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Julian Hecker, Xin Xu, F William Townes, Heide Loehlein Fier, Chris Corcoran, Nan Laird, Christoph Lange
For family-based association studies, Horvath et al. proposed an algorithm for the association analysis between haplotypes and arbitrary phenotypes when the phase of the haplotypes is unknown, that is, genotype data is given. Their approach to haplotype analysis maintains the original features of the TDT/FBAT-approach, that is, complete robustness against genetic confounding and misspecification of the phenotype. The algorithm has been implemented in the FBAT and PBAT software package and has been used in numerous substantive manuscripts...
November 21, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
Cristiane Medina Finzi-Quintão, Kátia Monteiro Novack, Ana Cláudia Bernardes-Silva, Thais D Silva, Lucas E S Moreira, Luiza E M Braga
Vegetable oils are used as base for synthesis of polymers and monomers with similar structures of petroleum, as plasticizers for conventional polymers and biodegrading additives. The M. oleifera oil was extract from seeds and polymerized after being submitted to 16 hours of microwave irradiation without catalyzers. This polymer was characterized and the efficiency of the oil polymerization was verified by the reducing of doubles bonds and the increasing of molecular weight up to 50,000 g.mol-1. Films produced by mixture of low density polyethylene (LDPE) with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/poly(lactic acid) (PBAT/PLA) present low tensile resistance and low biodegradation behaviour...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
Sébastien Livi, Luanda Chaves Lins, Jakub Peter, Hynek Benes, Jana Kredatusova, Ricardo K Donato, Sébastien Pruvost
In this work, phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) based on tetra-alkylphosphonium cations combined with carboxylate, phosphate and phosphinate anions, were used for organic modification of layered double hydroxide (LDH). Two different amounts (2 and 5 wt %) of the organically modified LDHs were mixed with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) matrix by melt extrusion. All prepared PBAT/IL-modified-LDH composites exhibited increased mechanical properties (20-50% Young's modulus increase), decreased water vapor permeability (30-50% permeability coefficient reduction), and slight decreased crystallinity (10-30%) compared to the neat PBAT...
September 28, 2017: Nanomaterials
László Lendvai, Anton Apostolov, József Karger-Kocsis
A two-step melt blending procedure was used to produce binary systems composed of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). To improve the properties of the blends, two different layered silicates, viz. bentonite (BT) and organically modified montmorillonite (oMMT) were incorporated. First, TPS and its layered silicate nanocomposites were prepared via extrusion compounding during which starch was plasticized with glycerol and water. In the second step, PBAT was added to TPS/layered silicate to produce blends in a batch-type mixer...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shahab Kashani Rahimi, Robabeh Aeinehvand, Kyoungtae Kim, Joshua U Otaigbe
Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was first chemically modified via free radical grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) and the MA-g-PBAT graft copolymer was then used as a matrix material to obtain cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-reinforced MA-g-PBAT bionanocomposites via reactive extrusion process to accelerate efforts to develop functional bioabsorbable polymer nanocomposites with improved properties. The molecular structure of the PBAT after chemical modification with maleic anhydride was confirmed by (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy...
June 27, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Meng Chen, Ling Zhang, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
A novel, high-sensitivity, biocompatible SERS tag with core-shell structure based on gold nanoparticles containing alkynyl molecule core -silver nanoparticle satellites shell was fabricated for the first time to be used for live cancer cells Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. (E)-2-((4-(phenylethynyl)benzylidene) amino) ethanethiol (PBAT) synthesized facilely in our lab is the Raman-silence region reporter which is advantage for bioorthogonal SERS cell imaging. In order to enhance the intensity of the Raman tags for live cancer cell imaging, a series of news measures have been adopted...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
Allan Robledo Fialho E Moraes, Cícero Cardoso Pola, Ana Paula Bilck, Fabio Yamashita, Jairo Tronto, Eber Antonio Alves Medeiros, Nilda de Fátima Ferreira Soares
The production of biodegradable plastic materials using natural resources has aroused increased attention due to environmental concerns. This study aimed to manufacture novel, commercially feasible, biodegradable sheets by flat die extrusion-calendering process produced with thermoplastic starch/plasticized cellulose acetate (TPS/PCA) and thermoplastic starch/plasticized cellulose acetate/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (TPS/PCA/PBAT) blends, and to investigate the effects of composition and processing conditions, morphological characteristics, and thermal properties...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hesham Moustafa, Nadia El Kissi, Ahmed I Abou-Kandil, Mohamed S Abdel-Aziz, Alain Dufresne
The use of biodegradable polymers is of great importance nowadays in many applications. Some of the most commonly used biopolymers are polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) due to their superior properties and availability. In this manuscript, we use a facile and green modification method of organoclay (OC) by antimicrobial natural rosin which is considered as a toxicity-free reinforcing material, thus keeping the green character of the material. It increases the interlayer spacing between the clay platelets...
June 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael Thomas Zumstein, Daniela Rechsteiner, Nicolas Roduner, Veronika Perz, Doris Ribitsch, Georg M Guebitz, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Kristopher McNeill, Michael Sander
Biodegradable polyesters have a large potential to replace persistent polymers in numerous applications and to thereby reduce the accumulation of plastics in the environment. Ester hydrolysis by extracellular carboxylesterases is considered the rate-limiting step in polyester biodegradation. In this work, we systematically investigated the effects of polyester and carboxylesterase structure on the hydrolysis of nanometer-thin polyester films using a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Hydrolyzability increased with increasing polyester-chain flexibility as evidenced from differences in the hydrolysis rates and extents of aliphatic polyesters varying in the length of their dicarboxylic acid unit and of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) polyesters varying in their terephthalate-to-adipate ratio by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and Fusarium solani cutinase...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Shuo Wang, Jieyun Song, Yide Yang, Nitesh V Chawla, Jun Ma, Haijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicated that eating behaviors are under genetic influence, and the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene polymorphisms can affect the total energy intake and the consumption of fat, protein and carbohydrates. Our study aims at investigating the association of the MC4R polymorphism with appetite and food intake among Chinese children. METHODS: A family-based association study was conducted among 151 Chinese trios whose offsprings were overweight/obese children aged 9-15 years...
2017: PloS One
Gabriela F Santana-Melo, Bruno V M Rodrigues, Edmundo da Silva, Ritchelli Ricci, Fernanda R Marciano, Thomas J Webster, Luana M R Vasconcellos, Anderson O Lobo
Combining polyester scaffolds with synthetic nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp), which is bioactive and osteoconductive, is a plausible strategy to improve bone regeneration. Here, we propose the combination of PBAT [poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephthalate)] and synthetic nHAp (at 3 and 5wt%). PBAT is a relatively a new polymer with low crystallinity and attractive biodegradability and mechanical properties for orthopedic applications, however, with a still underexplored potential for in vivo applications. Then, we performed a careful biological in vitro and in vivo set of experiments to evaluate the influence of PBAT containing two different nHAp loads...
April 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Thainá A Oliveira, Rosimery R Oliveira, Renata Barbosa, Joyce B Azevedo, Tatianny S Alves
The solid waste management problems caused by the accumulation of plastics require measures to mitigate the environmental damage, and mechanical recycling of plastics is among the possible solutions. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanical recycling on the properties of a polypropylene/poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate)-thermoplastic starch blend (PP/PBAT-Thermoplastic starch blend) when it was subjected to seven reprocessing cycles by a single-screw extruder. The observations by infrared spectroscopy indicated that the chemical structures of the blend and the polypropylene matrix did not present significant changes with the reprocessing cycles...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ali M Zolali, Basil D Favis
In this study it is shown that the three different intermediate phases in melt blended ternary PLA/PHBV/PBS, PLA/PBAT/PE and PLA/PE/PBAT systems all demonstrate partial wetting, but have very different wetting behaviors as a function of composition and annealing. The interfacial tension of the various components, their spreading coefficients and the contact angles of the confined partially wet droplets at the interface are examined in detail. A wetting transition from partially wet droplets to a complete layer at the interface is observed for both PHBV and PBAT by increasing the concentration and also by annealing...
April 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Sheng-Yang Zhou, Ben Niu, Xu-Long Xie, Xu Ji, Gan-Ji Zhong, Benjamin S Hsiao, Zhong-Ming Li
The challenge of hitherto elaborating a feasible pathway to overcome the conflicts between strength and toughness of polylactide (PLA) still remains among academia and industry. In the current work, a unique hierarchal structure of flexible poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in situ nanofibrils integrating with abundant PLA shish-kebabs as a strong building block was disclosed and expresses its capability to conquer this dilemma. Substantially simultaneous enhancement on tensile strength, impact strength, and elongation at break could be achieved up to 91...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Boniface J Tiimob, Gregory Mwinyelle, Woubit Abdela, Temesgen Samuel, Shaik Jeelani, Vijaya K Rangari
In this study, the reinforcement effect of different proportions of eggshell/silver (ES-Ag) nanomaterial on the structural and antimicrobial properties of 70/30 poly(butylene-co-adipate terephthalate)/polylactic acid (PBAT/PLA) immiscible blends was investigated. The ES-Ag was synthesized using a single step ball milling process and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results confirmed the existence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the interstitial spaces of the eggshell particles...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hidehiro Toh, Kenjiro Shirane, Fumihito Miura, Naoki Kubo, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Mitinori Saitou, Mikita Suyama, Takashi Ito, Hiroyuki Sasaki
BACKGROUND: Methylation of cytosine in genomic DNA is a well-characterized epigenetic modification involved in many cellular processes and diseases. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), such as MethylC-seq and post-bisulfite adaptor tagging sequencing (PBAT-seq), uses the power of high-throughput DNA sequencers and provides genome-wide DNA methylation profiles at single-base resolution. However, the accuracy and consistency of WGBS outputs in relation to the operating conditions of high-throughput sequencers have not been explored...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
Ali M Zolali, Basil D Favis
The control of phase structuring in multiphase blends of polylactide (PLA) with other polymers is a viable approach to promote its broader implementation. In this article, ternary and quaternary blends of PLA with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) are prepared by melt blending. The interfacial tensions between components are measured using three different techniques, and a Fourier transform infrared imaging technique is developed for the purpose of unambiguous phase identification...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Christina Andrea Müller, Veronika Perz, Christoph Provasnek, Felice Quartinello, Georg M Guebitz, Gabriele Berg
The growing pollution of the environment with plastic debris is a global threat which urgently requires biotechnological solutions. Enzymatic recycling not only prevents pollution but also would allow recovery of valuable building blocks. Therefore, we explored the existence of microbial polyesterases in microbial communities associated with the Sphagnum magellanicum moss, a key species within unexploited bog ecosystems. This resulted in the identification of six novel esterases, which were isolated, cloned, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli The esterases were found to hydrolyze the copolyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT) and the oligomeric model substrate bis[4-(benzoyloxy)butyl] terephthalate (BaBTaBBa)...
February 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Paal W Wallace, Karolina Haernvall, Doris Ribitsch, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Matthias Schittmayer, Georg Steinkellner, Karl Gruber, Georg M Guebitz, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger
A novel esterase, PpEst, that hydrolyses the co-aromatic-aliphatic polyester poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was identified by proteomic screening of the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes secretome. PpEst was induced by the presence of PBAT in the growth media and had predicted arylesterase (EC activity. PpEst showed polyesterase activity on both whole and milled PBAT film releasing terephthalic acid and 4-(4-hydroxybutoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid while end product inhibition by 4-(4-hydroxybutoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid was observed...
March 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J B Olivato, J Marini, F Yamashita, E Pollet, M V E Grossmann, L Avérous
The effects of sepiolite addition (0, 1, 3 and 5wt%) were evaluated on dynamic-mechanical behaviour, water uptake, thermal and optical properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS)/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) nano-biocomposites, with different TPS/PBAT (w/w) ratios and nanofiller contents. The results highlighted the improvement of the dynamic-mechanical behaviour with the addition of sepiolite, producing high performance materials. An increase of 25°C in the Tg of TPS was recorded by DMTA analysis at sepiolite content of 5wt%...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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