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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723479/infectious-complications-of-circumcision-and-their-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
CONTEXT: A growing body of evidence supports the health benefits of circumcision, but the occurrence of infectious complications is of concern. OBJECTIVE: To review literature presenting past data and studies of infectious complications of circumcision and their prevention. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Turning Research into Practice, PubMed, and Medline databases from their inception through June 25, 2015...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722617/case-report-disseminated-shewanella-algae-infection-with-meningoencephalitis-in-a-traveler-secondary-to-marine-injury-in-madagascar
#2
Caroline Brulliard, Nicolas Traversier, Jérôme Allyn, Christopher Schaeffer, Bruno Bouchet, Nicolas Allou
Marine microorganisms such as Shewanella spp., Vibrio spp., and Aeromonas spp. can cause sepsis secondary to a wound infection in the context of swimming. These microorganisms are most often susceptible to fluoroquinolones. Here, we report a unique case of Shewanella algae bacteremia associated with meningoencephalitis and disseminated via hematogenous spread secondary to a skin injury. The patient suffered the injury while swimming in saline water during a cruise holiday in Madagascar, and she was initially treated with amoxicillin...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722588/optimizing-direct-membrane-and-direct-skin-feeding-assays-for-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-blocking-vaccine-trials-in-bancoumana-mali
#3
Mamadou B Coulibaly, Erin E Gabriel, Youssouf Sinaba, Daman Sylla, Adama Sacko, Lakamy Sylla, Boubacar Coulibaly, Jen C C Hume, Ibrahima Baber, Mahamadoun H Assadou, Issaka Sagara, Yimin Wu, Sara A Healy, Ogobara Doumbo, Sekou F Traore, Patrick E Duffy
Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) have been evaluated in field trials in Mali, since 2013. However, the assays currently used to measure serum antibody TB activity (TBA) after vaccination are highly variable, in part due to the lack of optimization and standardization for field assays in which mosquitoes feed on gametocytemic blood. Herein, we report a study conducted in Bancoumana village, Mali, where we identify and optimize the parameters that contribute to successful mosquito feeding outcomes in both direct skin feeds (DSFs) and direct membrane feeding assays (DMFA)...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722566/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#4
Alicia D Yeap, Kate Woods, David A B Dance, Bruno Pichon, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Viengmon Davong, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Nandini Shetty, Angela M Kearns
This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722457/-diseases-affecting-the-scalp
#5
Dana Suchánková
The skin of the scalp differs from the skin on the other areas of the body because of a higher density of hair follicles and higher sebum production. These, together with the presence of hair, provide a suitable environment for superficial infections, infestations and inflammatory diseases. The good condition of the scalp has a significant impact on the patient's mental well-being and social interaction. The visibility of this part of the skin and the presence of hair itself restrict the range of possible therapeutic agents that can be used due to the complicated application and poor cosmetic outcome...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722377/-sweet-s-syndrome-a-diagnosis-to-keep-in-mind
#6
Caroline Lang, Sandrine Quenan
Sweet's syndrome is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis. Typically, patients present with a sudden onset of tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques), of asymetrical distribution, located preferentially on the superior limbs, face and neck, associated whith high fever and neutrophilia. Histologicaly, there is a diffuse infiltrate of neutrophils located in the dermis. Most of the time idiopathic, it may be associated with a respiratory or gastro-intestinal infection, with inflammatory bowel disease, pregnancy and vaccination...
March 29, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722019/sustained-accumulation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-after-infection-promotes-local-t-cell-immunity
#7
Nicholas Collins, Katharina Hochheiser, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages are critical for T cell-mediated immunity. While it is established that memory T cells accumulate and persist in peripheral tissues after the resolution of infection, whether this is also the case for APC remains unclear. Here, we report that CCR2-dependent cells infiltrate skin during acute infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and subsequently give rise to localized populations of dendritic cells and macrophages. These APC are found at elevated numbers at sites of resolved infection or inflammation compared to unaffected regions of skin...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721846/skin-fungi-from-colonization-to-infection
#8
Sybren de Hoog, Michel Monod, Tom Dawson, Teun Boekhout, Peter Mayser, Yvonne Gräser
Humans are exceptional among vertebrates in that their living tissue is directly exposed to the outside world. In the absence of protective scales, feathers, or fur, the skin has to be highly effective in defending the organism against the gamut of opportunistic fungi surrounding us. Most (sub)cutaneous infections enter the body by implantation through the skin barrier. On intact skin, two types of fungal expansion are noted: (A) colonization by commensals, i.e., growth enabled by conditions prevailing on the skin surface without degradation of tissue, and (B) infection by superficial pathogens that assimilate epidermal keratin and interact with the cellular immune system...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720851/microneedle-patch-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-enhances-maternal-immune-responses-promoting-survival-and-long-lasting-passive-immunity-to-offspring
#9
E Stein Esser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Haripriya Kalluri, Devin McAllister, Elena V Vassilieva, Elizabeth Q Littauer, Nadia Lelutiu, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Influenza virus causes life-threatening infections in pregnant women and their newborns. Immunization during pregnancy is the most effective means of preventing maternal and infant mortality/morbidity; however, influenza vaccination rates of pregnant women remain under 50%. Furthermore, the availability of vaccines in low-resource populations is limited. Skin immunization with microneedle patches (MN) is a novel and safe vaccination platform featuring thermostable vaccine formulations. Cold-chain independence and the potential for self-administration can expand influenza vaccination coverage in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#10
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720611/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#11
Tariro J Basera, Jabulani Ncayiyana, Mark E Engel
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a major public health problem and one of the major contributors to the pool of active tuberculosis cases. The true burden of LTBI in Africa is not known. Early modelling studies estimate that over 33% of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis. We propose conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the burden and risk factors of LTBI in Africa reported in studies from 2000 to 2017. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-control studies estimating either tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) confirmed prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among people in African countries...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719716/the-sophono-bone-conduction-system-surgical-audiologic-and-quality-of-life-outcomes
#12
Timothy Mclean, Irumee Pai, Andrew Philipatos, Michael Gordon
We prospectively evaluated the surgical, audiologic, and quality-of-life outcomes in 5 patients-2 men and 3 women, aged 22 to 64 years (mean: 41.8)-who were implanted with the Sophono Alpha 2 MPO Processor. The indications for implantation of this bone-conduction device included recurrent ear canal infections with hearing aids (n = 3), single-sided deafness (n = 1), and patient preference in view of difficulty using a conventional hearing aid (n = 1). In addition to the patient with single-sided deafness, 3 patients had a bilateral mixed hearing loss and 1 had a bilateral conductive hearing loss...
July 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719279/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-penicilliosis-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-in-eastern-china
#13
Jun Chen, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Li Liu, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Wei Song, Yang Tang, Hongzhou Lu
AbstractTalaromyces marneffei infection is increasingly observed in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in eastern China, a nonendemic area. This study aimed to draw the clinician's attention to this disease by presenting the clinical characteristics and prognosis of penicilliosis among HIV-infected patients from this region. We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with culture-proven T. marneffei infection admitted during January 1, 2014-December 31, 2015, at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717958/-the-8th-edition-of-the-ajcc-cancer-staging-manual-updates-in-otorhinolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery
#14
REVIEW
J Doescher, J A Veit, T K Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The TNM system is an established tool for classification of solid tumors by means of tumor size and extent, the involvement of local lymph nodes, and the presence of distant metastases. The classification was established in order to visualize prognostic implications and to allow establishment of systematic therapeutic algorithms. Since the beginning of 2017 a revised version of the classification has applied. Particularly the classification of otorhinolaryngologic tumors has been thoroughly revised in the 8th edition, partly on the basis of new prognostically relevant parameters, such as infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes...
July 17, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717637/phage-therapy-in-a-16-year-old-boy-with-netherton-syndrome
#15
Pikria Zhvania, Naomi Sulinger Hoyle, Lia Nadareishvili, Dea Nizharadze, Mzia Kutateladze
Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by a classical triad of clinical features, including congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, trichorrhexis invaginata, and atopic diathesis coupled with frequent bacterial infections (1). The genetic basis for the disease has been recently identified with mutations in gene SPINK5, which is involved in the regulation of formation of skin barriers. We report on a 16-year-old male with all the typical manifestations of NS, including atopic diathesis and ongoing serious staphylococcal infections and allergy to multiple antibiotics whose family sought help at the Eliava Phage Therapy Center when all other treatment options were failing...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717286/histological-changes-in-nasolabial-cutaneous-flaps-employed-in-intraoral-reconstruction
#16
Lazaridou Maria, Dimitrakopoulos Ioannis, Vaxtsevanos Konstantinos, Iordanidis Fotis, Antoniades Konstantinos
INTRODUCTION: Nasolabial cutaneous flaps have been routinely used to reconstruct intraoral defects. The purpose of this study was to study histological changes that may occur in the skin flap as a result of its exposure to a new environment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients took part in this study. Fusiform tissue specimens were obtained from the intraoral cutaneous portion of the flap. Biopsy specimens were also taken from the skin of nasolabial region and from the buccal mucosa to serve as control...
September 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#17
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716677/incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-in-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-rural-china-follow-up-results-of-a-population-based-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Lei Gao, Xiangwei Li, Jianmin Liu, Xinhua Wang, Wei Lu, Liqiong Bai, Henan Xin, Haoran Zhang, Hengjing Li, Zongde Zhang, Yu Ma, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Jiang Du, Hongtao Sui, Rong Zhao, Haoxiang Su, Shouguo Pan, Ling Guan, Fei Shen, Jian He, Shumin Yang, Hongyan Si, Xu Cheng, Zuhui Xu, Yunhong Tan, Tianzhu Chen, Weiguo Xu, Hong Peng, Zhijian Wang, Tao Zhu, Xiaoyou Chen, Xinhua Zhou, Xueling Guan, Qi Jin
BACKGROUND: The management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a new priority action for the WHO End Tuberculosis (TB) Strategy. However, national guidelines on latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment have not yet been developed in China. Here, we present the results from the 2-year follow-up of a study that aimed to track the development of active disease in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, identify priority populations for latent infection management, and explore the most suitable latent infection diagnostic approach...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716363/clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-patients-with-severe-influenza-receiving-intravenous-peramivir-salvage-therapy-in-intensive-care-units
#19
Ching-Yuan Yeh, Fu-Der Wang, Yu-Chung Chuang, Chia-Jui Yang, Shiang-Fen Huang, Wen-Sung Weng, Chun-Hsin Liaw, Wang-Huei Sheng
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated patients with severe influenza who receive intravenous peramivir for salvage therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 71 patients with severe influenza who received intravenous peramivir therapy in the intensive care units of three medical centers between 2012 and 2016. All patients received oseltamivir or zanamivir before the administration of peramivir. RESULTS: A total of 44 men and 27 women with a median age of 55 years were enrolled...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713774/epic-immune-battles-of-history-neutrophils-vs-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
REVIEW
Fermin E Guerra, Timothy R Borgogna, Delisha M Patel, Eli W Sward, Jovanka M Voyich
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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