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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434388/microrna-221-3p-is-up-regulated-and-serves-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-pancreatic-cancer
#1
Feng Li, Jian-Wei Xu, Lei Wang, Han Liu, Ye Yan, San-Yuan Hu
It has been demonstrated that circulating MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. For pancreatic cancer (PCa), little is known about miR-221-3p biological function or its prognostic value. In the current study, we profiled miR-221-3p expression in PCa cell lines. Compared with normal pancreases ductal epithelial cells, miR-221-3p is up-regulated in all PCa cell lines analysed. In SW1990 cells, overexpression of miR-221-3p increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis, while inhibition of miR-221-3p decreased cell growth rate and promoted apoptosis...
April 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426339/fasting-levels-of-insulin-and-amylin-after-acute-pancreatitis-are-associated-with-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#2
Nicola A Gillies, Sayali A Pendharkar, Ruma G Singh, John A Windsor, Madhav Bhatia, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic diseases continues to rise worldwide, with a growing recognition of metabolic dysregulation after acute inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis (AP). Adipokines and cytokines play an important role in metabolism and the course of AP, but there is a paucity of research investigating their relationship with pancreatic hormones after AP. This study aimed to explore associations between pancreatic hormones with adipokines and cytokines to provide insights into the pathophysiology of altered pancreatic hormone secretion following AP...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425994/modulating-the-therapeutic-response-of-tumours-to-dietary-serine-and-glycine-starvation
#3
Oliver D K Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C Cheung, Pearl Lee, Tong Zhang, Niels J F van den Broek, Gillian M Mackay, Christiaan F Labuschagne, David Gay, Flore Kruiswijk, Julianna Blagih, David F Vincent, Kirsteen J Campbell, Fatih Ceteci, Owen J Sansom, Karen Blyth, Karen H Vousden
The non-essential amino acids serine and glycine are used in multiple anabolic processes that support cancer cell growth and proliferation (reviewed in ref. 1). While some cancer cells upregulate de novo serine synthesis, many others rely on exogenous serine for optimal growth. Restriction of dietary serine and glycine can reduce tumour growth in xenograft and allograft models. Here we show that this observation translates into more clinically relevant autochthonous tumours in genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer (driven by Apc inactivation) or lymphoma (driven by Myc activation)...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423380/a-systematic-review-of-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-issues-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#4
Megan Topping, Debra Gray, Elizabeth Friend, Albert Davies, John Ramage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420716/a-men1-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-mouse-model-under-temporal-control
#5
Kate E Lines, Roeland P Vas Nunes, Morten Frost, Christopher J Yates, Mark Stevenson, Rajesh Thakker
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, and neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreatic islets and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, encoding menin, is a tumour suppressor, but its precise role in initiating in vivo tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. The availability of a temporally controlled conditional MEN1 mouse model would greatly facilitate the study of such early tumourigenic events, and overcome the limitations of other MEN1 knockout models, in which menin is lost from conception, or tumour development occurs asynchronously...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414315/the-emt-activator-zeb1-is-a-key-factor-for-cell-plasticity-and-promotes-metastasis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Angela M Krebs, Julia Mitschke, María Lasierra Losada, Otto Schmalhofer, Melanie Boerries, Hauke Busch, Martin Boettcher, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Wilfried Reichardt, Peter Bronsert, Valerie G Brunton, Christian Pilarsky, Thomas H Winkler, Simone Brabletz, Marc P Stemmler, Thomas Brabletz
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Partial activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program (partial EMT) was considered a major driver of tumour progression from initiation to metastasis. However, the role of EMT in promoting metastasis has recently been challenged, in particular concerning effects of the Snail and Twist EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) in pancreatic cancer. In contrast, we show here that in the same pancreatic cancer model, driven by Pdx1-cre-mediated activation of mutant Kras and p53 (KPC model), the EMT-TF Zeb1 is a key factor for the formation of precursor lesions, invasion and notably metastasis...
April 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410913/superior-mesenteric-artery-sma-resection-during-pancreatectomy-for-malignant-disease-of-the-pancreas-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Santhalingam Jegatheeswaran, Minas Baltatzis, Saurabh Jamdar, Ajith K Siriwardena
BACKGROUND: Resection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during pancreatectomy is performed infrequently and is undertaken with the aim of removing non-metastatic locally advanced pancreatic tumours. SMA resection reports also encompass resection of other visceral vessels. The consequences of resection of these different arteries are not necessarily equivalent. This is a focused systematic review of the outcome of SMA resection during pancreatectomy for cancer. METHODS: A computerized search of the English language literature was undertaken for the period 1st January 2000 through 30th April 2016...
April 11, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405826/everolimus-as-first-line-therapy-for-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Marco Gallo, Pasqualino Malandrino, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Francesca Rota, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Colao
PURPOSE: Everolimus has been shown to be effective for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs), but its positioning in the therapeutic algorithm for pNETs is matter of debate. METHODS: With the aim to shed light on this point, we performed an up-to-date critical review taking into account the results of both retrospective and prospective published studies, and the recommendations of international guidelines. In addition, we performed an extensive search on the Clinical Trial Registries databases worldwide, to gather information on the ongoing clinical trials related to this specific topic...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400403/molecular-imaging-in-the-investigation-of-hypoglycaemic-syndromes-and-their-management
#9
David A Pattison, Rodney J Hicks
There has been recent progress in molecular imaging using a variety of cellular targets for the investigation of adult non-diabetic hypoglycaemic syndromes and its integration into patient management. These targets include peptide receptors - somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) - the Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation system utilising the diphydroxyphenylaline (DOPA) analogue 6-[18F]-L-fluoro-L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA), and glycolytic metabolism with 2-[18F]Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (FDG)...
April 11, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393239/psoriasin-promotes-invasion-aggregation-and-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-association-with-disease-progression
#10
Ying Liu, Carly Bunston, Nicholas Hodson, Jeyna Resaul, Ping-Hui Sun, Shuo Cai, Gang Chen, Yanan Gu, Lucy K Satherley, David C Bosanquet, Bilal Al-Sarireh, Xiuyun Tian, Chunyi Hao, Wen G Jiang, Lin Ye
Psoriasin (S100A7) is an 11-kDa small calcium binding protein initially isolated from psoriatic skin lesions. It belongs to the S100 family of proteins which play an important role in a range of cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Aberrant Psoriasin expression has been implicated in a range of cancers and is often associated with poor prognosis. This study examined the role of Psoriasin on pancreatic cancer cell functions and the implication in progression of the disease...
May 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391673/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-vascular-therapy-the-present-and-the-future
#11
REVIEW
Philip S J Hall, Christopher Teshima, Gary R May, Jeffrey D Mosko
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) offers access to many intra-abdominal vessels that until now have only been accessible to the surgeon and interventional radiologist. In addition to assisting with diagnostics, this unique access offers the potential for therapeutic intervention for a host of indications. To date, this has had the most clinical impact in the treatment of gastroesophageal varices, with EUS-guided coil and glue application growing in use worldwide. Although randomised controlled trial data is lacking, we discuss the growing body of literature behind EUS-guided therapy in the management of varices...
March 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388884/inhibition-of-six1-affects-tumour-invasion-and-the-expression-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Tristan Lerbs, Savita Bisht, Sebastian Schölch, Mathieu Pecqueux, Glen Kristiansen, Martin Schneider, Bianca T Hofmann, Thilo Welsch, Christoph Reissfelder, Nuh N Rahbari, Johannes Fritzmann, Peter Brossart, Jürgen Weitz, Georg Feldmann, Christoph Kahlert
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumour progression and metastasis. Assessment of transcription factors involved in these two mechanisms can help to identify new targets for an oncological therapy. In this study, we focused on the evaluation of the transcription factor Six1 (Sine oculis 1). This protein is involved in embryologic development and its contribution to carcinogenesis has been described in several studies. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry against Six1 was performed on a tissue microarray containing specimens of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) of 139 patients...
April 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385665/dictating-genomic-destiny-epigenetic-regulation-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#13
REVIEW
Justin S Gundara, Karim Jamal, Tom Kurzawinski
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a diverse group of neoplasms with an increasingly well-defined genomic basis. Despite this, much of what drives this disease is still unknown and epigenetic influences represent the next tier of gene, and hence disease modifiers that are of unquestionable importance. Moreover, they are of arguably more significance than the genes themselves given their malleable nature and potential to be exploited for not only diagnosis and prognosis, but also therapy. This review summarises what is known regarding the key epigenetic modifiers of disease through the domains of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment...
April 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382202/mitochondria-targeted-metformins-anti-tumour-and-redox-signalling-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Gang Cheng, Micael Hardy, Olivier Ouari, Adam Sikora, Jacek Zielonka, Michael Dwinell
Reports suggest that metformin exerts anti-cancer effects in diabetic individuals with pancreatic cancer. Thus, metformin is currently being repurposed as a potential drug in cancer treatment. Studies indicate that potent metformin analogues are required in cancer treatment because of the low bioavailability of metformin in humans at conventional antidiabetic doses. We proposed that improved mitochondrial targeting of metformin by attaching a positively charged lipophilic triphenylphosphonium group will result in a new class of mitochondria-targeted metformin analogues with significantly enhanced anti-tumour potential...
April 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379317/circulating-pancreatic-stellate-stromal-cells-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-fertile-area-for-novel-research
#15
Tony Cy Pang, Zhihong Xu, Srinivasa Pothula, Therese Becker, David Goldstein, Romano C Pirola, Jeremy S Wilson, Minoti V Apte
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is known to play an important role in facilitating pancreatic cancer progression - both in terms of local tumour growth as well as the establishment of metastases. We have previously demonstrated that PSCs from the primary cancer seed to distant metastatic sites. We therefore hypothesise that PSCs circulate along with pancreatic cancer cells (circulating tumour cells - CTCs) to help create a growth permissive microenvironment at distant metastatic sites. This review aims to explore the concept of circulating PSCs in pancreatic cancer and suggests future directions for research in this area...
April 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378800/phase-ii-study-of-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-borderline-resectable-and-unresectable-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Michele Fiore, Sara Ramella, Sergio Valeri, Damiano Caputo, Barnaba Floreno, Pasquale Trecca, Luca Eolo Trodella, Lucio Trodella, Rolando Maria D'Angelillo, Roberto Coppola
There is not a clear consensus regarding the optimal treatment of locally advanced pancreatic disease. There is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy to treat micrometastatic disease with chemotherapy, as well as for the treatment of local disease with radiotherapy. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of induction chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and gemcitabine followed by a high weekly dose of gemcitabine concurrent to radiation therapy in patients with borderline resectable and unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377069/inflammatory-cytokines-and-angiogenic-factors-as-potential-biomarkers-in-south-african-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-patients-a-preliminary-report
#17
Yandiswa Y Yako, Martin Brand, Martin Smith, Deirdré Kruger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several studies have investigated the association of differentially expressed cytokines with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but none in African countries. This study aimed at investigating T-helper (Th) cell and angiogenic markers as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for PDAC in Black South Africans. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, case-control study comprising of 34 PDAC patients and 27 control participants with either critical limb ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm or other abdominal pathology from causes other than pancreatic disease...
March 9, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376080/long-term-results-and-recurrence-patterns-from-scalop-a-phase-ii-randomised-trial-of-gemcitabine-or-capecitabine-based-chemoradiation-for-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#18
C N Hurt, S Falk, T Crosby, A McDonald, R Ray, G Joseph, J Staffurth, R A Abrams, G Griffiths, T Maughan, S Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: SCALOP, a randomised, phase II trial, tested the activity and safety of gemcitabine (GEM)-based and capecitabine (CAP)-based chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Here we present the long-term outcomes. METHODS: Eligibility: histologically proven LAPC ⩽7 cm. Following 12 weeks of induction GEMCAP chemotherapy (three cycles: GEM 1000 mg m(-2) days 1, 8, 15; CAP 830 mg m(-2) days 1-21 q28 days) patients with stable/responding disease, tumour ⩽6 cm, and WHO Performance Status 0-1 were randomised to receive one cycle GEMCAP followed by CAP (830 mg m(-2) b...
April 4, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368405/connexin-43-channels-are-a-pathway-for-discharging-lactate-from-glycolytic-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cells
#19
T H Dovmark, M Saccomano, A Hulikova, F Alves, P Swietach
Glycolytic cancer cells produce large quantities of lactate that must be removed to sustain metabolism in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation. The only venting mechanism described to do this at an adequate rate is H(+)-coupled lactate efflux on monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Outward MCT activity is, however, thermodynamically inhibited by extracellular acidity, a hallmark of solid tumours. This inhibition would feedback unfavourably on metabolism and growth, raising the possibility that other venting mechanisms become important in under-perfused tumours...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365185/curcumin-and-its-cyclohexanone-analogue-inhibited-human-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-1-ent1-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#20
Jezrael L Revalde, Yan Li, Tharaka S Wijeratne, Piyush Bugde, Bill C Hawkins, Rhonda J Rosengren, James W Paxton
Our group investigated combining the phytochemical curcumin and gemcitabine in a liposome, to improve gemcitabine's activity against pancreatic tumours. While optimising the curcumin: gemcitabine ratio for co-encapsulation, we found that increasing curcumin concentrations relative to gemcitabine resulted in antagonistic interactions. As curcumin is a promiscuous transporter inhibitor; we suspected that increased resistance occurred via inhibition of Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1)-mediated gemcitabine uptake...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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