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Metformin living longer

Elizabeth O'Day, Leticia Hosta-Rigau, Diego A Oyarzún, Hideyuki Okano, Víctor de Lorenzo, Conrad von Kameke, Habiba Alsafar, Cong Cao, Guo-Qiang Chen, Weizhi Ji, Richard J Roberts, Mostafa Ronaghi, Karen Yeung, Feng Zhang, Sang Yup Lee
Patient X: A 67-year-old Caucasian man slips on a patch of ice. He has abrasions to his hands and has sustained significant damage to his hip. At the emergency room, he informs clinicians he takes atorvastatin, metformin and glimepiride to treat hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). X-rays reveal a fractured hip, which will require total hip replacement surgery. Biotechnology is a major force poised to help us to live longer and healthier lives. In 2015, the United Nations defined 17 Sustainable Development Goals aimed at providing an all-encompassing framework for improving the state of the world (**)...
May 24, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Amy R Cameron, Lisa Logie, Kashyap Patel, Stefan Erhardt, Sandra Bacon, Paul Middleton, Jean Harthill, Calum Forteath, Josh T Coats, Calum Kerr, Heather Curry, Derek Stewart, Kei Sakamoto, Peter Repiščák, Martin J Paterson, Ilmo Hassinen, Gordon McDougall, Graham Rena
Many guanide-containing drugs are antihyperglycaemic but most exhibit toxicity, to the extent that only the biguanide metformin has enjoyed sustained clinical use. Here, we have isolated unique mitochondrial redox control properties of metformin that are likely to account for this difference. In primary hepatocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells we found that antihyperglycaemic diguanides DG5-DG10 and the biguanide phenformin were up to 1000-fold more potent than metformin on cell signalling responses, gluconeogenic promoter expression and hepatocyte glucose production...
April 2018: Redox Biology
C Lindim, J van Gils, I T Cousins, R Kühne, D Georgieva, S Kutsarova, O Mekenyan
An exposure assessment for multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters was made using the STREAM-EU model. Results indicate that Metformin (27 ton/y), Paracetamol (6.9 ton/y) and Ibuprofen (2.33 ton/y) were the drugs with higher amounts reaching the Baltic Sea in 2011. 35 of the studied substances had more than 1 kg/y of predicted flush to the sea. Exposure potential given by the ratio amount of the drug exported to the sea/amount emitted to the environment was higher than 50% for 7 drugs (Piperacillin, Lorazepam, Metformin, Hydroxycarbamide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Furosemide and Cetirizine), implying that a high proportion of them will reach the sea, and below 10% for 27 drugs, implying high catchment attenuation...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
Matthew Stailey, Susan E Conway
Older adults are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although oral agents (i.e., metformin) are the preferred first-line therapy, older adults often eventually require the addition of insulin to control their blood glucose. Long-acting insulin analogues are the preferred insulin products for older adults with T2DM. Insulin degludec and insulin glargine U-300 are both new generation long-acting insulins. When compared with the standard of care, long-acting insulin product insulin glargine U-100, insulin degludec, and insulin glargine U-300 had similar glucose-lowering effects, longer half-lives and durations of action, and a more even distribution over a 24-hour period...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Nicole Noren Hooten, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Douglas F Dluzen, Yongqing Zhang, Michel Bernier, Alan B Zonderman, Kevin G Becker, Myriam Gorospe, Rafael de Cabo, Michele K Evans
Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic agent, has been used for decades to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies indicate that mice treated with metformin live longer and have fewer manifestations of age-related chronic disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unknown. Here, we show that metformin treatment increases the levels of the microRNA-processing protein DICER1 in mice and in humans with diabetes mellitus. Our results indicate that metformin upregulates DICER1 through a post-transcriptional mechanism involving the RNA-binding protein AUF1...
June 2016: Aging Cell
Anderson Sanches Melo, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Paula Andrea Navarro
Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss), folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling)...
November 2015: Clinics
Harvir Hans, Asad Lone, Vadim Aksenov, C David Rollo
We examined the impacts of aspirin and metformin on the life history of the cricket Acheta domesticus (growth rate, maturation time, mature body size, survivorship, and maximal longevity). Both drugs significantly increased survivorship and maximal life span. Maximal longevity was 136 days for controls, 188 days (138 % of controls) for metformin, and 194 days (143 % of controls) for aspirin. Metformin and aspirin in combination extended longevity to a lesser degree (163 days, 120 % of controls). Increases in general survivorship were even more pronounced, with low-dose aspirin yielding mean longevity 234 % of controls (i...
2015: Age (2005-)
Divyesh Thakker, Amit Raval, Isha Patel, Rama Walia
Objective. To review the benefits and harms of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Method. Literature search was conducted using the bibliographic databases, MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, PsyInfo, and PROQUEST (from inception to September 2013) for the studies on women with PCOS receiving NAC. Results. Eight studies with a total of 910 women with PCOS were randomized to NAC or other treatments/placebo. There were high risk of selection, performance, and attrition bias in two studies and high risk of reporting bias in four studies...
2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Mamatha Bhat, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, William S Harmsen, Cathy D Schleck, Ju Dong Yang, Nasra H Giama, Terry M Therneau, Gregory J Gores, Lewis R Roberts
AIM: To assess whether metformin, which has a chemopreventive effect in chronic liver disease, has any chemotherapeutic effect in hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 701 patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seen between January 2005 and June 2011 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. This patient cohort was a part of the global HCC BRIDGE study, which is a large longitudinal study of HCC determining the real-world experience of HCC characteristics, management and patient outcomes...
November 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
C A Bannister, S E Holden, S Jenkins-Jones, C Ll Morgan, J P Halcox, G Schernthaner, J Mukherjee, C J Currie
AIMS: Clinical and observational studies have shown an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death associated with sulphonylureas versus metformin. However, it has never been determined whether this was due to the beneficial effects of metformin or detrimental effects of sulphonylureas. The objective of this study was therefore to compare all-cause mortality in diabetic patients treated first-line with either sulphonylurea or metformin monotherapy with that in matched individuals without diabetes...
November 2014: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Tingting Zhang, Long Zhang, Tao Zhang, Jinhai Fan, Kaijie Wu, Zhenfeng Guan, Xinyang Wang, Lei Li, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Dalin He, Peng Guo
Although neo-adjuvant radiotherapy is generally successful in treatment of advanced prostate cancer, radioresistance is still a major therapeutic problem in many patients. In the current study, we investigated the effects of metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride), a widely used antidiabetic drug, on tumor cell radiosensitivity in prostate cancer. Through clonogenic survival assays, we found that metformin treatment enhanced radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cells with a dose enhancement factor. Moreover, irradiation of subcutaneous C4-2 tumors in mice treated with metformin resulted in an increase in radiation-induced tumor growth delay (17...
June 2014: Radiation Research
Deborah R Erlich, David C Slawson, Allen Shaughnessy
Busy primary care physicians who want their patients with type 2 diabetes to live longer and better should, as much as possible, base screening and management decisions on patient-oriented evidence that affects morbidity and mortality. Because patients with dual diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension have a high risk of cardiovascular mortality, asymptomatic patients with hypertension should be screened for type 2 diabetes. Screening is conducted using a fasting plasma glucose test, a random A1c test, or a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test...
May 2013: FP Essentials
Rebecca S Usadi, Richard S Legro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on menstrual function, fertility and reproductive outcomes. Women with PCOS often present with anovulation, menstrual disturbances and hyperandrogenism. Management options for the reproductive disorders of PCOS will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of metformin in treating PCOS is narrowing. New data show improved live birth rates by skipping a progestin withdrawal bleed and proceeding directly with a dose escalation of clomiphene for ovulation induction...
December 2012: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Evan R Myers, Douglas C McCrory, Alyssa A Mills, Thomas M Price, Geeta K Swamy, Julierut Tantibhedhyangkul, Jennifer M Wu, David B Matchar
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the evidence regarding the outcomes of interventions used in ovulation induction, superovulation, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) for the treatment of infertility. Short-term outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, multiple gestation, and complications. Long-term outcomes included pregnancy and post-pregnancy complications for both mothers and infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration resources. REVIEW METHODS: We included studies published in English from January 2000 through January 2008...
May 2008: Evidence Report/technology Assessment
R A Bradbury, K Samaras
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus are living longer since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy more than a decade ago - but at what cost? Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with lipodystrophy and associated metabolic derangements such as dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes. These complications are likely to contribute to an increased risk of premature and accelerated atherosclerosis with growing concern about potential cardiovascular consequences...
June 2008: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Arran T Shearer, Adrian Bagust, F Javier Ampudia-Blasco, Belén Martínez-Lage Alvarez, Isabel Pérez Escolano, Gonzalo París
OBJECTIVE: To assess the lifetime diabetes health consequences and cost-effectiveness in Spain of rosiglitazone in combination with metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients failing to maintain glycaemic control with metformin monotherapy compared with conventional care of metformin in combination with either sulfonylureas or bedtime insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Diabetes Decision Analysis of Cost--Type 2 was adapted for clinical practice and healthcare funding in Spain, and was calibrated with Spanish epidemiological, healthcare resource use and cost data, taking the perspective of the Spanish National Health System...
2006: PharmacoEconomics
Charles J Glueck, Ping Wang, Naila Goldenberg, Luann Sieve
Thrombophilia, hypofibrinolysis, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and spontaneous abortion (SAB) alone and concurrently. The efficacy and safety of combined enoxaparin-metformin was prospectively assessed in women with PCOS with one or more previous SAB, thrombophilia, and/or hypofibrinolysis. Twenty-four white women with PCOS were studied; 23 with previous pregnancies, seven with RPL of unknown etiology (>/=three consecutive pregnancy losses <20 weeks' gestation), two with two consecutive SABs, 13 with one SAB, and one with one live birth (HELLP syndrome)...
October 2004: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
D R Owens, A McDougall
Prandial glucose regulation represents a new concept in the management of type 2 diabetes: targeting postprandial glycaemic excursions as a means of achieving long-term glycaemic control. Although control of the overall glycaemic load is the most important factor for the success of long-term management of type 2 diabetes, control of postprandial hyperglycaemia also has positive implications for preventing the development of diabetic complications. Repaglinide is the first prandial glucose regulator to become available in the clinical setting...
March 2000: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
C J Glueck, H Phillips, D Cameron, L Sieve-Smith, P Wang
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin would safely reduce the rate of first-trimester spontaneous abortion without teratogenicity in 19 women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Prospective pilot study. SETTING: Outpatient. PATIENT(S): Twenty-two previously oligoamenorrheic, nondiabetic women with PCOS; 125 women with PCOS who were not currently pregnant and who had > or = 1 previous pregnancy while they were not receiving metformin...
January 2001: Fertility and Sterility
G Emilien, J M Maloteaux, M Ponchon
Glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes has been proven efficient in preventing microvascular and neurological complications. The assumption that good control of hyperglycaemia may also have significant impact on alleviation of complications in Type 2 diabetes has gained growing support in recent years. Measures such as body weight reduction and exercise improve the metabolic defects, but pharmacological therapy is most frequently used. The sulphonylureas stimulate insulin secretion. Metformin and troglitazone increase glucose disposal and decrease hepatic glucose output without causing hypoglycaemia...
January 1999: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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