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Hyeong Kyu Park, Mi Kyung Kwak, Hye Jeong Kim, Rexford S Ahima
Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Naji Alamuddin, Marion L Vetter, Rexford S Ahima, Louise Hesson, Scott Ritter, Alyssa Minnick, Lucy F Faulconbridge, Kelly C Allison, David B Sarwer, Jesse Chittams, Noel N Williams, Matthew R Hayes, James W Loughead, Ruben Gur, Thomas A Wadden
BACKGROUND: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) produce substantial weight loss, both primarily through gastric restriction but with potentially different hormonal signaling. This prospective, observational study compared changes in gut-derived hormones in VSG, RYGB, and weight-stable participants at 6 and 18 months post-surgery. METHODS: Sixty-four obese, non-diabetic women, including 18 VSG, 23 RYGB, and 23 weight-stable controls completed assessments at baseline and 6 months, before and after consuming a mixed-nutrient meal; blood sampling occurred for 180 min post-meal...
December 21, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Jeremy J Pruzin, Julie A Schneider, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, Lisa L Barnes, Rexford S Ahima, Steven E Arnold, David A Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis
We examined the relationship of diabetes and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) to 2 common causes of dementia. The study included 1228 subjects who underwent annual clinical evaluations and a brain autopsy at death, as part of a Rush longitudinal cohort study of aging. A total of 433 subjects had A1C data available. Neuropathologic evaluations documented the size and location of infarcts. Modified silver stain-based Alzheimer disease (AD) measures included global and regional scores. We used regression analyses to examine associations of diabetes and A1C with overall and regional neuropathology...
January 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Rotonya M Carr, Ravindra Dhir, Kalyankar Mahadev, Megan Comerford, Naga P Chalasani, Rexford S Ahima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dhanendra Tomar, Zhiwei Dong, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Diana A Koch, Toby Thomas, Nicholas E Hoffman, Shrishiv A Timbalia, Samuel J Goldman, Sarah L Breves, Daniel P Corbally, Neeharika Nemani, Joseph P Fairweather, Allison R Cutri, Xueqian Zhang, Jianliang Song, Fabián Jaña, Jianhe Huang, Carlos Barrero, Joseph E Rabinowitz, Timothy S Luongo, Sarah M Schumacher, Michael E Rockman, Alexander Dietrich, Salim Merali, Jeffrey Caplan, Peter Stathopulos, Rexford S Ahima, Joseph Y Cheung, Steven R Houser, Walter J Koch, Vickas Patel, Vishal M Gohil, John W Elrod, Sudarsan Rajan, Muniswamy Madesh
Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter (MCU)-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is the primary mechanism for increasing matrix Ca(2+) in most cell types. However, a limited understanding of the MCU complex assembly impedes the comprehension of the precise mechanisms underlying MCU activity. Here, we report that mouse cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells lacking MCU regulator 1 (MCUR1) have severely impaired [Ca(2+)]m uptake and IMCU current. MCUR1 binds to MCU and EMRE and function as a scaffold factor. Our protein binding analyses identified the minimal, highly conserved regions of coiled-coil domain of both MCU and MCUR1 that are necessary for heterooligomeric complex formation...
May 24, 2016: Cell Reports
Che-Pei Kung, Julia I-Ju Leu, Subhasree Basu, Sakina Khaku, Frederick Anokye-Danso, Qin Liu, Donna L George, Rexford S Ahima, Maureen E Murphy
p53 is well known for its tumor suppressor role, but this protein also has a poorly understood role in the regulation of metabolism. Human studies have implicated a common polymorphism at codon 72 of p53 in diabetic and pre-diabetic phenotypes. To understand this role, we utilized a humanized mouse model of the p53 codon 72 variants and monitored these mice following challenge with a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice with the arginine 72 (R72) variant of p53 developed more-severe obesity and glucose intolerance on a HFD, compared to mice with the proline 72 variant (P72)...
March 15, 2016: Cell Reports
Rexford S Ahima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Molecular Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of AHIMA
Mary Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of AHIMA
Kelly C Allison, Namni Goel, Rexford S Ahima
Animal studies of delayed eating have provided useful information regarding the potential relationship between nighttime eating and increased weight and metabolic dysregulation, which occur in the absence of increased locomotion or increased caloric intake. We first review recent studies detailing these relationships and possible mechanisms in rodents. We then examine human data showing that sleep restriction leads to increased energy intake and weight gain, followed by a review of the human phenotype of delayed eating, night eating syndrome, and its relation to weight and metabolism...
March 2014: Current Obesity Reports
Rotonya M Carr, Rexford S Ahima
Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) are present in most cell types, and consist of a core comprising neutral lipids, mainly triglycerides and sterol esters, surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. LDs are heterogeneous in their structure, chemical composition, and tissue distribution. LDs are coated by several proteins, including perilipins and other structural proteins, lipogenic enzymes, lipases and membrane-trafficking proteins. Five proteins of the perilipin (PLIN) family (PLIN1 (perilipin), PLIN2 (adipose differentiation-related protein), PLIN3 (tail-interacting protein of 47kDa), PLIN4 (S3-12), and PLIN5 (myocardial lipid droplet protein)), are associated with LD formation...
January 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
W R Lagor, F Tong, K E Jarrett, W Lin, D M Conlon, M Smith, M Y Wang, B O Yenilmez, M G McCoy, D W Fields, S M O'Neill, R Gupta, A Kumaravel, V Redon, R S Ahima, S L Sturley, J T Billheimer, D J Rader
BACKGROUND: ACAT-related enzyme 2 required for viability 1 (ARV1) is a putative lipid transporter of the endoplasmic reticulum that is conserved across eukaryotic species. The ARV1 protein contains a conserved N-terminal cytosolic zinc ribbon motif known as the ARV1 homology domain, followed by multiple transmembrane regions anchoring it in the ER. Deletion of ARV1 in yeast results in defective sterol trafficking, aberrant lipid synthesis, ER stress, membrane disorganization and hypersensitivity to fatty acids (FAs)...
October 19, 2015: Nutrition & Diabetes
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Marvel J Hammer, Mark V Boswell, Alan D Kaye, Joshua A Hirsch
The unfunded mandate for the implementation of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) is scheduled October 1, 2015. The development of ICD-10-CM has been a complicated process. We have endeavored to keep Interventional Pain Management doctors apprised via a variety of related topical manuscripts. The major issues relate to the lack of formal physician participation in its preparation. While the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) and American Hospital Association (AHA) as active partners in its preparation...
September 2015: Pain Physician
Rachana Shah, Sean M O'Neill, Christine Hinkle, Jennifer Caughey, Stephen Stephan, Emma Lynch, Kate Bermingham, Gina Lynch, Rexford S Ahima, Muredach P Reilly
The fractalkine (CX3CL1-CX3CR1) chemokine system is associated with obesity-related inflammation and type 2 diabetes, but data on effects of Cx3cr1 deficiency on metabolic pathways is contradictory. We examined male C57BL/6 Cx3cr1-/- mice on chow and high-fat diet to determine the metabolic effects of Cx3cr1 deficiency. We found no difference in body weight and fat content or feeding and energy expenditure between Cx3cr1-/- and WT mice. Cx3cr1-/- mice had reduced glucose intolerance assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests at chow and high-fat fed states, though there was no difference in glucose-stimulated insulin values...
2015: PloS One
Wei-Dong Li, Hongxiao Jiao, Kai Wang, Fuhua Yang, Struan F A Grant, Hakon Hakonarson, Rexford Ahima, R Arlen Price
Pathway-based analysis as an alternative and effective approach to identify disease-related genes or loci has been verified. To decipher the genetic background of plasma adiponectin levels, we performed genome wide pathway-based association studies in extremely obese individuals and normal-weight controls. The modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) was used to perform the pathway-based analyses (the GenGen Program) in 746 European American females, which were collected from our previous GWAS in extremely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) and never-overweight (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) controls...
2015: Scientific Reports
Emanuele Loro, Erin L Seifert, Cynthia Moffat, Freddy Romero, Manoj K Mishra, Zheng Sun, Predrag Krajacic, Frederick Anokye-Danso, Ross S Summer, Rexford S Ahima, Tejvir S Khurana
IL-15Rα is the widely expressed primary binding partner for IL-15. Because of the wide distribution in nonlymphoid tissues like skeletal muscle, adipose, or liver, IL-15/IL-15Rα take part in physiological and metabolic processes not directly related to immunity. In fast muscle, lack of IL-15Rα promotes an oxidative switch, with increased mitochondrial biogenesis and fatigue resistance. These effects are predicted to reproduce some of the benefits of exercise and, therefore, improve energy homeostasis. However, the direct effects of IL-15Rα on metabolism and obesity are currently unknown...
October 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Rexford S Ahima, Hyeong Kyu Park
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the body in non-obese individuals and is now considered to be an endocrine organ. Hormones (myokines) secreted by skeletal muscle mediate communications between muscle and liver, adipose tissue, brain, and other organs. Myokines affect muscle mass and myofiber switching, and have profound effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus contributing to energy homeostasis and the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the biology of myokines and provide an assessment of their potential as therapeutic targets...
September 2015: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Alan D Kaye, Vijay Singh, Mark V Boswell
The forced implementation of ICD-10-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification) codes that are specific to the United States, scheduled for implementation October 1, 2015, which is vastly different from ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision), implemented worldwide, which has 14,400 codes, compared to ICD-10-CM with 144,000 codes to be implemented in the United States is a major concern to practicing U.S. physicians and a bonanza for health IT and hospital industry...
July 2015: Pain Physician
J Valerius, V Mohan, D Doctor, W Hersh
BACKGROUND: In 2007, we initiated a health information management (HIM) track of our biomedical informatics graduate program, and subsequent ongoing program assessment revealed a confluence of topics and courses within HIM and clinical informatics (CI) tracks. We completed a thorough comparative analysis of competencies derived from AMIA, AHIMA, and CAHIIM. Coupled with the need to streamline course offerings, the process, described in this paper allowed new opportunities for faculty collaboration, resulted in the creation of a model assessment for best practice in courses, and led to new avenues of growth within the program...
2015: Applied Clinical Informatics
Rexford S Ahima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Molecular Endocrinology
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