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Psychiatry research

Martin E Keck, Nils Kappelmann, Johannes Kopf-Beck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Anand Satiani, Julie Niedermier, Bhagwan Satiani, Dale P Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: This analysis quantified and assessed the projected workforce of psychiatrists in the United States through 2050 on the basis of population data. METHODS: With use of data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (2000-2015), American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (2000-2015), and U.S. Census Bureau (2000-2050), the psychiatrist workforce was projected through 2050. Two established psychiatrist-to-population ratios were used to determine the estimated demand for psychiatrists and potential shortages...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
P Zanos, T D Gould
Clinical studies have demonstrated that a single sub-anesthetic dose of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions. Although this finding has been met with enthusiasm, ketamine's widespread use is limited by its abuse potential and dissociative properties. Recent preclinical research has focused on unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ketamine in an effort to develop novel pharmacotherapies, which will mimic ketamine's antidepressant actions but lack its undesirable effects...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Timothy C Bates, Brion S Maher, Sarah E Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J Wright, Narelle K Hansell, Kenneth S Kendler, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required...
March 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Vinod Sinha, Nishant Goyal, Joyita Sinha
Child and adolescent psychiatry has not been considered as an established field until the early 1900s till first such unit was started by Leo Kanner in 1930. In India, the first child guidance clinic was founded in 1938 in Mumbai by Dr. Clifford Manshardt. The child and adolescent Psychiatry unit at Central institute of Psychiatry has been into existence for the last 55 years and since then it has been an integral part of the institute in providing high-quality patient care, promoting substantial growth in research, and imparting education to the post graduate trainees and scholars in the field of child psychiatry...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Mamta Sood
Background: General hospital psychiatry units (GHPUs) are the major providers of mental health services in India. Unlike in high-income countries, GHPUs in India are also the main training centers for providing postgraduate training in psychiatry and allied disciplines. Aim: This paper traces the history of the GHPUs in India from beginning to the present. Material and Methods: PubMed, old issues of the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and related sources were searched with key words general hospital and psychiatry both electronically and manually to look for the related literature...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
R C Jiloha, Prerna Kukreti
Delhi hasn't always enjoyed the status of the India's capital, but it has always played a pivotal role in the history of India as a gateway city. The same way, it received mental health services much later than the rest part of country, but it has witnessed an evolution from colonial era to the birth of state of art modern psychiatry services. Journey started with the landmark inaugural meeting in Delhi University of few visionaries paving the birth of Indian psychiatry society. Subsequently, it witnessed emergence of general hospital psychiatry units & saw their transformation to apex institutes of teaching and research like AIIMS and others...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Suprakash Chaudhury, Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Subhas Soren
Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS; Ranchi Indian Mental Hospital; Ranchi Manasik Aryogyashala) traces its origin from a lunatic asylum for Indian soldiers established at Munghyr in Bihar in 1795 and thus is the first mental hospital in India established by the British purely for Indian patients as well as the second oldest functioning mental hospital in India. The hospital made great strides in improving patients care and using modern methods of assessment and treatment as well as education and research during the tenure of Dr J E Dhunjibhoy the first Indian medical superintendent...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ranjan Bhattacharyya
The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Caren J Blacker, Robert J Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Jared W Young, Zackary A Cope, Benedetto Romoli, Esther Schrurs, Aniek Joosen, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Richard F Sharp, Davide Dulcis
Developing novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder (BD) has been hampered by limited mechanistic knowledge how sufferers switch between mania and depression-how the same brain can switch between extreme states-described as the "holy grail" of BD research. Strong evidence implicates seasonally-induced switching between states, with mania associated with summer-onset, depression with winter-onset. Determining mechanisms of and sensitivity to such switching is required. C57BL/6J and dopamine transporter hypomorphic (DAT-HY 50% expression) mice performed a battery of psychiatry-relevant behavioral tasks following 2-week housing in chambers under seasonally relevant photoperiod extremes...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kübranur Ünal, Gamze Erzin, Rabia Nazik Yüksel, Murat Alisik, Özcan Erel
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate the dynamic thiol/disulphincide homeostasis in patients with schizophrenia who have positive psychotic indications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients (26 males, 18 females; mean age = 34.40 ± 8.98 years) accepted at the Department of Psychiatry of the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital and 33 healthy controls (15 males, 18 females; mean age of 30.30 ± 8.48 years) were included in the study...
March 8, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Simon Cervenka
The dopamine (DA) system is considered to be centrally involved in the pathophysiology of several major psychiatric disorders. Using positron emission tomography (PET), aberrations in dopamine D2/D3-receptors (D2-R) levels and uptake of the DA precursor FDOPA have been shown for schizophrenia, substance abuse and depression. Radioligands for the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R) have been available for more than three decades, however this receptor subtype has received much less attention in psychiatry research. Here, studies investigating D1-R in psychiatric patients in comparison to healthy control subjects are summarized...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
David H V Vogel, Katharina Krämer, Theresa Schoofs, Christian Kupke, Kai Vogeley
Disturbances in the experience of time have been a commonly reported feature of depressive disorders since the beginning of modern psychiatry and psychological research. However, qualitative research approaches to investigate the phenomenon are rarely used. We employed content analysis to investigate disturbances of time experience in Major Depressive Disorder. Our analysis from 25 participants showed that individuals with Major Depressive Disorder subjectively seem to have lost the ability to influence or change the present, resulting in an impersonal and blocked future...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michelle Colder Carras, Ramin Mojtabai, Bernadette Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Popular media applications have been shown to benefit people with severe mental illness by facilitating communication and social support, helping patients cope with or manage symptoms, and providing a way to monitor or predict mental health states. Although many studies of technology use by individuals with severe mental illness have focused primarily on use of social media, this study provides additional information about use of Internet applications such as blogs, wikis (websites that allow collaborative editing of content and structure by users), video games, and Skype by a community psychiatry population...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
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