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Laser capture

Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
M C Lardone, F Argandoña, M Flórez, A Parada-Bustamante, M Ebensperger, C Palma, A Piottante, A Castro
Several observational studies have showed a combination of lower testosterone (T) to LH ratio and higher estradiol (E2 ) to T ratio in secretory infertile men compared to men with normal spermatogenesis, suggesting a steroidogenic dysfunction of Leydig cells (Lc) that may involve increased aromatase activity. Low T/LH ratio is associated with Lc hyperplasia, which together with LH hyperstimulation may represent compensation for impaired T production. Aromatase expression and oestrogen production are mainly detected in Lc of the testis, although Sertoli and germ cells also contribute to testicular aromatase activity...
October 21, 2016: Andrology
Rita Valenzuela, Maria A Costa-Besada, Javier Iglesias-Gonzalez, Emma Perez-Costas, Begoña Villar-Cheda, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Ramon Soto-Otero, Jose L Lanciego, Daniel Henrion, Rafael Franco, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the 'classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2)...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Cletus Cheyuo, Walter Grand, Lucia L Balos
BACKGROUND: Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Marton Szigeti, Andras Guttman
N-glycan profiling of therapeutic glycoproteins is essential to ensure the activity and efficacy of these promising new-generation drugs. The N-linked glycan moieties of these entities highly affect circulation half-life, immunogenicity and receptor-binding activity as well as physicochemical and thermal stability properties. In addition, more than half of the biopharmaceuticals are glycoproteins representing multibillion dollar worldwide business, further emphasizing the importance of their analysis. In the biomedical field, on the other hand, revealing disease-related glycan structure alterations holds the promise of the discovery of new biomarkers for early diagnostics...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hongyan Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yanhong Wang, Chuanchen Wu, Qingling Li, Bo Tang
A strategy based on immune-graphene oxide (GO)-magnetic microbead complex for the sensitive, rapid, portable and low-cost detection of cancer cells was developed. The high efficiency cell capture and high sensitive thermal contrast detection could be simultaneously achieved using magnetic microbeads and the photothermal effect of GOs. The temperature variation caused by irradiating the GOs with a laser was used to establish the standard curve of temperature variation and cancer cell number. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection could reach 100 cells...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jeesu Kim, Sara Park, Yuhan Jung, Sunyeob Chang, Jinyong Park, Yumiao Zhang, Jonathan F Lovell, Chulhong Kim
Photoacoustic imaging has attracted interest for its capacity to capture functional spectral information with high spatial and temporal resolution in biological tissues. Several photoacoustic imaging systems have been commercialized recently, but they are variously limited by non-clinically relevant designs, immobility, single anatomical utility (e.g., breast only), or non-programmable interfaces. Here, we present a real-time clinical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system which consists of an FDA-approved clinical ultrasound system integrated with a portable laser...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Y Horiuchi, M A Kondo, K Okada, Y Takayanagi, T Tanaka, T Ho, M Varvaris, K Tajinda, H Hiyama, K Ni, C Colantuoni, D Schretlen, N G Cascella, J Pevsner, K Ishizuka, A Sawa
Cognitive impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and determines functional outcome. Nonetheless, molecular signatures in neuronal tissues that associate with deficits are not well understood. We conducted nasal biopsy to obtain olfactory epithelium from patients with SZ and control subjects. The neural layers from the biopsied epithelium were enriched by laser-captured microdissection. We then performed an unbiased microarray expression study and implemented a systematic neuropsychological assessment on the same participants...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Minyoung Yoo, Woon-Seok Yeo
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a well-known biomarker for prostate-cancer diagnosis. However, the serum PSA measurement alone is insufficient for accurate diagnoses because the correlation with cancer is weak within the gray zone-the biomarker level range wherein a clear-cut diagnosis is impossible. As such, accurate prostate cancer diagnosis has been supplemented by measurements of the ratio of two types of PSA: free PSA (fPSA) and complexed PSA (cPSA; α-1-antichymotrypsin-bound PSA). Herein, we describe a new method for measuring the ratio of these two types of PSA by using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and biochips...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Rachel Waller, M Nicola Woodroofe, Stephen B Wharton, Paul G Ince, Simona Francese, Paul R Heath, Alex Cudzich-Madry, Ruth H Thomas, Natalie Rounding, Basil Sharrack, Julie E Simpson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). White matter lesions in MS are surrounded by areas of non-demyelinated normal appearing white matter (NAWM) with complex pathology, including blood brain barrier dysfunction, axonal damage and glial activation. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type within the CNS, may respond and/or contribute to lesion pathogenesis. We aimed to characterise the transcriptomic profile of astrocytes in NAWM to determine whether specific glial changes exist in the NAWM which contribute to lesion development or prevent disease progression...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jason A Reuter, Damek V Spacek, Reetesh K Pai, Michael P Snyder
Paired DNA and RNA profiling is increasingly employed in genomics research to uncover molecular mechanisms of disease and to explore personal genotype and phenotype correlations. Here, we introduce Simul-seq, a technique for the production of high-quality whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing libraries from small quantities of cells or tissues. We apply the method to laser-capture-microdissected esophageal adenocarcinoma tissue, revealing a highly aneuploid tumor genome with extensive blocks of increased homozygosity and corresponding increases in allele-specific expression...
October 10, 2016: Nature Methods
Kenji Hanabusa, Takuya Ueda, Shingo Takata, Masahiro Suzuki
Fluorescein-, benzothiazole-, quinoline-, stilbene-, and carbazole-containing fluorescent gelators have been synthesized by connecting gelation-driving segments, including l-isoleucine, l-valine, l-phenylalanine, l-leucine residue, cyclo(l-asparaginyl-l-phenylalanyl), and trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane. The emission behaviors of the gelators were investigated, and their gelation abilities studied against 15 solvents. The minimum gel concentration, variable-temperature spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (FM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize gelation...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
R Pompili, M P Anania, F Bisesto, M Botton, M Castellano, E Chiadroni, A Cianchi, A Curcio, M Ferrario, M Galletti, Z Henis, M Petrarca, E Schleifer, A Zigler
Highly energetic electrons are generated at the early phases of the interaction of short-pulse high-intensity lasers with solid targets. These escaping particles are identified as the essential core of picosecond-scale phenomena such as laser-based acceleration, surface manipulation, generation of intense magnetic fields and electromagnetic pulses. Increasing the number of the escaping electrons facilitate the late time processes in all cases. Up to now only indirect evidences of these important forerunners have been recorded, thus no detailed study of the governing mechanisms was possible...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lin X Chen, Megan L Shelby, Patrick J Lestrange, Nicholas E Jackson, Kristoffer Haldrup, Michael W Mara, Andrew B Stickrath, Diling Zhu, Henrik Lemke, Matthieu Chollet, Brian M Hoffman, Xiaosong Li
This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measured for optically excited states at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(i) (π, 3dx(2)-y(2)) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states...
September 14, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Stefan Neppl, Johannes Mahl, Anton S Tremsin, Bruce Rude, Ruimin Qiao, Wanli Yang, Jinghua Guo, Oliver Gessner
We present a picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (tr-XAS) setup designed for synchrotron-based studies of interfacial photochemical dynamics. The apparatus combines a high power, variable repetition rate picosecond laser system with a time-resolved X-ray fluorescence yield detection technique. Time-tagging of the detected fluorescence signals enables the parallel acquisition of X-ray absorption spectra at a variety of pump-probe delays employing the well-defined time structure of the X-ray pulse trains...
September 19, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Theodore Vecchione, Matthew S Robinson, Renkai Li, Nick Hartmann, Xiaozhe Shen, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Kelly Gaffney, Tais Gorkhover, Carsten Hast, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Alexander Reid, Joseph Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Fenglin Wang, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Xijie Wang, Martin Centurion
We present results on ultrafast gas electron diffraction (UGED) experiments with femtosecond resolution using the MeV electron gun at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. UGED is a promising method to investigate molecular dynamics in the gas phase because electron pulses can probe the structure with a high spatial resolution. Until recently, however, it was not possible for UGED to reach the relevant timescale for the motion of the nuclei during a molecular reaction. Using MeV electron pulses has allowed us to overcome the main challenges in reaching femtosecond resolution, namely delivering short electron pulses on a gas target, overcoming the effect of velocity mismatch between pump laser pulses and the probe electron pulses, and maintaining a low timing jitter...
September 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Matthew Q Hill, Stephan Streuber, Carina A Hahn, Michael J Black, Alice J O'Toole
Brief verbal descriptions of people's bodies (e.g., "curvy," "long-legged") can elicit vivid mental images. The ease with which these mental images are created belies the complexity of three-dimensional body shapes. We explored the relationship between body shapes and body descriptions and showed that a small number of words can be used to generate categorically accurate representations of three-dimensional bodies. The dimensions of body-shape variation that emerged in a language-based similarity space were related to major dimensions of variation computed directly from three-dimensional laser scans of 2,094 bodies...
October 5, 2016: Psychological Science
Alexander J Schmithausen, Manfred Trimborn, Wolfgang Büscher
Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are climate-related gases, and their emissions from agricultural livestock barns are not negligible. Conventional measurement systems in the field (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); photoacoustic system (PAS)) are not sufficiently sensitive to N2O. Laser-based measurement systems are highly accurate, but they are very expensive to purchase and maintain. One cost-effective alternative is gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), but this is not suitable for field applications due to radiation...
October 3, 2016: Sensors
Blair M Goodridge, David L Valentine
Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide have been essential to uncovering the microbial and geochemical processes that drive Earth's sulfur cycle. These processes routinely operate over submillimeter spatial scales in anaerobic environments, necessitating sulfur isotopic measurement techniques that can identify isotopic variability over equivalently small scales. Here we present a new method for small-scale (10(2) μm) measurements of δ(34)S using black and white photographic film sulfide capture coupled with δ(34)S determination using laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
S Mathias, S Eich, J Urbancic, S Michael, A V Carr, S Emmerich, A Stange, T Popmintchev, T Rohwer, M Wiesenmayer, A Ruffing, S Jakobs, S Hellmann, P Matyba, C Chen, L Kipp, M Bauer, H C Kapteyn, H C Schneider, K Rossnagel, M M Murnane, M Aeschlimann
Capturing the dynamic electronic band structure of a correlated material presents a powerful capability for uncovering the complex couplings between the electronic and structural degrees of freedom. When combined with ultrafast laser excitation, new phases of matter can result, since far-from-equilibrium excited states are instantaneously populated. Here, we elucidate a general relation between ultrafast non-equilibrium electron dynamics and the size of the characteristic energy gap in a correlated electron material...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
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