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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346018/the-tortoise-and-the-hare-interactions-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#1
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345040/assessing-and-addressing-cognitive-impairment-in-bipolar-disorder-the-international-society-for-bipolar-disorders-targeting-cognition-task-force-recommendations-for-clinicians
#2
REVIEW
K W Miskowiak, K E Burdick, A Martinez-Aran, C M Bonnin, C R Bowie, A F Carvalho, P Gallagher, B Lafer, C López-Jaramillo, T Sumiyoshi, R S McIntyre, A Schaffer, R J Porter, S Purdon, I J Torres, L N Yatham, A H Young, L V Kessing, E Vieta
OBJECTIVES: Cognition is a new treatment target to aid functional recovery and enhance quality of life for patients with bipolar disorder. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Targeting Cognition Task Force aimed to develop consensus-based clinical recommendations on whether, when and how to assess and address cognitive impairment. METHODS: The task force, consisting of 19 international experts from nine countries, discussed the challenges and recommendations in a face-to-face meeting, telephone conference call and email exchanges...
January 18, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342481/-pioneering-research-developments-in-psychiatry
#3
Peter Falkai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342008/the-r2c2-model-in-residency-education-how-does-it-foster-coaching-and-promote-feedback-use
#4
Joan Sargeant, Jocelyn M Lockyer, Karen Mann, Heather Armson, Andrew Warren, Marygrace Zetkulic, Sophie Soklaridis, Karen D Könings, Kathryn Ross, Ivan Silver, Eric Holmboe, Cindy Shearer, Michelle Boudreau
PURPOSE: The authors previously developed and tested a reflective model for facilitating performance feedback for practice improvement, the R2C2 model. It consists of four phases: relationship building, exploring reactions, exploring content, and coaching. This research studied the use and effectiveness of the model across different residency programs and the factors that influenced its effectiveness and use. METHOD: From July 2014-October 2016, case study methodology was used to study R2C2 model use and the influence of context on use within and across five cases...
January 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340519/evaluating-the-current-state-of-the-art-of-huntington-disease-research-a-scientometric-analysis
#5
L A Barboza, N C Ghisi
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dominant mutation on the 4th chromosome. We aim to present a scientometric analysis of the extant scientific undertakings devoted to better understanding HD. Therefore, a quantitative study was performed to examine the current state-of-the-art approaches that foster researchers' understandings of the current knowledge, research trends, and research gaps regarding this disorder. We performed literature searches of articles that were published up to September 2016 in the "ISI Web of Science™" (http://apps...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334667/lithium-a-classic-drug-in-psychiatry-improves-nilotinib-mediated-antileukemic-effects
#6
Janaína Peixoto-da-Silva, Andrana K Calgarotto, Katiucha R Rocha, Caroline Palmeira-Dos-Santos, Soraya S Smaili, Gustavo J S Pereira, Fernando V Pericole, Adriana da Silva S Duarte, Sara T O Saad, Claudia Bincoletto
Although Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target Bcr-Abl play a key role in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) therapy, they do not eradicate CML-initiating cells, which lead to the emergence of drug resistance. Here we used the lithium, a GSK-3 inhibitor, to attempt to potentiate the effects of nilotinib against leukemia cells. For this purpose, a K562 leukemia cell line and bone marrow cells from untreated Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients, prior to any exposure to TKIs, were used as a model. Our results demonstrated that the combination of lithium + nilotinib (L + N) induced K562-cell death and cleaved caspase-3 when compared to lithium or nilotinib alone, accompanied by GSK-3β phosphorylation and Bcr-Abl oncoprotein levels reduction...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321711/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-of-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-severity-scale-child-form
#7
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Dilek Ergin, Nesrin Şen Celasin, Duygu Karaarslan, Masum Öztürk, Handan Özek Erkuran, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.) (DSM-5) Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form. Method: The scale was prepared by carrying out the translation and back translation of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. The study group consisted of 31 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 99 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321707/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-for-dsm-5-level-2-anger-scale-child-form-for-children-aged-11-17-years-and-parent-form-for-children-aged-6-17-years
#8
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Handan Özek Erkuran, Nefize Yalin, Özlem Önen, Siğnem Öztekin, Canem Kavurma, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Level 2 Anger Scale. Methods: The scale was prepared by translation and back translation of DSM-5 Level 2 Anger Scale. Study groups consisted of a clinical sample of cases diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated in a child and adolescent psychiatry unit and a community sample. The study was continued with 218 children and 160 parents...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317742/psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#9
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
For over a century, psychiatric disorders have been defined by expert opinion and clinical observation. The modern DSM has relied on a consensus of experts to define categorical syndromes based on clusters of symptoms and signs, and, to some extent, external validators, such as longitudinal course and response to treatment. In the absence of an established etiology, psychiatry has struggled to validate these descriptive syndromes, and to define the boundaries between disorders and between normal and pathologic variation...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313408/in-honor-of-jurgen-ruesch-remembering-his-work-in-psychiatry
#10
Francisco Balbuena Rivera
BACKGROUND: In a highly technical civilization like ours, in which the interest in human communication transcends academic barriers and clinical practice, it seems necessary to look back to Ruesch's work in psychiatry. The main reason of it rests upon the idea that he was one of the few truly outstanding clinicians, researchers, and theoretical in the field of normal and abnormal communication. In fact, he did not only present a wealth of observational and clinical data; more importantly, he used these data to formulate creative hypotheses about the conflict between man and other human beings...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311665/hippocampal-dysfunction-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-and-hypothesis-for-early-detection-and-intervention
#11
J A Lieberman, R R Girgis, G Brucato, H Moore, F Provenzano, L Kegeles, D Javitt, J Kantrowitz, M M Wall, C M Corcoran, S A Schobel, S A Small
Scientists have long sought to characterize the pathophysiologic basis of schizophrenia and develop biomarkers that could identify the illness. Extensive postmortem and in vivo neuroimaging research has described the early involvement of the hippocampus in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this context, we have developed a hypothesis that describes the evolution of schizophrenia-from the premorbid through the prodromal stages to syndromal psychosis-and posits dysregulation of glutamate neurotransmission beginning in the CA1 region of the hippocampus as inducing attenuated psychotic symptoms and initiating the transition to syndromal psychosis...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304426/relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-suicide-probability-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Rukiye Ay, Lale Gonenir Erbay
The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between childhood trauma with the probability of suicide in obsessive compulsive disorders. Sixty-seven patients who were diagnosed with OCD were included in the study out of the patients who were admitted to Malatya Training and Research Hospital psychiatry outpatient clinic. The research data were collected using Yale Brawn Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), Beck Depression (BDS) and Beck Anxiety Scales (BAS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 (CTQ-28), and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS)...
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302928/trends-in-md-phd-graduates-entering-psychiatry-assessing-the-physician-scientist-pipeline
#13
Melissa R Arbuckle, Sean X Luo, Harold Alan Pincus, Joshua A Gordon, Joyce Y Chung, Mark Chavez, Maria A Oquendo
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify trends in MD/PhD graduates entering psychiatry, to compare these trends with other specialties, and to review strategies for enhancing the physician-scientist pipeline. METHODS: Data on 226,588 medical students graduating from Liaison Committee on Medical Education accredited programs between 1999 and 2012 (6626 MD/PhDs) were used to evaluate the number, percentage, and proportion of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry in comparison with other specialties (neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, family medicine, and radiation oncology)...
January 4, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299832/the-2016-survey-of-the-association-of-directors-of-medical-student-education-in-psychiatry
#14
Lia A Thomas, Gary Beck Dallaghan, Richard M Balon
OBJECTIVE: The members of the Association of Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP) had been last surveyed in 2010 to identify trends in medical student education in psychiatry, teaching methods, academic productivity, and administrative issues. With increasing requirements, ADMSEP members were surveyed in 2016 to characterize current expectations for and needs of medical student educators in psychiatry. METHODS: A 53-item survey was sent to members of ADMSEP (n=260) and to clerkship directors nationwide...
January 3, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298301/mapping-of-global-scientific-research-in-comorbidity-and-multimorbidity-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#15
Ferrán Catalá-López, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Matthew J Page, Brian Hutton, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent
BACKGROUND: The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289963/treatment-guidelines-for-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders-of-the-polish-sleep-research-society-and-the-section-of-biological-psychiatry-of-the-polish-psychiatric-association-part-ii-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Adam Wichniak, Konrad S Jankowski, Michał Skalski, Krystyna Skwarło-Sońta, Jolanta B Zawilska, Marcin Żarowski, Ewa Poradowska, Wojciech Jernajczyk
AIM: Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children. METHOD: Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289962/treatment-guidelines-for-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders-of-the-polish-sleep-research-society-and-the-section-of-biological-psychiatry-of-the-polish-psychiatric-association-part-i-physiology-assessment-and-therapeutic-methods
#17
REVIEW
Adam Wichniak, Konrad S Jankowski, Michal Skalski, Krystyna Skwarło-Sońta, Jolanta B Zawilska, Marcin Żarowski, Ewa Poradowska, Wojciech Jernajczyk
Majority of the physiological processes in the human organism are rhythmic. The most common are the diurnal changes that repeat roughly every 24 hours, called circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms disorders have negative influence on human functioning. The aim of this article is to present the current understanding of the circadian rhythms physiological role, with particular emphasis on the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD), principles of their diagnosis and chronobiological therapy. The guidelines are based on the review of recommendations from the scientific societies involved in sleep medicine and the clinical experiences of the authors...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289377/treatment-of-paraphilic-disorders-in-sexual-offenders-or-men-with-a-risk-of-sexual-offending-with-luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-agonists-an-updated-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken
BACKGROUND: Different pharmacologic agents are used in the treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders or men with a risk of sexual offending, with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists being the agents introduced more recently to treatment regimens. AIM: To summarize the relevant literature concerning LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders and update the previously published systematic review by Briken et al (J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:890-897)...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287276/patients-attitudes-towards-and-acceptance-of-coercion-in-psychiatry
#19
Eva Krieger, Steffen Moritz, Ricarda Weil, Matthias Nagel
Coercive interventions for psychiatric patients are controversial. Research on different preventive measures has increased over the last years. The present study examined patients' attitudes towards and understanding of previously experienced coercive measures as well as their preferences related to coercive measures and possible alternatives. In total, 213 patients who had experienced coercion and 51 patient controls (patients staying voluntarily on a closed ward with no coercive treatment) from three acute wards were examined via expert interviews and questionnaires in the framework of a naturalistic trial...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282999/the-concept-of-chronotypes-and-its-clinical-importance-for-depressive-disorders
#20
Matthias J Müller, Anja Haag
Chronobiology and chronobiological research deal with time-dependent physiological processes and behavioral correlates as well as their adaptation to environmental conditions. Chronobiological research is presently focused on the impact of circadian rhythms on human behavior. In the last three decades, chronobiology has established itself as an independent area of research evolving to an important field of clinical psychology and psychiatry. In this overview, the results of studies on the clinical importance of chronotypes are summarized...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
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