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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781506/articular-cartilage-protection-in-ctsk-mice-is-associated-with-cellular-and-molecular-changes-in-subchondral-bone-and-cartilage-matrix
#1
Fabiana N Soki, Ryu Yoshida, David N Paglia, Le T Duong, Marc F Hansen, Hicham Drissi
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease and a major cause of chronic disability in aging individuals. Cathepsin K (CatK), encoded by the Ctsk gene, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pycnodysostosis and osteoporosis. The use of a selective inhibitor of CatK was recently shown to delay OA progression in rabbits. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these protective effects remain unexplored. We examined articular cartilage maintenance and joint bone remodeling using Ctsk null mice (Ctsk-/- ) which underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775430/gene-expression-profile-analysis-of-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-reveals-upregulation-of-cadherin-genes-in-myocardial-infarction-patients
#2
Anselm A Derda, Chin Cheng Woo, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mark Richards, Chuen Neng Lee, Theo Kofidis, Vladimir A Kuznetsov, Vitaly A Sorokin
Myocardial infarction (MI) induced by acute coronary arterial occlusion is usually secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Dysregulated response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerotic plaques may promote plaque rupture. Cadherins (CDHs) form adherens junctions and are known stabilizers of atherosclerotic plaques. To date, the expression patterns of cadherin have not been well investigated in MI aortic VSMCs. We aimed to investigate the expression of cadherin genes in the aortic wall of patients with and without MI...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775363/charge-transfer-processes-in-warm-dense-matter-selective-spectral-filtering-for-laser-accelerated-ion-beams
#3
J Braenzel, M D Barriga-Carrasco, R Morales, M Schnürer
We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, how the spectral distribution of laser accelerated carbon ions can be filtered by charge exchange processes in a double foil target setup. Carbon ions at multiple charge states with an initially wide kinetic energy spectrum, from 0.1 to 18 MeV, were detected with a remarkably narrow spectral bandwidth after they had passed through an ultrathin and partially ionized foil. With our theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that this process is a consequence of the evolution of the carbon ion charge states in the second foil...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774079/long-non-coding-rnas-ac026904-1-and-uca1-a-one-two-punch-for-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-snai2-activation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-breast-cancer
#4
Guo-Yin Li, Wei Wang, Jian-Yong Sun, Bo Xin, Xiang Zhang, Ting Wang, Qian-Feng Zhang, Li-Bo Yao, Hua Han, Dai-Ming Fan, An-Gang Yang, Lin-Tao Jia, Lei Wang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has received much attention as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during cancer progression, mainly by activating a set of pleiotropic transcription factors including SNAI2/Slug. However, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in TGF-β-induced Slug activation and EMT remains largely unknown. Methods: In this study, we used microarray analysis to compare lncRNA expression profiles between TGF-β treated and untreated breast cancer cells...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#5
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772090/lcm-seq-reveals-the-crucial-role-of-lssoc1-in-heat-promoted-bolting-of-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#6
Zijing Chen, Wensheng Zhao, Danfeng Ge, Yingyan Han, Kang Ning, Chen Luo, Shenglin Wang, Renyi Liu, Xiaolan Zhang, Qian Wang
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables. The floral transition in lettuce is accelerated under high temperatures, which can significantly decrease yields. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the floral tranition in lettuce is poorly known. Using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing, we isolated shoot apical meristem cells from the bolting-sensitive lettuce line S39 at four critical stages of development. Subsequently, we screened specifically for the flowering-related gene LsSOC1 during the floral transition through comparative transcriptomic analysis...
May 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770838/metal-oxide-nanoparticles-for-latent-fingerprint-visualization-and-analysis-of-small-drug-molecules-using-surface-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#7
Mohamed O Amin, Metwally Madkour, Entesar Al-Hetlani
We explored the applicability of different metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; ZnO, TiO2 , Fe2 O3 , and CeO2 ) for the optical imaging and mass spectrometric determination of small drug molecules in latent fingerprints (LFPs). Optical imaging was achieved using a dry method-simply dusting the LFPs with a minute amount of NP powder-and still images were captured using a digital microscope and a smartphone camera. Mass spectrometric determination was performed using the NPs as substrates for surface-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS), which enabled the detection of small drug molecules with high signal intensities...
May 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767707/preantral-follicular-atresia-occurs-mainly-through-autophagy-while-antral-follicles-degenerate-mostly-through-apoptosis
#8
Li Meng, Sabrina Z Jan, Geert Hamer, Ans M van Pelt, Inge van der Stelt, Jaap Keijer, Katja J Teerds
There is general agreement that granulosa cell apoptosis is the cause of antral follicle attrition. Less clear is whether this pathway is also activated in case of preantral follicle degeneration, as several reports mention that the incidence of granulosa cell apoptosis in preantral follicles is negligible. Our objective is therefore to determine which cell-death pathways are involved in preantral and antral follicular degeneration.Atretic preantal and antral follicles were investigated using immunohistochemistry and laser-capture micro-dissection followed by qRT-PCR...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762619/isolation-and-genome-sequencing-of-individual-circulating-tumor-cells-using-hydrogel-encapsulation-and-laser-capture-microdissection
#9
Emily S Park, Justin P Yan, Richard A Ang, Jeong Hyun Lee, Xiaoyan Deng, Simon P Duffy, Kevin Beja, Matti Annala, Peter C Black, Kim N Chi, Alexander W Wyatt, Hongshen Ma
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are malignant cells released into the bloodstream with the potential to form metastases in secondary sites. These cells, acquired non-invasively, represent a sample of highly relevant tumor tissue that is an alternative to difficult and low-yield tumor biopsies. In recent years, there has been growing interest in genomic profiling of CTCs to enable longitudinal monitoring of the tumor's adaptive response to therapy. However, due to their extreme rarity, genotyping CTCs has proved challenging...
May 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758698/from-quantum-to-classical-modeling-of-radiation-reaction-a-focus-on-stochasticity-effects
#10
F Niel, C Riconda, F Amiranoff, R Duclous, M Grech
Radiation reaction in the interaction of ultrarelativistic electrons with a strong external electromagnetic field is investigated using a kinetic approach in the nonlinear moderately quantum regime. Three complementary descriptions are discussed considering arbitrary geometries of interaction: a deterministic one relying on the quantum-corrected radiation reaction force in the Landau and Lifschitz (LL) form, a linear Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function, and a Fokker-Planck (FP) expansion in the limit where the emitted photon energies are small with respect to that of the emitting electrons...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758678/solvent-coarsening-around-colloids-driven-by-temperature-gradients
#11
Sutapa Roy, Siegfried Dietrich, Anna Maciolek
Using mesoscopic numerical simulations and analytical theory, we investigate the coarsening of the solvent structure around a colloidal particle emerging after a temperature quench of the colloid surface. Qualitative differences in the coarsening mechanisms are found, depending on the composition of the binary liquid mixture forming the solvent and on the adsorption preferences of the colloid. For an adsorptionwise neutral colloid, the phase next to its surface alternates as a function of time. This behavior sets in on the scale of the relaxation time of the solvent and is absent for colloids with strong adsorption preferences...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757281/analyses-of-mitochondrial-calcium-influx-in-isolated-mitochondria-and-cultured-cells
#12
Joshua T Maxwell, Chin-Hsien Tsai, Tahmina A Mohiuddin, Jennifer Q Kwong
Ca2+ handling by mitochondria is a critical function regulating both physiological and pathophysiological processes in a broad spectrum of cells. The ability to accurately measure the influx and efflux of Ca2+ from mitochondria is important for determining the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in these processes. In this report, we present two methods for the measurement of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in both isolated mitochondria and cultured cells. We first detail a plate reader-based platform for measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake using the Ca2+ sensitive dye calcium green-5N...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756877/multistage-coupling-of-laser-wakefield-accelerators-with-curved-plasma-channels
#13
J Luo, M Chen, W Y Wu, S M Weng, Z M Sheng, C B Schroeder, D A Jaroszynski, E Esarey, W P Leemans, W B Mori, J Zhang
Multistage coupling of laser-wakefield accelerators is essential to overcome laser energy depletion for high-energy applications such as TeV-level electron-positron colliders. Current staging schemes feed subsequent laser pulses into stages using plasma mirrors while controlling electron beam focusing with plasma lenses. Here a more compact and efficient scheme is proposed to realize the simultaneous coupling of the electron beam and the laser pulse into a second stage. A partly curved channel, integrating a straight acceleration stage with a curved transition segment, is used to guide a fresh laser pulse into a subsequent straight channel, while the electrons continue straight...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740167/active-solution-of-homography-for-pavement-crack-recovery-with-four-laser-lines
#14
Guan Xu, Fang Chen, Guangwei Wu, Xiaotao Li
An active solution method of the homography, which is derived from four laser lines, is proposed to recover the pavement cracks captured by the camera to the real-dimension cracks in the pavement plane. The measurement system, including a camera and four laser projectors, captures the projection laser points on the 2D reference in different positions. The projection laser points are reconstructed in the camera coordinate system. Then, the laser lines are initialized and optimized by the projection laser points...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740101/tissue-distribution-and-cell-tropism-of-brucella-canis-in-naturally-infected-canine-foetuses-and-neonates
#15
Tayse Domingues de Souza, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Juliana Pinto da Silva Mol, João Vítor Menezes Lopes, Monique Ferreira Silva, Tatiane Alves da Paixão, Renato Lima Santos
Brucella canis infection is an underdiagnosed zoonotic disease. Knowledge about perinatal brucellosis in dogs is extremely limited, although foetuses and neonates are under risk of infection due to vertical transmission. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to determine tissue distribution and cell tropism of B. canis in canine foetuses and neonates. Diagnosis of B. canis in tissues of naturally infected pups was based on PCR and sequencing of amplicons, bacterial isolation, and immunohistochemistry, whose specificity was confirmed by laser capture microdissection...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733325/spatial-quantification-of-drugs-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-lesions-by-laser-capture-microdissection-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-lcm-lc-ms
#16
Matthew Zimmerman, Landry Blanc, Pei-Yu Chen, Véronique Dartois, Brendan Prideaux
Tuberculosis is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improvements to existing drug regimens and the development of novel therapeutics are urgently required. The ability of dosed TB drugs to reach and sterilize bacteria within poorly-vascularized necrotic regions (caseum) of pulmonary granulomas is crucial for successful therapeutic intervention. Effective therapeutic regimens must therefore contain drugs with favorable caseum penetration properties. Current LC/MS methods for quantifying drug levels in biological tissues have limited spatial resolution capabilities, making it difficult to accurately determine absolute drug concentrations within small tissue compartments such as those found within necrotic granulomas...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726529/deformation-reconstruction-by-means-of-surface-optimization-part-ii-time-resolved-electronic-speckle-pattern-interferometry
#17
T Statsenko, V Chatziioannou, T Moore, W Kausel
An analysis of time-resolved electronic speckle pattern interferograms using an optimization algorithm is shown to provide full-field measurements of transient surface deformation. The arrangement uses a continuous-wave laser and high-speed camera to capture speckle images, with the recovery of the time-resolved deformation achieved by spatiotemporal processing using an optimization algorithm. It is shown that the process allows imaging of high-speed non-monotonic out-of-plane displacements with sub-micrometer amplitude...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723522/transcriptomic-profiling-of-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-and-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#18
Lisette J A Kogelman, Rikke Elgaard-Christensen, Jes Olesen, Inger Jansen-Olesen, Thomas F Hansen
The pain sensation system is highly conserved among species, thus animal models have been used to investigate relevant tissues. The focus for head-specific pain has been on the primary nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal pathway, i.e. trigeminal ganglia. The secondary nociceptive neurons of the trigeminal pathway, trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC), have not been assessed. We expect different gene expression profiles compared to the homologous spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH), as several signalling substances provoke head-specific pain but not peripheral pain...
April 30, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719595/proteomic-alterations-in-early-stage-cervical-cancer
#19
Coşkun Güzel, Natalia I Govorukhina, G Bea A Wisman, Christoph Stingl, Lennard J M Dekker, Harry G Klip, Harry Hollema, Victor Guryev, Peter L Horvatovich, Ate G J van der Zee, Rainer Bischoff, Theo M Luider
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows the capture of cell types or well-defined structures in tissue. We compared in a semi-quantitative way the proteomes from an equivalent of 8,000 tumor cells from patients with squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC, n = 22) with healthy epithelial and stromal cells obtained from normal cervical tissue ( n = 13). Proteins were enzymatically digested into peptides which were measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry and analyzed by "all-or-nothing" analysis, Bonferroni, and Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717143/in-vivo-dynamic-phase-contrast-x-ray-imaging-using-a-compact-light-source
#20
Regine Gradl, Martin Dierolf, Benedikt Günther, Lorenz Hehn, Winfried Möller, David Kutschke, Lin Yang, Martin Donnelley, Rhiannon Murrie, Alexander Erl, Tobias Stoeger, Bernhard Gleich, Klaus Achterhold, Otmar Schmid, Franz Pfeiffer, Kaye Susannah Morgan
We describe the first dynamic and the first in vivo X-ray imaging studies successfully performed at a laser-undulator-based compact synchrotron light source. The X-ray properties of this source enable time-sequence propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging. We focus here on non-invasive imaging for respiratory treatment development and physiological understanding. In small animals, we capture the regional delivery of respiratory treatment, and two measures of respiratory health that can reveal the effectiveness of a treatment; lung motion and mucociliary clearance...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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