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Laser capture

Melissa P Woodard, Scott T Akin, Collin J Dibble, Michael A Duncan
Ultra-small chromium oxide nanoclusters produced by laser vaporization in a fast flowtube reactor are ligand-coated by gas phase reactions with acetonitrile vapor and then captured in a cold trap and transferred to solution. The resulting clusters are characterized with mass spectrometry, UV-visible absorption and emission, infrared spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). According to mass spectrometry, clusters of the form CrxOy(MeCN)z are produced in the size range of x  10 and y < 25...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
John R Apps, Gabriela Carreno, Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Scott Haston, Romain Guiho, Julie E Cooper, Saba Manshaei, Nital Jani, Annett Hölsken, Benedetta Pettorini, Robert J Beynon, Deborah M Simpson, Helen C Fraser, Ying Hong, Shirleen Hallang, Thomas J Stone, Alex Virasami, Andrew M Donson, David Jones, Kristian Aquilina, Helen Spoudeas, Abhijit R Joshi, Richard Grundy, Lisa C D Storer, Márta Korbonits, David A Hilton, Kyoko Tossell, Selvam Thavaraj, Mark A Ungless, Jesus Gil, Rolf Buslei, Todd Hankinson, Darren Hargrave, Colin Goding, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Paul Brogan, Thomas S Jacques, Hywel J Williams, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) are clinically challenging tumours, the majority of which have activating mutations in CTNNB1. They are histologically complex, showing cystic and solid components, the latter comprised of different morphological cell types (e.g. β-catenin-accumulating cluster cells and palisading epithelium), surrounded by a florid glial reaction with immune cells. Here, we have carried out RNA sequencing on 18 ACP samples and integrated these data with an existing ACP transcriptomic dataset...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Kaitlyn A Sapoznik, Ting Luo, Alberto de Castro, Lucie Sawides, Raymond L Warner, Stephen A Burns
In adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) systems, capturing multiply scattered light can increase the contrast of the retinal microvasculature structure, cone inner segments, and retinal ganglion cells. Current systems generally use either a split detector or offset aperture approach to collect this light. We tested the ability of a spatial light modulator (SLM) as a rapidly configurable aperture to use more complex shapes to enhance the contrast of retinal structure. Particularly, we varied the orientation of a split detector aperture and explored the use of a more complex shape, the half annulus, to enhance the contrast of the retinal vasculature...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Takahiro Nakagomi, Taichiro Goto, Yosuke Hirotsu, Daichi Shikata, Yujiro Yokoyama, Rumi Higuchi, Kenji Amemiya, Kenichiro Okimoto, Toshio Oyama, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Masao Omata
Objectives: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are rare and generally aggressive tumors composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components; however, the evolution of sarcomatoid cancer has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to evaluate the mutational profiles and phylogeny of sarcomatoid carcinomas using next generation sequencing and in-silico analysis to facilitate the development of novel therapies. Methods: Four patients who underwent surgery for sarcomatoid cancer were enrolled...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Jonathan M Grimes, David R Hall, Alun W Ashton, Gwyndaf Evans, Robin L Owen, Armin Wagner, Katherine E McAuley, Frank von Delft, Allen M Orville, Thomas Sorensen, Martin A Walsh, Helen M Ginn, David I Stuart
Macromolecular crystallography (MX) has been a motor for biology for over half a century and this continues apace. A series of revolutions, including the production of recombinant proteins and cryo-crystallography, have meant that MX has repeatedly reinvented itself to dramatically increase its reach. Over the last 30 years synchrotron radiation has nucleated a succession of advances, ranging from detectors to optics and automation. These advances, in turn, open up opportunities. For instance, a further order of magnitude could perhaps be gained in signal to noise for general synchrotron experiments...
February 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Yang Ju, Heping Xie, Xi Zhao, Lingtao Mao, Zhangyu Ren, Jiangtao Zheng, Fu-Pen Chiang, Yongliang Wang, Feng Gao
Quantitative visualization and characterization of stress-field evolution during fracture rapid growth is critical for understanding the mechanisms that govern the deformation and failure of solids in various engineering applications. However, the direct capture and accurate characterization of a rapidly-changing stress field during crack propagation remains a challenge. We report an experimental method to quantitatively visualize and characterize rapid evolution of the stress-field during crack propagation in a transparent disc model containing a penetrating fusiform crack...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
SangWook Lee, Jong Hyun Lee, Hyuck Gi Kwon, Thomas Laurell, Ok Chan Jeong, Soyoun Kim
Here, we report a sol-gel integrated affinity microarray for on-chip matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that enables capture and identification of prostate?specific antigen (PSA) in samples. An anti-PSA antibody (H117) was mixed with a sol?gel, and the mixture was spotted onto a porous silicon (pSi) surface without additional surface modifications. The antibody easily penetrates the sol-gel macropore fluidic network structure, making possible high affinities...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Aonghus Lavelle
The hypothesis of altered bacterial communities contributing to the development of pouchitis began a scientific quest to link host mucosal factors, microbial metabolism and spatial structure of the colonic microbiome in ulcerative colitis, reaching its apotheosis with the integration of advanced spatial sampling with laser capture microdissection, mucin array profiling, molecular microbiology and next-generation sequencing technologies. This article, part of a festschrift, summarises the contributions of the O'Connell lab to the field of host-microbial interactions in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 9, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Donato Girolamo, Huan-Yu Chang, Fuh-Gwo Yuan
A fully non-contact laser-based nondestructive inspection (NDI) system is developed to detect and visualize damage in structures. The study focuses on the size quantification and characterization of a barely visible impact damage (BVID) in a honeycomb composite panel. The hardware consists of a Q-switched Nd:YAG pulse laser that probes the panel by generating broadband guided waves via thermo-elastic expansion. The laser, in combination with a set of galvano-mirrors is used to raster scan over a two-dimensional surface covering the damaged region of an impacted quasi-isotropic [60/0/-60]s honeycomb composite panel...
February 16, 2018: Ultrasonics
Pallab Basuri, Depanjan Sarkar, Ganesan Paramasivam, Thalappil Pradeep
Here we introduce a new ambient ionization technique named as laser assisted paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (LAPSI MS). In it, a 532 ± 10 nm, ≤10 mW laser pointer was shone on a triangularly cut paper along with high voltage, to effect ionization. The analyte solution was continuously pushed through a fused silica capillary, using a syringe pump, at a preferred infusion rate. LAPSI MS promises enhanced ionization with high signal intensity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are normally not ionizable with similar ionization methods involving solvent sprays...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Bryan J Thibodeau, Vincent Lavergne, Nayana Dekhne, Pamela Benitez, Mitual Amin, Samreen Ahmed, Jean L Nakamura, Philip R Davidson, Alice O Nakamura, Inga S Grills, Peter Y Chen, Jessica Wobb, George D Wilson
Purpose: Radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas are a rare complication of radiation therapy for breast carcinoma. With relatively little is known about the genetic abnormalities present in these secondary tumors, we examined genomic variation in biospecimens from radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas. Experimental Design: Patients were identified that had a previous breast cancer diagnosis, received radiation therapy, and developed angiosarcoma in the ipsilateral breast as the earlier cancer...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Honghai Wang, Yan Sun, Weiwei Yue, Qi Kang, Huijuan Li, Dazhong Shen
Sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers is valuable for clinical diagnosis and treatment assessment of cancers. Herein, we report a simple smartphone-based double-channel fluorescence setup for immunoassay. Not including the smartphone, the total cost of the detection device itself is about 80 $, including a laser pointer, a twinning measurement cell, a collective lens, and an outside box. The fluorescence images of the sample and reference areas were captured by the camera in the smartphone and the brightness ratio was calculated using a user-edited smartphone app...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Fang Hui, Jinyu Zhu, Pengcheng Hu, Lei Meng, Binglin Zhu, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Yuntao Ma
Background and Aims: Global agriculture is facing the challenge of a phenotyping bottleneck due to large-scale screening/breeding experiments with improved breeds. Phenotypic analysis with high-throughput, high-accuracy and low-cost technologies has therefore become urgent. Recent advances in image-based 3D reconstruction offer the opportunity of high-throughput phenotyping. The main aim of this study was to quantify and evaluate the canopy structure of plant populations in two and three dimensions based on the multi-view stereo (MVS) approach, and to monitor plant growth and development from seedling stage to fruiting stage...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Juwon Oh, Young Mo Sung, Yongseok Hong, Dongho Kim
Aromaticity, the special energetic stability derived from cyclic [4 n + 2]π-conjugated electronic structures, has been the topic of intense interest in chemistry because it plays a critical role in rationalizing molecular stability, reactivity, and physical/chemical properties. Recently, the pioneering work by Colin Baird on aromaticity reversal, postulating that aromatic (antiaromatic) character in the ground state reverses to antiaromatic (aromatic) character in the lowest excited triplet state, has attracted much scientific attention...
March 6, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Christophe Schneider, Chloé Leandri, Albin Jeanne, Virginie Grybek, Aude Marchal Bressenot, Coralie Barbe, Benjamin Marquet, Saviz Nasri, Christelle Coquelet, Caroline Fichel, Nicole Bouland, Arnaud Bonnomet, Reza Kianmanesh, Anne-Sophie Lebre, Olivier Bouché, Marie-Danièle Diebold, Georges Bellon, Stéphane Dedieu
LRP1 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1), a multifunctional endocytic receptor, has recently been identified as a hub within a biomarker network for multi-cancer clinical outcome prediction. As its role in colon cancer has not yet been characterized, we here investigate the relationship between LRP1 and outcome. Materials and Methods: LRP1 mRNA expression was determined in colon adenocarcinoma and paired colon mucosa samples, as well as in stromal and tumor cells obtained after laser capture microdissection...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
E H Ernst, S Franks, K Hardy, P Villesen, K Lykke-Hartmann
STUDY QUESTION: Can novel genetic candidates involved in follicle dormancy, activation and integrity be identified from transcriptomic profiles of isolated granulosa cells from human primordial and primary follicles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The granulosa cell compartment of the human primordial and primary follicle was extensively enriched in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signalling, and several other putative signalling pathways that may also be mediators of follicle growth and development were identified...
February 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
Yadvinder Malhi, Tobias Jackson, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alvaro Lau, Alexander Shenkin, Martin Herold, Kim Calders, Harm Bartholomeus, Mathias I Disney
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe how ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand why trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
D A Orwig, P Boucher, I Paynter, E Saenz, Z Li, C Schaaf
Contemporary terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is being used widely in forest ecology applications to examine ecosystem properties at increasing spatial and temporal scales. Harvard Forest (HF) in Petersham, MA, USA, is a long-term ecological research (LTER) site, a National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) location and contains a 35 ha plot which is part of Smithsonian Institution's Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO). The combination of long-term field plots, eddy flux towers and the detailed past historical records has made HF very appealing for a variety of remote sensing studies...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Sabina Roşca, Juha Suomalainen, Harm Bartholomeus, Martin Herold
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with digital cameras have attracted much attention from the forestry community as potential tools for forest inventories and forest monitoring. This research fills a knowledge gap about the viability and dissimilarities of using these technologies for measuring the top of canopy structure in tropical forests. In an empirical study with data acquired in a Guyanese tropical forest, we assessed the differences between top of canopy models (TCMs) derived from TLS measurements and from UAV imagery, processed using structure from motion...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Hong Jin, Daniel Y Li, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Changyan Sun, Albert Busch, Suzanne M Eken, Peter Saliba-Gustafsson, Hanna Winter, Greg Winski, Uwe Raaz, Isabel N Schellinger, Nancy Simon, Renate Hegenloh, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Maja Jagodic, Ewa Ehrenborg, Jaroslav Pelisek, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Ulf Hedin, Alexandra Backlund, Lars Maegdefessel
miRNAs are potential regulators of carotid artery stenosis and concordant vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Hence, we analyzed miRNA expression in laser captured micro-dissected fibrous caps of either ruptured or stable plaques (n = 10 each), discovering that miR-21 was significantly downregulated in unstable lesions. To functionally evaluate miR-21 in plaque vulnerability, miR-21 and miR-21/apolipoprotein-E double-deficient mice (Apoe-/- miR-21-/- ) were assessed. miR-21-/- mice lacked sufficient smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to carotid ligation injury...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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