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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250336/the-periplasmic-sensing-domain-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-chemotactic-transducer-of-amino-acids-type-b-ctab-cloning-refolding-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#1
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that provides nutrients for growth and induces systemic resistance against plant diseases. It has been linked with a number of human diseases including nosocomial infections and bacterial cystitis. Chemotactic motility of P. fluorescens towards root exudates plays a crucial role in establishing a symbiotic relationship with host plants. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type B (CtaB) mediates chemotaxis towards amino acids...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244441/effects-of-organic-ligands-on-pb-absorption-and-speciation-changes-in-arabidopsis-as-determined-by%C3%A2-micro-x-ray-fluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-near-edge-structure-analysis
#2
Ya Ting Shen, Yu Fang Song
Pb can pass through the food chain via plants and threaten human health, which has attracted widespread attention. Changes in Pb speciation affect its bioavailability in soils and water. However, whether organic ligands can change the uptake and mobility of Pb in plants and increase or decrease Pb bioavailability remains uncertain. To reveal the roles of organic and inorganic Pb in Pb metabolism in plants, the localization and speciation changes of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in organic and inorganic Pb were characterized by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235745/spatial-imaging-and-speciation-of-cu-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-roots-using-synchrotron-based-x-ray-microfluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#3
Lingli Lu, Ruohan Xie, Ting Liu, Haixing Wang, Dandi Hou, Yonghua Du, Zhenli He, Xiaoe Yang, Hui Sun, Shengke Tian
Knowledge of elemental localization and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms of Cu accumulation so as to facilitate the development of strategies to inhibit Cu accumulation in rice grain grown in contaminated soils. Using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the distribution patterns and speciation of Cu in rice roots treated with 50 μM Cu for 7 days. A clear preferential localization of Cu in the meristematic zone was observed in root tips as compared with the elongation zone...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205587/nickel-biopathways-in-tropical-nickel-hyperaccumulating-trees-from-sabah-malaysia
#4
Antony van der Ent, Damien L Callahan, Barry N Noller, Jolanta Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Wojciech J Przybylowicz, Alban Barnabas, Hugh H Harris
The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195328/visualization-of-xylem-embolism-by-x-ray-microtomography-a-direct-test-against-hydraulic-measurements
#5
Markus Nolf, Rosana Lopez, Jennifer M R Peters, Richard J Flavel, Leah S Koloadin, Iain M Young, Brendan Choat
X-ray microtomography (microCT) is becoming a valuable noninvasive tool for advancing our understanding of plant-water relations. Laboratory-based microCT systems are becoming more affordable and provide better access than synchrotron facilities. However, some systems come at the cost of comparably lower signal quality and spatial resolution than synchrotron facilities. In this study, we evaluated laboratory-based X-ray microCT imaging as a tool to nondestructively analyse hydraulic vulnerability to drought-induced embolism in a woody plant species...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139778/synchrotron-based-x-ray-fluorescence-microscopy-enables-multiscale-spatial-visualization-of-ions-involved-in-fungal-lignocellulose-deconstruction
#6
Grant Kirker, Sam Zelinka, Sophie-Charlotte Gleber, David Vine, Lydia Finney, Si Chen, Young Pyo Hong, Omar Uyarte, Stefan Vogt, Jody Jellison, Barry Goodell, Joseph E Jakes
The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell walls and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map and quantify physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn, in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001337/precipitation-and-crystallization-kinetics-in-silica-gardens
#7
Fabian Glaab, Julian Rieder, Regina Klein, Duane Choquesillo-Lazarte, Emilio Melero-Garcia, Juan-Manuel García-Ruiz, Werner Kunz, Matthias Kellermeier
Silica gardens are extraordinary plant-like structures resulting from the complex interplay of relatively simple inorganic components. Recent work has highlighted that macroscopic self-assembly is accompanied by the spontaneous formation of considerable chemical gradients, which induce a cascade of coupled dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation processes occurring over timescales as long as several days. In the present study, this dynamic behavior was investigated for silica gardens based on iron and cobalt chloride by means of two synchrotron-based techniques, which allow the determination of concentration profiles and time-resolved monitoring of diffraction patterns, thus giving direct insight into the progress of dissolution and crystallization phenomena in the system...
February 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991775/a-new-approach-to-sampling-intact-fe-plaque-reveals-si-induced-changes-in-fe-mineral-composition-and-shoot-as-in-rice
#8
Douglas C Amaral, Guilherme Lopes, Luiz R G Guilherme, Angelia L Seyfferth
The Fe (oxyhydr)oxide rind, or Fe plaque, that forms on aquatic plant roots is an important sorbent of metal(loid)s and plays a role in the attenuation of metal(loid) uptake into higher plants. However, the mineral composition of Fe plaque and thus its potential to sorb metal(loid)s is affected by solution chemistry. The predominant strategy to characterize Fe plaque using dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extraction and elemental analysis reveals total Fe quantity but misses the mineral structure of the Fe (oxyhydr)oxide...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941095/100-million-year-old-conifer-tissues-from-the-mid-cretaceous-amber-of-charente-western-france-revealed-by-synchrotron-microtomography
#9
Jean-David Moreau, Didier Néraudeau, Vincent Perrichot, Paul Tafforeau
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Terrestrial plant remains in fossilized tree resin are relatively common. However, histology and preservation of plants entombed in Cretaceous ambers remain poorly known. We report an exquisitely preserved conifer leafy axis from 100-million-year-old opaque amber of western France that is assignable to Glenrosa carentonensis Moreau, Néraudeau, Tafforeau & Dépré. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the taphonomy and the use of microtomography for studies of palaeobotanical remains in amber...
January 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788689/combined-small-angle-x-ray-solution-scattering-with-atomic-force-microscopy-for-characterizing-radiation-damage-on-biological-macromolecules
#10
Luca Costa, Alexander Andriatis, Martha Brennich, Jean-Marie Teulon, Shu-Wen W Chen, Jean-Luc Pellequer, Adam Round
BACKGROUND: Synchrotron radiation facilities are pillars of modern structural biology. Small-Angle X-ray scattering performed at synchrotron sources is often used to characterize the shape of biological macromolecules. A major challenge with high-energy X-ray beam on such macromolecules is the perturbation of sample due to radiation damage. RESULTS: By employing atomic force microscopy, another common technique to determine the shape of biological macromolecules when deposited on flat substrates, we present a protocol to evaluate and characterize consequences of radiation damage...
October 27, 2016: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756898/the-room-temperature-crystal-structure-of-a-bacterial-phytochrome-determined-by-serial-femtosecond-crystallography
#11
Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Elin Claesson, Léocadie Henry, Robert Dods, Heli Lehtivuori, Matthijs Panman, Kanupriya Pande, Thomas White, Takanori Nakane, Oskar Berntsson, Emil Gustavsson, Petra Båth, Vaibhav Modi, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhury, James Zook, Peter Berntsen, Suraj Pandey, Ishwor Poudyal, Jason Tenboer, Christopher Kupitz, Anton Barty, Petra Fromme, Jake D Koralek, Tomoyuki Tanaka, John Spence, Mengning Liang, Mark S Hunter, Sebastien Boutet, Eriko Nango, Keith Moffat, Gerrit Groenhof, Janne Ihalainen, Emina A Stojković, Marius Schmidt, Sebastian Westenhoff
Phytochromes are a family of photoreceptors that control light responses of plants, fungi and bacteria. A sequence of structural changes, which is not yet fully understood, leads to activation of an output domain. Time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) can potentially shine light on these conformational changes. Here we report the room temperature crystal structure of the chromophore-binding domains of the Deinococcus radiodurans phytochrome at 2.1 Å resolution. The structure was obtained by serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography from microcrystals at an X-ray free electron laser...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735069/x-ray-microtomography-observations-of-xylem-embolism-in-stems-of-laurus-nobilis-are-consistent-with-hydraulic-measurements-of-percentage-loss-of-conductance
#12
Andrea Nardini, Tadeja Savi, Adriano Losso, Giai Petit, Serena Pacilè, Giuliana Tromba, Stefan Mayr, Patrizia Trifilò, Maria A Lo Gullo, Sebastiano Salleo
Drought-induced xylem embolism is a serious threat to plant survival under future climate scenarios. Hence, accurate quantification of species-specific vulnerability to xylem embolism is a key to predict the impact of climate change on vegetation. Low-cost hydraulic measurements of embolism rate have been suggested to be prone to artefacts, thus requiring validation by direct visualization of the functional status of xylem conduits using nondestructive imaging techniques, such as X-ray microtomography (microCT)...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693754/resolving-colocalization-of-bacteria-and-metal-loid-s-on-plant-root-surfaces-by-combining-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-fish-with-multiple-energy-micro-focused-x-ray-fluorescence-me-%C3%AE-xrf
#13
Linnea K Honeker, Robert A Root, Jon Chorover, Raina M Maier
Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647420/x-rays-and-virtual-taphonomy-resolve-the-first-cissus-vitaceae-macrofossils-from-africa-as-early-diverging-members-of-the-genus
#14
Neil F Adams, Margaret E Collinson, Selena Y Smith, Marion K Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone, Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557457/evaluation-of-aggregate-microstructures-following-natural-regeneration-in-bauxite-residue-as-characterized-by-synchrotron-based-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography
#15
Feng Zhu, Jiaxin Liao, Shengguo Xue, William Hartley, Qi Zou, Hao Wu
Bauxite residue often has poor physical conditions which impede plant growth. Native plant encroachment on a bauxite residue disposal area in Central China reveals that natural regeneration may improve its physicochemical properties. Residue samples collected from three different disposal ages were assessed to evaluate residue micromorphology and three-dimensional (3D) aggregate microstructure under natural regeneration. The residue aggregates in different disposal ages were divided in two sections: macro-aggregate (2-1mm) and micro-aggregate (0...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539601/in-vivo-dynamic-analysis-of-water-refilling-in-embolized-xylem-vessels-of-intact-zea-mays-leaves
#16
Jeongeun Ryu, Bae Geun Hwang, Sang Joon Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The refilling of embolized xylem vessels under tension is a major issue in water transport among vascular plants. However, xylem embolism and refilling remain poorly understood because of technical limitations. Direct observation of embolism repair in intact plants is essential to understand the biophysical aspects of water refilling in embolized xylem vessels. This paper reports on details of the water refilling process in leaves of the intact herbaceous monocot plant Zea mays and its refilling kinetics obtained by a direct visualization technique...
August 18, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476512/effect-of-phytosterols-on-the-crystallization-behavior-of-oil-in-water-milk-fat-emulsions
#17
Lisa M Zychowski, Amy Logan, Mary Ann Augustin, Alan L Kelly, Alexandru Zabara, James A O'Mahony, Charlotte E Conn, Mark A E Auty
Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475903/practical-review-on-the-use-of-synchrotron-based-micro-and-nano-x-ray-fluorescence-mapping-and-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-to-investigate-the-interactions-between-plants-and-engineered-nanomaterials
#18
REVIEW
Hiram A Castillo-Michel, Camille Larue, Ana E Pradas Del Real, Marine Cotte, Geraldine Sarret
The increased use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and the continuous development of novel applications, is leading to increased intentional and unintentional release of ENMs into the environment with potential negative impacts. Particularly, the partition of nanoparticles (NPs) to waste water treatment plant (WWTP) sludge represents a potential threat to agricultural ecosystems where these biosolids are being applied as fertilizers. Moreover, several applications of ENMs in agriculture and soil remediation are suggested...
January 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446168/vulnerability-of-protoxylem-and-metaxylem-vessels-to-embolisms-and-radial-refilling-in-a-vascular-bundle-of-maize-leaves
#19
Bae Geun Hwang, Jeongeun Ryu, Sang Joon Lee
Regulation of water flow in an interconnected xylem vessel network enables plants to survive despite challenging environment changes that can cause xylem embolism. In this study, vulnerability to embolisms of xylem vessels and their water-refilling patterns in vascular bundles of maize leaves were experimentally investigated by employing synchrotron X-ray micro-imaging technique. A vascular bundle in maize consisted of a protoxylem vessel with helical thickenings between two metaxylem vessels with single perforation plates and nonuniformly distributed pits...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445995/cell-wall-biomolecular-composition-plays-a-potential-role-in-the-host-type-ii-resistance-to-fusarium-head-blight-in-wheat
#20
Rachid Lahlali, Saroj Kumar, Lipu Wang, Li Forseille, Nicole Sylvain, Malgorzata Korbas, David Muir, George Swerhone, John R Lawrence, Pierre R Fobert, Gary Peng, Chithra Karunakaran
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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