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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918933/structural-proteomics-topology-and-relative-accessibility-of-plant-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins
#1
Pascale Jolivet, Laure Aymé, Alexandre Giuliani, Frank Wien, Thierry Chardot, Yann Gohon
Lipid droplets are the major stock of lipids in oleaginous plant seeds. Despite their economic importance for oil production and biotechnological issues (biofuels, lubricants and plasticizers), numerous questions about their formation, structure and regulation are still unresolved. To determine water accessible domains of protein coating at lipid droplets surface, a structural proteomic approach has been performed. This technique relies on the millisecond timescale production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolysis of water using Synchrotron X-ray white beam...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857201/wheat-flag-leaf-epicuticular-wax-morphology-and-composition-response-to-moderate-drought-stress-is-revealed-by-sem-ftir-atr-and-synchrotron-x-ray-spectroscopy
#2
Ian R Willick, Rachid Lahlali, Perumal Vijayan, David Muir, Chithra Karunakaran, Karen K Tanino
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the largest cereal crop grown in Western Canada where drought during late vegetative and seed filling stages affects plant development and yield. To identify new physio-chemical markers associated with drought tolerance, epidermal characteristics of the flag leaf of two wheat cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance were investigated. The drought resistant 'Stettler' had a lower drought susceptibility index, greater harvest index, and water use efficiency than the susceptible 'Superb'...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758681/high-resolution-synchrotron-imaging-shows-that-root-hairs-influence-rhizosphere-soil-structure-formation
#3
Nicolai Koebernick, Keith R Daly, Samuel D Keyes, Timothy S George, Lawrie K Brown, Annette Raffan, Laura J Cooper, Muhammad Naveed, Anthony G Bengough, Ian Sinclair, Paul D Hallett, Tiina Roose
In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710386/seed-coat-thinning-during-horsegram-macrotyloma-uniflorum-domestication-documented-through-synchrotron-tomography-of-archaeological-seeds
#4
Charlene Murphy, Dorian Q Fuller
Reduction of seed dormancy mechanisms, allowing for rapid germination after planting, is a recurrent trait in domesticated plants, and can often be linked to changes in seed coat structure, in particular thinning. We report evidence for seed coat thinning between 2,000 BC and 1,200 BC, in southern Indian archaeological horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum), which it has been possible to document with high precision and non-destructively, through high resolution x-ray computed tomography using a synchrotron...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505352/the-nodulin-26-like-intrinsic-membrane-protein-osnip3-2-is-involved-in-arsenite-uptake-by-lateral-roots-in-rice
#5
Yi Chen, Sheng-Kai Sun, Zhong Tang, Guidong Liu, Katie L Moore, Frans J M Maathuis, Antony J Miller, Steve P McGrath, Fang-Jie Zhao
Previous studies have shown that the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic membrane protein (NIP) Lsi1 (OsNIP2;1) is involved in arsenite [As(III)] uptake in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the role of other rice NIPs in As(III) accumulation in planta remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role OsNIP3;2 in As(III) uptake in rice. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OsNIP3;2 showed a high transport activity for As(III). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of OsNIP3;2 was suppressed by 5 µM As(III), but enhanced by 20 and 100 µM As(III)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461082/mechanism-study-of-sulfur-fertilization-mediating-copper-translocation-and-biotransformation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-plants
#6
Lijuan Sun, Jianjun Yang, Huaxiang Fang, Chen Xu, Cheng Peng, Haomin Huang, Lingli Lu, Dechao Duan, Xiangzhi Zhang, Jiyan Shi
Metabolism of sulfur (S) is suggested to be an important factor for the homeostasis and detoxification of Cu in plants. We investigated the effects of S fertilizers (S(0), Na2SO4) on Cu translocation and biotransformation in rice plants by using multiple synchrotron-based techniques. Fertilization of S increased the biomass and yield of rice plants, as well as the translocation factor of Cu from root to shoot and shoot to grain, resulting in enhanced Cu in grain. Sulfur K-edge X-ray near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed that fertilization of S increased the concentration of glutathione in different rice tissues, especially in rice stem and leaf...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452748/soleil-shining-on-the-solution-state-structure-of-biomacromolecules-by-synchrotron-x-ray-footprinting-at-the-metrology-beamline
#7
A Baud, L Aymé, F Gonnet, I Salard, Y Gohon, P Jolivet, K Brodolin, P Da Silva, A Giuliani, B Sclavi, T Chardot, P Mercère, P Roblin, R Daniel
Synchrotron X-ray footprinting complements the techniques commonly used to define the structure of molecules such as crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. It is remarkably useful in probing the structure and interactions of proteins with lipids, nucleic acids or with other proteins in solution, often better reflecting the in vivo state dynamics. To date, most X-ray footprinting studies have been carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source, USA, and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445036/silver-nanoparticles-and-wheat-roots-a-complex-interplay
#8
Ana E Pradas Del Real, Vladimir Vidal, Marie Carrière, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Géraldine Sarret
Agricultural soils are major sinks of silver nanoparticles in the environment, and crops are directly exposed to these emerging contaminants. A clear picture of their chemical transformations, uptake and transport mechanisms, and phytotoxic impacts is still lacking. In this work, wheat plants were exposed to pristine metallic (Ag-NPs) and sulfidized (Ag2S-NPs) silver nanoparticles and ionic Ag. Data on Ag distribution and speciation, phytotoxicity markers, and gene expression were studied. A multi-technique and multi-scale approach was applied, combining innovating tools at both the laboratory and synchrotron...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444564/response-to-lead-pollution-mycorrhizal-pinus-sylvestris-forms-the-biomineral-pyromorphite-in-roots-and-needles
#9
Maria L Bizo, Sandor Nietzsche, Ulrich Mansfeld, Falko Langenhorst, Juraj Majzlan, Jörg Göttlicher, Alexandru Ozunu, Steffi Formann, Katrin Krause, Erika Kothe
The development of mycorrhized pine seedlings grown in the presence of lead was assessed in order to investigate how higher plants can tolerate lead pollution in the environment. Examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that Pb uptake was prominent in the roots, while a smaller amount was found in pine needles, which requires symplastic uptake and root-to-shoot transfer. Lead was concentrated in nanocrystalline aggregates attached to the cell wall and, according to elemental microanalyses, is associated with phosphorus and chlorine...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#10
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383882/uptake-and-distribution-of-silver-in-the-aquatic-plant-landoltia-punctata-duckweed-exposed-to-silver-and-silver-sulfide-nanoparticles
#11
John P Stegemeier, Benjamin P Colman, Fabienne Schwab, Mark R Wiesner, Gregory V Lowry
Aquatic ecosystems are expected to receive Ag(0) and Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) through anthropogenic waste streams. The speciation of silver in Ag-NPs affects their fate in ecosystems, but its influence on interactions with aquatic plants is still unclear. Here, the Ag speciation and distribution was measured in an aquatic plant, duckweed (Landoltia punctata), exposed to Ag(0) or Ag2S NPs, or to AgNO3. The silver distribution in duckweed roots was visualized using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping and Ag speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380570/microscale-investigations-of-soil-heterogeneity-impacts-on-zinc-retention-and-uptake-in-zinc-contaminated-soils
#12
Carla E Rosenfeld, Rufus L Chaney, Ryan V Tappero, Carmen E Martínez
Metal contaminants in soils can persist for millennia, causing lasting negative impacts on local ecosystems. Long-term contaminant bioavailability is related to soil pH and to the strength and stability of solid-phase associations. We combined physical density separation with synchrotron-based microspectroscopy to reduce solid-phase complexity and to study Zn speciation in field-contaminated soils. We also investigated Zn uptake in two Zn-hyperaccumulating ecotypes of (Ganges and Prayon). Soils were either moderately contaminated (500-800 mg Zn kg via contaminated biosolids application) or grossly enriched (26,000 mg Zn kg via geogenic enrichment)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250336/the-periplasmic-sensing-domain-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-chemotactic-transducer-of-amino-acids-type-b-ctab-cloning-refolding-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#13
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that provides nutrients for growth and induces systemic resistance against plant diseases. It has been linked with a number of human diseases including nosocomial infections and bacterial cystitis. Chemotactic motility of P. fluorescens towards root exudates plays a crucial role in establishing a symbiotic relationship with host plants. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type B (CtaB) mediates chemotaxis towards amino acids...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244441/effects-of-organic-ligands-on-pb-absorption-and-speciation-changes-in-arabidopsis-as-determined-by%C3%A2-micro-x-ray-fluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-near-edge-structure-analysis
#14
Ya Ting Shen, Yu Fang Song
Pb can pass through the food chain via plants and threaten human health, which has attracted widespread attention. Changes in Pb speciation affect its bioavailability in soils and water. However, whether organic ligands can change the uptake and mobility of Pb in plants and increase or decrease Pb bioavailability remains uncertain. To reveal the roles of organic and inorganic Pb in Pb metabolism in plants, the localization and speciation changes of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in organic and inorganic Pb were characterized by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235745/spatial-imaging-and-speciation-of-cu-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-roots-using-synchrotron-based-x-ray-microfluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#15
Lingli Lu, Ruohan Xie, Ting Liu, Haixing Wang, Dandi Hou, Yonghua Du, Zhenli He, Xiaoe Yang, Hui Sun, Shengke Tian
Knowledge of elemental localization and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms of Cu accumulation so as to facilitate the development of strategies to inhibit Cu accumulation in rice grain grown in contaminated soils. Using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the distribution patterns and speciation of Cu in rice roots treated with 50 μM Cu for 7 days. A clear preferential localization of Cu in the meristematic zone was observed in root tips as compared with the elongation zone...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205587/nickel-biopathways-in-tropical-nickel-hyperaccumulating-trees-from-sabah-malaysia
#16
Antony van der Ent, Damien L Callahan, Barry N Noller, Jolanta Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Wojciech J Przybylowicz, Alban Barnabas, Hugh H Harris
The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195328/visualization-of-xylem-embolism-by-x-ray-microtomography-a-direct-test-against-hydraulic-measurements
#17
Markus Nolf, Rosana Lopez, Jennifer M R Peters, Richard J Flavel, Leah S Koloadin, Iain M Young, Brendan Choat
X-ray microtomography (microCT) is becoming a valuable noninvasive tool for advancing our understanding of plant-water relations. Laboratory-based microCT systems are becoming more affordable and provide better access than synchrotron facilities. However, some systems come at the cost of comparably lower signal quality and spatial resolution than synchrotron facilities. In this study, we evaluated laboratory-based X-ray microCT imaging as a tool to nondestructively analyse hydraulic vulnerability to drought-induced embolism in a woody plant species...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139778/synchrotron-based-x-ray-fluorescence-microscopy-enables-multiscale-spatial-visualization-of-ions-involved-in-fungal-lignocellulose-deconstruction
#18
Grant Kirker, Sam Zelinka, Sophie-Charlotte Gleber, David Vine, Lydia Finney, Si Chen, Young Pyo Hong, Omar Uyarte, Stefan Vogt, Jody Jellison, Barry Goodell, Joseph E Jakes
The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell walls and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map and quantify physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn, in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001337/precipitation-and-crystallization-kinetics-in-silica-gardens
#19
Fabian Glaab, Julian Rieder, Regina Klein, Duane Choquesillo-Lazarte, Emilio Melero-Garcia, Juan-Manuel García-Ruiz, Werner Kunz, Matthias Kellermeier
Silica gardens are extraordinary plant-like structures resulting from the complex interplay of relatively simple inorganic components. Recent work has highlighted that macroscopic self-assembly is accompanied by the spontaneous formation of considerable chemical gradients, which induce a cascade of coupled dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation processes occurring over timescales as long as several days. In the present study, this dynamic behavior was investigated for silica gardens based on iron and cobalt chloride by means of two synchrotron-based techniques, which allow the determination of concentration profiles and time-resolved monitoring of diffraction patterns, thus giving direct insight into the progress of dissolution and crystallization phenomena in the system...
February 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991775/a-new-approach-to-sampling-intact-fe-plaque-reveals-si-induced-changes-in-fe-mineral-composition-and-shoot-as-in-rice
#20
Douglas C Amaral, Guilherme Lopes, Luiz R G Guilherme, Angelia L Seyfferth
The Fe (oxyhydr)oxide rind, or Fe plaque, that forms on aquatic plant roots is an important sorbent of metal(loid)s and plays a role in the attenuation of metal(loid) uptake into higher plants. However, the mineral composition of Fe plaque and thus its potential to sorb metal(loid)s is affected by solution chemistry. The predominant strategy to characterize Fe plaque using dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extraction and elemental analysis reveals total Fe quantity but misses the mineral structure of the Fe (oxyhydr)oxide...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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