Allan J Davies, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Bruce Bastian, Peter J Fletcher, John Attia, Andrew J Boyle
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a common, costly condition with an increasing burden on Australian health care system resources. Knowledge of the burden of HF on patients and on the health system is important for resource allocation. This study is the first systematic review to estimate the mortality and readmission rates after hospitalisation for HF in the Australian population. METHODS: We searched for studies of HF hospitalisation in Australia published between January 1990 and May 2016, using a systematic search of PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library databases...
February 5, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
P T Maclure, S Gluck, A Pearce, M E Finnis
This study was performed to estimate the effect of the retrieval process on mortality for patients admitted to a mixed adult intensive care unit (ICU) compared with propensity-matched, non-retrieved controls. Patients retrieved to the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) ICU between 2011 and 2015 were propensity-score matched for age, gender, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score and diagnostic group with non-retrieved ICU patients to estimate the average treatment effect of retrieval on hospital mortality...
March 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Diana Rangihuna, Mark Kopua, David Tipene-Leach
Māori demand on New Zealand mental health services is out of proportion to the size of the Māori population, and the psychiatric service response is limited by lack of capacity. But there is also an inherent lack of capability, that is, the ability of a Western paradigm psychiatric service to meet the needs of an indigenous community. The Mahi a Atua narratives-based programme established in the primary mental healthcare services of the Tairāwhiti/Gisborne area has created a new approach to psychiatric assessment, diagnosis and therapy that is appropriate, but not confined, to the Māori community...
March 9, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
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