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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774797/-brain-disorders-by-henry-calderwood-1879
#1
G E Berrios
Henry Calderwood, a nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher interested in madness, published in 1879 an important work on the interaction between philosophy of mind, the nascent neurosciences and mental disease. Holding a spiritual view of the mind, he considered the phrase 'mental disease' (as Feuchtersleben had in 1845) to be but a misleading metaphor. His analysis of the research work of Ferrier, Clouston, Crichton-Browne, Maudsley, Tuke, Sankey, etc., is detailed, and his views are correct on the very limited explanatory power that their findings had for the understanding of madness...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771102/-reclusion-and-physical-restraint-in-psychiatry-influencing-factors-and-alternatives
#2
Jérôme Morisset
Introduction and context: The use of reclusion and restraint is neither a recent practice nor a rare practice in psychiatric services. In France, the Controller General of Places of Deprivation of Liberty reported certain drifts in 2015. Since then, the public authorities have sought to frame this practice with the aim of limiting its use. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The purpose of this study is to examine how, through a literature review, the topic of limitation of constraint measures and the definition of a future direction of research is discussed...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767278/the-hypothalamus-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-psychiatry-meets-microscopy
#3
REVIEW
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766481/-is-psychiatry-ready-to-let-patients-review-their-own-files-inventory-of-initial-experiences
#4
S M P van Veen, M Mostert, L de Witte, M Somers
BACKGROUND: Dutch patients will be granted the right to digitally access their own medical records, an option already available to the patients at the University Medical Center Utrecht since 2015. AIM: To start a conversation about the development of readily accessible online patient records. METHODS Describe the experiences of a University department of psychiatry with an online patient portal, obtained through discussions and questionnaires. RESULTS: During the next few years three legal developments will enable patients to acquire direct, remote, digital access to their medical files...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766479/-n-of-1-trials-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-closer-look-at-stimulants
#5
E Mordijck, M Danckaerts, P Onghena
BACKGROUND: An N-of-1 trial is a clinical trial studying the response of an individual to a particular intervention or different interventions in an objective, systematic way. AIM: To evaluate both the applications and the methodology of N-of-1 trials in child and adolescent psychiatry. METHOD: A systematic review using PubMed and Embase assessing N-of-1 trials published during the period 1986 - July 2016 with the following key-word: 'N-of-1'...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764795/mapping-of-crowdsourcing-in-health-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Perrine Créquit, Ghizlène Mansouri, Mehdi Benchoufi, Alexandre Vivot, Philippe Ravaud
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing involves obtaining ideas, needed services, or content by soliciting Web-based contributions from a crowd. The 4 types of crowdsourced tasks (problem solving, data processing, surveillance or monitoring, and surveying) can be applied in the 3 categories of health (promotion, research, and care). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to map the different applications of crowdsourcing in health to assess the fields of health that are using crowdsourcing and the crowdsourced tasks used...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761286/a-qualitative-analysis-of-stress-and-relaxation-themes-contributing-to-burnout-in-first-year-psychiatry-and-medicine-residents
#7
Nicole M Benson, Deanna Chaukos, Heather Vestal, Emma F Chad-Friedman, John W Denninger, Christina P C Borba
OBJECTIVE: Qualitative research on trainee well-being can add nuance to the understanding of propagators of burnout, and the role for interventions aimed at supporting well-being. This qualitative study was conducted to identify (i) situations and environments that cause stress for trainees, (ii) stress-reducing activities that trainees utilize, and (iii) whether trainees who report distress (high burnout and depression scores) describe different stressors and relaxation factors than those who do not...
May 14, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754706/ethics-committees-and-mental-health
#8
Carlos Enrique Yepes Delgado, Andrea Ocampo Montoya
Although research processes are covered by the objectivity of science, they are still influenced by the interests of those who conduct them. This is why high level committees have been tasked with defining the scope of the studies and performing a thorough assessment of them, since these imply great dilemmas. This premise leads to the emergence of Ethics Committees, where liaison psychiatry has an important place due to its communication abilities and knowledge of the human behavior. This paper attempts to provide some observations to take into account when discussing the link between ethics and mental health...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741616/a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-research-on-psychotic-experiences-and-negative-symptom-traits-new-revelations-and-implications-for-psychiatry
#9
Angelica Ronald, Oliver Pain
We present a systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experience and negative symptom traits (PENS) in the community. We integrate these new findings, most of which have emerged over the last four years, with more established behaviour genetic and epidemiological research. The review includes the first genome-wide association studies of PENS, including a recent meta-analysis, and the first SNP heritability estimates. Sample sizes of < 10,000 participants mean that no genome-wide significant variants have yet been replicated...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740357/a-perspective-on-a-possible-relation-between-the-psychopathology-of-the-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-spectrum-and-unconjugated-bilirubin-a-longitudinal-protocol-study
#10
João Gama Marques, Filipe Arantes-Gonçalves
Some authors suggest a relation between Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) plasma high levels and schizophrenia, as schizophrenia patients have been showing higher UCB levels when compared with other psychiatric patients and general population. These higher UCB levels have been already correlated with acute psychotic states, positive symptoms, and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders share common symptoms but there aren't yet accepted biomarkers for their distinction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739518/on-the-birth-of-psychodynamic-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
Richard C Friedman, Jennifer I Downey, César A Alfonso
Psychodynamic psychiatry emerged from psychoanalytic theory, but the influence of the latter has been only partial. Equally important are other disciplines outlined within is article. Modern psychodynamic publications and presentations should honor all of the foundational pillars of the field. In this way, the new area lends itself to bio-psycho-social integrations that remain a challenge for all researchers and clinicians who seek to understand and treat patients with mental disorders.
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738960/verbal-and-physical-client-aggression-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-professional-caregivers-psychophysiological-stress-response-and-burnout
#12
Nina Kind, Anne Eckert, Célia Steinlin, Jörg M Fegert, Marc Schmid
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of verbal and physical client aggression on risk of developing high hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an indicator of chronic stress exposure and burnout in a Swiss population of professional caregivers working in youth residential care. METHOD: Participants (n = 121; 62.0% women) reported on client aggression and burnout symptoms and provided hair samples at four annual sampling points. HCC was determined in the first 1...
May 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738717/the-habenula-in-neurosurgery-for-depression-a-convergence-of-functional-neuroanatomy-psychiatry-and-imaging
#13
REVIEW
Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Elizabeth O Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: The habenula is a small, mostly underrated structure in the pineal region. Multidisciplinary findings demonstrate an underlying complex connectivity of the habenula with the rest of the brain, subserving its major role in normal behavior and the pathophysiology of depression. These findings suggest the potential application of "habenular psychosurgery" in the treatment of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The remission of two patients with treatment-resistant major depression treated with deep brain stimulation of the habenula supported the hypothesis that the habenula is an effective target for deep brain stimulation and initiated a surge of basic science research...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736130/applicability-evaluation-of-simplified-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#14
Li Zhang, Zhipei Zhu, Fang Fang, Yuan Shen, Na Liu, Chunbo Li
Background: We have developed a structured cognitive behavioral therapy manual for anxiety disorder in China, and the present study evaluated the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy based on our previous research. Aims: To evaluate the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy (SCBT) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by conducting a multi-center controlled clinical trial. Methods: A multi-center controlled clinical trial of SCBT was conducted on patients with GAD, including institutions specializing in mental health and psychiatry units in general hospitals...
April 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736075/a-pilot-study-of-md-psychiatry-theses-based-research
#15
Shrikant Srivastava, Vivek Agarwal, Alka Subramanyam, Mona Srivastava, T S Sathyanarayana Rao, G Prasad Rao, Hitesh Khurana, Archana Singh
Introduction: Undertaking a research project is mandatory for MD Psychiatry trainees. The present study was undertaken to assess the type of research activity being undertaken as part of MD Psychiatry dissertation, and its contribution to national and international literature. Materials and Methods: Three medical colleges supplied the data about the topic, names of the supervisor and the candidate, collaboration, funding accrued, and publication details of MD-based research carried out between years 2000 and 2010 inclusive; 95 records were collected for the final analysis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735241/use-of-a-gabapentin-protocol-for-the-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-a-preliminary-experience-expanding-from-the-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service
#16
Jonathan G Leung, Daniela B Rakocevic, Nicholas D Allen, Elliot M Handler, Bruno A Perossa, Kristin L Borreggine, Amy L Stark, Hannah K Betcher, Daniel K Hosker, Blaine A Minton, Benjamin R Braus, Ross A Dierkhising, Kemuel L Philbrick
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are the conventional mainstay to manage alcohol withdrawal; however, patients are subsequently at increased risk for poor sleep, cravings, and return to drinking. Research on alternative pharmacologic agents to facilitate safe alcohol withdrawal is scant. Gabapentin is one medication shown in small studies to reduce the need for benzodiazepines in the setting of alcohol withdrawal. The continuation of gabapentin after alcohol withdrawal appears to be safe during early sobriety and may aid in reducing alcohol-related cravings or returning to alcohol consumption...
March 21, 2018: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#17
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734057/institutionalised-otherness-patients-references-to-psychiatric-diagnostic-categories
#18
Elina Weiste, Anssi Peräkylä, Taina Valkeapää, Enikö Savander, Jukka Hintikka
Diagnosis is integral part of the way medicine organises illness: it is important for identifying treatment options, predicting outcomes and providing an explanatory framework for clinicians. Previous research has shown that during a medical visit not only the clinician but also patients provide explanations for the causes of their symptoms and health problems. Patients' lifeworld explanations are often differentiated from the diagnostic explanations provided by clinicians. However, while previous conversation analytic research has elaborated the ways in which diagnostic and lifeworld explanations are interactionally structured in somatic medicine, there is little research on how these explanations are organised in psychiatry...
April 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730941/emotional-reactivity-to-daily-events-in-youth-with-anxiety-disorders
#19
Joanna Herres, Nicole E Caporino, Colleen M Cummings, Philip C Kendall
BACKGROUND: Although research supports associations between anxiety and emotional reactivity in adults (Cisler, J. M., Olatunji, B. O., Feldner, M. T., & Forsyth, J. P. (2010). Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: an integrative review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(1), 68-82.), few studies have examined emotional reactivity in anxious youth (e.g., Carthy et al., 2010; Tan, P. Z., Forbes, E. E., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Siegle, G. J...
May 7, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724513/forensic-psychiatry-and-neurolaw-description-developments-and-debates
#20
Gerben Meynen
Neuroscience produces a wealth of data on the relationship between brain and behavior, including criminal behavior. The research field studying the possible and actual impact of neuroscience on the law and legal practices, is called neurolaw. It is a new and rapidly developing domain of interdisciplinary research. Since forensic psychiatryhas to do with both neuroscience and the law, neurolaw is of specific relevance for this psychiatric specialty. In this contribution, I will discuss three main research areas in neurolaw - revision, assessment, and intervention - and explore their relevance for forensic psychiatry...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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