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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107406/classification-and-segmentation-of-nanoparticle-diffusion-trajectories-in-cellular-micro-environments
#1
Thorsten Wagner, Alexandra Kroll, Chandrashekara R Haramagatti, Hans-Gerd Lipinski, Martin Wiemann
Darkfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy both allow for a simultaneous observation of live cells and single nanoparticles. Accordingly, a characterization of nanoparticle uptake and intracellular mobility appears possible within living cells. Single particle tracking allows to measure the size of a diffusing particle close to a cell. However, within the more complex system of a cell's cytoplasm normal, confined or anomalous diffusion together with directed motion may occur. In this work we present a method to automatically classify and segment single trajectories into their respective motion types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107034/automated-measurement-of-magnesium-calcium-ratios-in-gastropod-shells-using-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-for-paleoclimatic-applications
#2
Adolfo Cobo, Asier García-Escárzaga, Igor Gutiérrez-Zugasti, Jesús Setién, Manuel R González-Morales, José Miguel López-Higuera
The chemical composition of mollusk shells offers information about environmental conditions present during the lifespan of the organism. Shells found in geological deposits and in many archeological sites can help to reconstruct past climatic conditions. For example, a correlation has been found between seawater temperature and the amount of some substituent elements (e.g., magnesium, strontium) in the biogenerated calcium carbonate matrix of the shell, although it is very species-specific. Here we propose the use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate Mg/Ca ratios in modern specimens of the common limpet Patella vulgata...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106434/observation-of-mollow-triplets-with-tunable-interactions-in-double-lambda-systems-of-individual-hole-spins
#3
K G Lagoudakis, K A Fischer, T Sarmiento, P L McMahon, M Radulaski, J L Zhang, Y Kelaita, C Dory, K Müller, J Vučković
Although individual spins in quantum dots have been studied extensively as qubits, their investigation under strong resonant driving in the scope of accessing Mollow physics is still an open question. Here, we have grown high quality positively charged quantum dots embedded in a planar microcavity that enable enhanced light-matter interactions. Under a strong magnetic field in the Voigt configuration, individual positively charged quantum dots provide a double lambda level structure. Using a combination of above-band and resonant excitation, we observe the formation of Mollow triplets on all optical transitions...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094895/a-simple-2d-composite-image-analysis-technique-for-the-crystal-growth-study-of-l-ascorbic-acid
#4
Krishan Kumar, Virender Kumar, Jatin Lal, Harmeet Kaur, Jasbir Singh
This work was destined for 2D crystal growth studies of l-ascorbic acid using the composite image analysis technique. Growth experiments on the l-ascorbic acid crystals were carried out by standard (optical) microscopy, laser diffraction analysis, and composite image analysis. For image analysis, the growth of l-ascorbic acid crystals was captured as digital 2D RGB images, which were then processed to composite images. After processing, the crystal boundaries emerged as white lines against the black (cancelled) background...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093272/a-method-for-obtaining-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-sequences-from-laser-capture-microdissected-and-immune-captured-cd68-and-cd163-macrophages-from-frozen-tissue-sections-of-bone-marrow-and-brain
#5
Jaclyn Mallard, Emily Papazian, Caroline Soulas, David J Nolan, Marco Salemi, Kenneth C Williams
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090219/integrated-microfluidic-aptasensor-for-mass-spectrometric-detection-of-vasopressin-in-human-plasma-ultrafiltrate
#6
J Yang, J Zhu, R Pei, J A Oliver, D W Landry, M N Stojanovic, Q Lin
We present a microfluidic aptamer-based biosensor for detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers in patient samples. Using a microfluidic device that integrates aptamer-based specific analyte extraction, isocratic elution, and detection by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we demonstrate rapid, sensitive and label-free detection of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma ultrafiltrate. AVP molecules in complex matrices are specifically captured by an aptamer that is immobilized on microbeads via affinity binding in a microchamber...
July 14, 2016: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089917/micrornas-and-dicer1-are-regulated-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-in-prostate-stroma
#7
Shweta Dambal, Angeline A Giangreco, Andres M Acosta, Andrew Fairchild, Zachary Richards, Ryan Deaton, Dennis Wagner, Reinhold Vieth, Peter H Gann, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Theodorus Van der Kwast, Larisa Nonn
Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of lethal prostate adenocarcinomas (PCa) and the majority of older men are deficient. Although PCa arises from the epithelium, the surrounding stroma has hormonal regulatory control over the epithelium and contributes to carcinogenesis. Herein, we describe regulation of microRNAs (miRs) by the active hormone dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in human prostate stroma. 1,25(OH)2D binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) transcription factor to regulate gene expression, including miRs, which have emerged as potent regulators of protein expression...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088687/whole-genome-dna-methylation-profiling-identifies-epigenetic-signatures-of-uterine-carcinosarcoma
#8
Jing Li, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Bo Zhang, David G Mutch, Ian S Hagemann, Ting Wang
Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a form of endometrial cancer simultaneously exhibiting carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, but the underlying molecular and epigenetic basis of this disease is poorly understood. We generated complete DNA methylomes for both the carcinomatous and the sarcomatous components of three UCS samples separated by laser capture microdissection and compared DNA methylomes of UCS with those of normal endometrium as well as methylomes derived from endometrioid carcinoma, serous endometrial carcinoma, and endometrial stromal sarcoma...
January 12, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081089/direct-comparison-of-two-dimensional-and-three-dimensional-laser-induced-fluorescence-measurements-on-highly-turbulent-flames
#9
Lin Ma, Qingchun Lei, Tyler Capil, Stephen D Hammack, Campbell D Carter
This Letter reports the first direct comparison between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applied to highly turbulent flames, with the goal of experimentally illustrating the capabilities and limitations of volumetric LIF (VLIF). To accomplish these goals, planar LIF (PLIF) and VLIF measurements were simultaneously performed on turbulent flames based on the CH radical. The PLIF measurements imaged a planar cross-section of the target flames across a 2D field-of-view (FOV) of 42  mm×42  mm...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077278/oscillatory-eeg-activity-induced-by-conditioning-stimuli-during-fear-conditioning-reflects-salience-and-valence-of-these-stimuli-more-than-expectancy
#10
J H Chien, L Colloca, A Korzeniewska, J J Cheng, C M Campbell, A E Hillis, F A Lenz
Imaging studies have described hemodynamic activity during fear conditioning protocols with stimulus trains in which a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US, painful laser pulse) while another visual stimulus is unpaired (CS-). We now test the hypothesis that CS Event Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) are related to ratings of CS Expectancy (likelihood of pairing with the US), Valence (unpleasantness) and Salience (ability to capture attention). ERSP windows in EEG were defined by both time after the CS and frequency, and showed increased oscillatory power (Event Related Synchronization, ERS) in the delta/theta Windows (0-8 Hz) and the gamma Window (30-55 Hz)...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076296/efficiency-test-of-current-carotid-embolic-protection-devices
#11
Anja Kurzhals, Jörn-Bo Matthies, Reimer Andresen, Christian Wissgott, Klaus-Peter Schmitz, Niels Grabow, Wolfram Schmidt
Embolic protection devices were developed to reduce the risk of stroke during carotid artery stenting. The aim of this study was to test the capture efficiency of five embolic protection devices under reproducible in vitro conditions. The setup consisted of silicone tubes representing the vessel modeling round and oval cross sections. Spherical polystyrene particles (150 μm, COOH-coating) were used to simulate the plaque. The particles were inserted in a clean water circuit and either captured by the device or collected in a glass filter...
January 11, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068442/oct-study-of-the-femtosecond-laser-opaque-bubble-layer
#12
Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Steven E Wilson
PURPOSE: To characterize the location and regularity of the opaque bubble layer (OBL) in the corneal stroma after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) flap generation. METHODS: In this prospective study, 30 eyes of 15 patients who had FS-LASIK surgery for myopia, astigmatism, and/or hyperopia were included. Screen captures were obtained at the end of the flap creation and the eyes with hard type OBL were immediately imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068290/a-collection-system-for-dry-solid-residues-from-exhaled-breath-for-analysis-via-atomic-force-microscopy
#13
Victor N Morozov, Andrey Y Mikheev
Exhaled air contains sub-micron droplets of lung liquid, which potentially bear biomarkers of lung diseases. After dehydration they form dry residue particles (DRPs). As a first step in developing techniques to characterize individual DRPs, a new electrostatic collector was designed in which DRPs are charged within a unipolar corona charger, concentrated in a cone funnel, and deposited onto a limited area of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The collector captures 80%-90% of DRPs at an optimal flow rate of 0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067764/high-resolution-temperature-measurement-of-liquid-stainless-steel-using-hyperspectral-imaging
#14
Wim Devesse, Dieter De Baere, Patrick Guillaume
A contactless temperature measurement system is presented based on a hyperspectral line camera that captures the spectra in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) region of a large set of closely spaced points. The measured spectra are used in a nonlinear least squares optimization routine to calculate a one-dimensional temperature profile with high spatial resolution. Measurements of a liquid melt pool of AISI 316L stainless steel show that the system is able to determine the absolute temperatures with an accuracy of 10%...
January 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063908/laser-angiography-with-indocyanine-green-icg-to-assess-vaginal-cuff-perfusion-during-total-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-tlh-a-pilot-study
#15
Benjamin D Beran, Marie Shockley, Katrin Arnolds, Pedro Escobar, Stephen Zimberg, Michael L Sprague
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of using laser angiography with ICG to assess vaginal cuff vascular perfusion during TLH. DESIGN: Pilot feasibility trial DESIGN CLASSIFICATION: Canadian Task Force Class II-2 SETTING: Academic-affiliated hospital PATIENTS: Twenty women undergoing TLH for benign disease. INTERVENTIONS: Participants underwent 1:1 randomization of energy method used for colpotomy (ultrasonic versus monopolar) and vaginal cuff closure suture (barbed versus non-barbed)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062322/mir-23b-controls-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-via-direct-targeting-of-smad3
#16
Ming Chen, Jianting Shi, Wei Zhang, Linjie Huang, Xiaoling Lin, Zhiqiang Lv, Wei Zhang, Ruiyun Liang, Shanping Jiang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small yet versatile gene tuners that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth and proliferation. Here we report that miR-23b inhibited airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation through directly targeting of Smad3. METHODS: We obtained ASMCs by laser capture microdissection of normal and asthmatic mice lung tissues. Mice ASMCs were cultured and induced by TGF-β1. The implication between TGF-β1 and miR-23b in ASMCs were detected by RT-PCR...
January 3, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059341/high-speed-three-dimensional-tomographic-laser-induced-incandescence-imaging-of-soot-volume-fraction-in-turbulent-flames
#17
Terrence R Meyer, Benjamin R Halls, Naibo Jiang, Mikhail N Slipchenko, Sukesh Roy, James R Gord
High-speed, laser-based tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional time evolution of soot volume fraction in turbulent jet diffusion flames is demonstrated to be feasible at rates of 10 kHz or higher. The fundamental output of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser with 1 J/pulse is utilized for volumetric impulsive heating of soot particles with a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm<sup>2</sup>, enabling signal-to-noise ratios of ~100:1 in images of the resulting incandescence. The three-dimensional morphology of the soot distribution is captured with a spatial resolution of <1...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059189/effect-of-pumping-delay-on-the-modulation-bandwidth-in-double-tunneling-injection-quantum-dot-lasers
#18
Levon V Asryan
The modulation bandwidth of double tunneling-injection (DTI) quantum dot (QD) lasers is studied, taking into account noninstantaneous pumping of QDs. In this advanced type of semiconductor lasers, carriers are first captured from the bulk waveguide region into two-dimensional regions (quantum wells [QWs]); then they tunnel from the QWs into zero-dimensional regions (QDs). The two processes are noninstantaneous and, thus, could delay the delivery of the carriers to the QDs. Here, the modulation bandwidth of DTI QD lasers is calculated as a function of two characteristic times (the capture time from the waveguide region into the QW and the tunneling time from the QW into the QD ensemble) and is shown to increase as either of these times is reduced...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058811/proteomic-characterization-of-microdissected-breast-tissue-environment-provides-a-protein-level-overview-of-malignant-transformation
#19
René B H Braakman, Christoph Stingl, Madeleine M A Tilanus-Linthorst, Carolien H M Deurzen, Mieke A M Timmermans, Marcel Smid, John A Foekens, Theo M Luider, John W M Martens, Arzu Umar
Both healthy and cancerous breast tissue is heterogeneous, which is a bottle-neck for proteomics-based biomarker analysis, as it obscures the cellular origin of a measured protein. We therefore aimed at obtaining a protein-level interpretation of malignant transformation through global proteome analysis of a variety of laser capture microdissected cells originating from benign and malignant breast tissues. We compared proteomic differences between these tissues, both from cells of epithelial origin and the stromal environment, and performed string analysis...
January 5, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057717/pathology-driven-comprehensive-proteomic-profiling-of-the-prostate-cancer-tumour-microenvironment
#20
Lisa Staunton, Claire Tonry, Rosina Lis, Virginia Espina, Lance Liotta, Rosanna Inziatari, Michaela Bowden, Aurelie Fabre, John O'Leary, Stephen P Finn, Massimo Loda, Stephen R Pennington
: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Gleason grading is an important predictor of PCa outcomes and is influential in determining patient treatment options. Clinical decisions based on a Gleason score of 7 are difficult as the prognosis for individuals diagnosed with Gleason 4+3 cancer is much worse than for those diagnosed with Gleason 3+4 cancer. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a highly precise method to isolate specific cell populations or discrete microregions from tissues...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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