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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118113/measurement-of-micro-scale-soil-deformation-around-roots-using-four-dimensional-synchrotron-tomography-and-image-correlation
#1
S D Keyes, L Cooper, S Duncan, N Koebernick, D M McKay Fletcher, C P Scotson, A van Veelen, I Sinclair, T Roose
This study applied time lapse (four-dimensional) synchrotron X-ray computed tomography to observe micro-scale interactions between plant roots and soil. Functionally contrasting maize root tips were repeatedly imaged during ingress into soil columns of varying water content and compaction. This yielded sequences of three-dimensional densiometric data, representing time-resolved geometric soil and root configurations at the micronmetre scale. These data were used as inputs for two full-field kinematic quantification methods, which enabled the analysis of three-dimensional soil deformation around elongating roots...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096153/uptake-and-speciation-of-uranium-in-synthetic-gypsum-caso4%C3%A2-2h2o-applications-to-radioactive-mine-tailings
#2
Jinru Lin, Wei Sun, Jacques Desmarais, Ning Chen, Renfei Feng, Patrick Zhang, Dien Li, Arthur Lieu, John S Tse, Yuanming Pan
Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation of gypsum-rich wastes in the world and commonly contains elevated radionuclides, including uranium, as well as other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, billions-of-tons of phosphogypsum stockpiled worldwide not only possess serious environmental problems but also represent a potential uranium resource. Gypsum is also a major solid constituent in many other types of radioactive mine tailings, which stems from the common usage of sulfuric acid in extraction processes...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091286/manganese-distribution-and-speciation-help-to-explain-the-effects-of-silicate-and-phosphate-on-manganese-toxicity-in-four-crop-species
#3
F Pax C Blamey, Brigid A McKenna, Cui Li, Miaomiao Cheng, Caixian Tang, Haibo Jiang, Daryl L Howard, David J Paterson, Peter Kappen, Peng Wang, Neal W Menzies, Peter M Kopittke
Soil acidity and waterlogging increase manganese (Mn) in leaf tissues to potentially toxic concentrations, an effect reportedly alleviated by increased silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) supply. Effects of Si and P on Mn toxicity were studied in four plant species using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to determine Mn distribution in leaf tissues and using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to measure Mn speciation in leaves, stems and roots...
November 1, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030805/an-explicit-structural-model-of-root-hair-and-soil-interactions-parameterised-by-synchrotron-x-ray-computed-tomography
#4
Samuel David Keyes, Konstantinos C Zygalakis, Tiina Roose
The rhizosphere is a zone of fundamental importance for understanding the dynamics of nutrient acquisition by plant roots. The canonical difficulty of experimentally investigating the rhizosphere led long ago to the adoption of mathematical models, the most sophisticated of which now incorporate explicit representations of root hairs and rhizosphere soil. Mathematical upscaling regimes, such as homogenisation, offer the possibility of incorporating into larger-scale models the important mechanistic processes occurring at the rhizosphere scale...
October 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935406/fate-and-chemical-speciation-of-antimony-sb-during-uptake-translocation-and-storage-by-rye-grass-using-xanes-spectroscopy
#5
Ying Ji, Géraldine Sarret, Rainer Schulin, Susan Tandy
Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of increased prevalence in the environment, but there is little knowledge about the mechanisms of its uptake and translocation within plants. Here, we applied for the synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to analyze the speciation of Sb in roots and shoots of rye grass (Lolium perenne L. Calibra). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions to which either antimonite (Sb(III)), antimonate (Sb(V)) or trimethyl-Sb(V) (TMSb) were added. While exposure to Sb(III) led to around 100 times higher Sb accumulation in the roots than the other two treatments, there was no difference in total Sb in the shoots...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923732/ammonium-based-fertilizers-enhance-cd-accumulation-in-carpobrotus-rossii-grown-in-two-soils-differing-in-ph
#6
Miaomiao Cheng, Anan Wang, Caixian Tang
Nitrogen fertilization has been shown to improve Cd uptake by plants but there is little information on the effect of N form. This study examined the effects of N form on Cd bioavailability and phytoextraction in two soils differing in pH. Plants of halophytic species Carpobrotus rossii were grown in an acidic Sodosol [pH (CaCl2) 4.9] and a neutral Vertosol (pH 7.2) spiked with 20 mg kg(-1) Cd as CdCl2. Three N forms, KNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and (NH2)2CO at a rate of 24 mg N kg(-1) were applied at weekly intervals, together with nitrification inhibitor dicyanodiamide...
September 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918933/structural-proteomics-topology-and-relative-accessibility-of-plant-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins
#7
Pascale Jolivet, Laure Aymé, Alexandre Giuliani, Frank Wien, Thierry Chardot, Yann Gohon
Lipid droplets are the major stock of lipids in oleaginous plant seeds. Despite their economic importance for oil production and biotechnological issues (biofuels, lubricants and plasticizers), numerous questions about their formation, structure and regulation are still unresolved. To determine water accessible domains of protein coating at lipid droplets surface, a structural proteomic approach has been performed. This technique relies on the millisecond timescale production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolysis of water using Synchrotron X-ray white beam...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857201/wheat-flag-leaf-epicuticular-wax-morphology-and-composition-response-to-moderate-drought-stress-is-revealed-by-sem-ftir-atr-and-synchrotron-x-ray-spectroscopy
#8
Ian R Willick, Rachid Lahlali, Perumal Vijayan, David Muir, Chithra Karunakaran, Karen K Tanino
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the largest cereal crop grown in Western Canada where drought during late vegetative and seed filling stages affects plant development and yield. To identify new physio-chemical markers associated with drought tolerance, epidermal characteristics of the flag leaf of two wheat cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance were investigated. The drought resistant 'Stettler' had a lower drought susceptibility index, greater harvest index, and water use efficiency than the susceptible 'Superb'...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758681/high-resolution-synchrotron-imaging-shows-that-root-hairs-influence-rhizosphere-soil-structure-formation
#9
Nicolai Koebernick, Keith R Daly, Samuel D Keyes, Timothy S George, Lawrie K Brown, Annette Raffan, Laura J Cooper, Muhammad Naveed, Anthony G Bengough, Ian Sinclair, Paul D Hallett, Tiina Roose
In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1...
October 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710386/seed-coat-thinning-during-horsegram-macrotyloma-uniflorum-domestication-documented-through-synchrotron-tomography-of-archaeological-seeds
#10
Charlene Murphy, Dorian Q Fuller
Reduction of seed dormancy mechanisms, allowing for rapid germination after planting, is a recurrent trait in domesticated plants, and can often be linked to changes in seed coat structure, in particular thinning. We report evidence for seed coat thinning between 2,000 BC and 1,200 BC, in southern Indian archaeological horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum), which it has been possible to document with high precision and non-destructively, through high resolution x-ray computed tomography using a synchrotron...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505352/the-nodulin-26-like-intrinsic-membrane-protein-osnip3-2-is-involved-in-arsenite-uptake-by-lateral-roots-in-rice
#11
Yi Chen, Sheng-Kai Sun, Zhong Tang, Guidong Liu, Katie L Moore, Frans J M Maathuis, Antony J Miller, Steve P McGrath, Fang-Jie Zhao
Previous studies have shown that the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic membrane protein (NIP) Lsi1 (OsNIP2;1) is involved in arsenite [As(III)] uptake in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the role of other rice NIPs in As(III) accumulation in planta remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role OsNIP3;2 in As(III) uptake in rice. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OsNIP3;2 showed a high transport activity for As(III). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of OsNIP3;2 was suppressed by 5 µM As(III), but enhanced by 20 and 100 µM As(III)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461082/mechanism-study-of-sulfur-fertilization-mediating-copper-translocation-and-biotransformation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-plants
#12
Lijuan Sun, Jianjun Yang, Huaxiang Fang, Chen Xu, Cheng Peng, Haomin Huang, Lingli Lu, Dechao Duan, Xiangzhi Zhang, Jiyan Shi
Metabolism of sulfur (S) is suggested to be an important factor for the homeostasis and detoxification of Cu in plants. We investigated the effects of S fertilizers (S(0), Na2SO4) on Cu translocation and biotransformation in rice plants by using multiple synchrotron-based techniques. Fertilization of S increased the biomass and yield of rice plants, as well as the translocation factor of Cu from root to shoot and shoot to grain, resulting in enhanced Cu in grain. Sulfur K-edge X-ray near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed that fertilization of S increased the concentration of glutathione in different rice tissues, especially in rice stem and leaf...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452748/soleil-shining-on-the-solution-state-structure-of-biomacromolecules-by-synchrotron-x-ray-footprinting-at-the-metrology-beamline
#13
A Baud, L Aymé, F Gonnet, I Salard, Y Gohon, P Jolivet, K Brodolin, P Da Silva, A Giuliani, B Sclavi, T Chardot, P Mercère, P Roblin, R Daniel
Synchrotron X-ray footprinting complements the techniques commonly used to define the structure of molecules such as crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. It is remarkably useful in probing the structure and interactions of proteins with lipids, nucleic acids or with other proteins in solution, often better reflecting the in vivo state dynamics. To date, most X-ray footprinting studies have been carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source, USA, and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445036/silver-nanoparticles-and-wheat-roots-a-complex-interplay
#14
Ana E Pradas Del Real, Vladimir Vidal, Marie Carrière, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Géraldine Sarret
Agricultural soils are major sinks of silver nanoparticles in the environment, and crops are directly exposed to these emerging contaminants. A clear picture of their chemical transformations, uptake and transport mechanisms, and phytotoxic impacts is still lacking. In this work, wheat plants were exposed to pristine metallic (Ag-NPs) and sulfidized (Ag2S-NPs) silver nanoparticles and ionic Ag. Data on Ag distribution and speciation, phytotoxicity markers, and gene expression were studied. A multi-technique and multi-scale approach was applied, combining innovating tools at both the laboratory and synchrotron...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444564/response-to-lead-pollution-mycorrhizal-pinus-sylvestris-forms-the-biomineral-pyromorphite-in-roots-and-needles
#15
Maria L Bizo, Sandor Nietzsche, Ulrich Mansfeld, Falko Langenhorst, Juraj Majzlan, Jörg Göttlicher, Alexandru Ozunu, Steffi Formann, Katrin Krause, Erika Kothe
The development of mycorrhized pine seedlings grown in the presence of lead was assessed in order to investigate how higher plants can tolerate lead pollution in the environment. Examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that Pb uptake was prominent in the roots, while a smaller amount was found in pine needles, which requires symplastic uptake and root-to-shoot transfer. Lead was concentrated in nanocrystalline aggregates attached to the cell wall and, according to elemental microanalyses, is associated with phosphorus and chlorine...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#16
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383882/uptake-and-distribution-of-silver-in-the-aquatic-plant-landoltia-punctata-duckweed-exposed-to-silver-and-silver-sulfide-nanoparticles
#17
John P Stegemeier, Benjamin P Colman, Fabienne Schwab, Mark R Wiesner, Gregory V Lowry
Aquatic ecosystems are expected to receive Ag(0) and Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) through anthropogenic waste streams. The speciation of silver in Ag-NPs affects their fate in ecosystems, but its influence on interactions with aquatic plants is still unclear. Here, the Ag speciation and distribution was measured in an aquatic plant, duckweed (Landoltia punctata), exposed to Ag(0) or Ag2S NPs, or to AgNO3. The silver distribution in duckweed roots was visualized using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping and Ag speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380570/microscale-investigations-of-soil-heterogeneity-impacts-on-zinc-retention-and-uptake-in-zinc-contaminated-soils
#18
Carla E Rosenfeld, Rufus L Chaney, Ryan V Tappero, Carmen E Martínez
Metal contaminants in soils can persist for millennia, causing lasting negative impacts on local ecosystems. Long-term contaminant bioavailability is related to soil pH and to the strength and stability of solid-phase associations. We combined physical density separation with synchrotron-based microspectroscopy to reduce solid-phase complexity and to study Zn speciation in field-contaminated soils. We also investigated Zn uptake in two Zn-hyperaccumulating ecotypes of (Ganges and Prayon). Soils were either moderately contaminated (500-800 mg Zn kg via contaminated biosolids application) or grossly enriched (26,000 mg Zn kg via geogenic enrichment)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250336/the-periplasmic-sensing-domain-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-chemotactic-transducer-of-amino-acids-type-b-ctab-cloning-refolding-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#19
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that provides nutrients for growth and induces systemic resistance against plant diseases. It has been linked with a number of human diseases including nosocomial infections and bacterial cystitis. Chemotactic motility of P. fluorescens towards root exudates plays a crucial role in establishing a symbiotic relationship with host plants. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type B (CtaB) mediates chemotaxis towards amino acids...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244441/effects-of-organic-ligands-on-pb-absorption-and-speciation-changes-in-arabidopsis-as-determined-by%C3%A2-micro-x-ray-fluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-near-edge-structure-analysis
#20
Ya Ting Shen, Yu Fang Song
Pb can pass through the food chain via plants and threaten human health, which has attracted widespread attention. Changes in Pb speciation affect its bioavailability in soils and water. However, whether organic ligands can change the uptake and mobility of Pb in plants and increase or decrease Pb bioavailability remains uncertain. To reveal the roles of organic and inorganic Pb in Pb metabolism in plants, the localization and speciation changes of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in organic and inorganic Pb were characterized by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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