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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083901/snapshot-transient-absorption-spectroscopy-of-carotenoid-radical-cations-in-high-light-acclimating-thylakoid-membranes
#1
Soomin Park, Alexandra L Fischer, Zhirong Li, Roberto Bassi, Krishna K Niyogi, Graham R Fleming
Nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms regulate light harvesting in oxygenic photosynthesis. Measurement techniques for nonphotochemical quenching have typically focused on downstream effects of quenching, such as measuring reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, to directly measure a species involved in quenching, we report snapshot transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy, which rapidly tracks carotenoid radical cation signals as samples acclimate to excess light. The formation of zeaxanthin radical cations, which is possible evidence of zeaxanthin-chlorophyll charge-transfer (CT) quenching, was investigated in spinach thylakoids...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052196/3c-in-maize-and-arabidopsis
#2
Blaise Weber, Suraj Jamge, Maike Stam
With Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C), the relative interaction frequency of one chromosomal fragment with another can be determined. The technique is especially suited for unraveling the 3D organization of specific loci when focusing on aspects such as enhancer-promoter interactions or other topological conformations of the genome. 3C has been extensively used in animal systems, among others providing insight into gene regulation by distant cis-regulatory elements. In recent years, the 3C technique has been applied in plant research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973714/a-rapd-pcr-based-genetic-diversity-analysis-of-helicoverpa-armigera-and-h-zea-populations-in-brazil
#3
H M Lopes, C S Bastos, L S Boiteux, J Foresti, F A Suinaga
Helicoverpa armigera is the most significant pest of agriculture in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Australasia, causing damage to crops greater than US$2 billion annually and until 2013 it was not detected in Brazil. Helicoverpa zea is restricted to the American continent and is important to corn and a secondary pest of cotton and tomatoes. The wide range of crops exploited by H. armigera (mainly cotton, soybeans, chickpea, and corn), the possible mating between these species can promote population shifts, that could be assessed by RAPD-PCR technique...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973573/further-description-of-helicoverpa-zea-lepidoptera-noctuidae-male-genitalia-and-new-genetic-evidence-of-synonymy-with-respect-to-the-anomalous-form-heliothis-stombleri
#4
Emilia I Balbi, Fernando M Flores, Daniela S Tosto, Joel D Arneodo
The Helicoverpa/Heliothis complex can cause serious damage to agricultural crops. Phenotypic similarity makes it difficult to discriminate between closely related Helicoverpa species. Currently, morphology of the male genitalia complemented with molecular techniques constitutes the best approach for species identification. In this work, a broad microscopic examination of adult Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) males (n = 200) captured in central Argentina was carried out in order to provide a detailed description of the valvae and the phallus...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969654/viral-metagenomics-of-aphids-present-in-bean-and-maize-plots-on-mixed-use-farms-in-kenya-reveals-the-presence-of-three-dicistroviruses-including-a-novel-big-sioux-river-virus-like-dicistrovirus
#5
Francis O Wamonje, George N Michuki, Luke A Braidwood, Joyce N Njuguna, J Musembi Mutuku, Appolinaire Djikeng, Jagger J W Harvey, John P Carr
BACKGROUND: Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) are important crops that are vulnerable to aphid herbivory and aphid-transmitted viruses. In East and Central Africa, common bean is frequently intercropped by smallholder farmers to provide fixed nitrogen for cultivation of starch crops such as maize. We used a PCR-based technique to identify aphids prevalent in smallholder bean farms and next generation sequencing shotgun metagenomics to examine the diversity of viruses present in aphids and in maize leaf samples...
October 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900437/genetics-of-resistance-and-pathogenicity-in-the-maize-setosphaeria-turcica-pathosystem-and-implications-for-breeding
#6
REVIEW
Ana L Galiano-Carneiro, Thomas Miedaner
Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), the most devastating leaf pathogen in maize (Zea mays L.), is caused by the heterothallic ascomycete Setosphaeria turcica. The pathogen population shows an extremely high genetic diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. Varietal resistance is the most efficient technique to control NCLB. Host resistance can be qualitative based on race-specific Ht genes or quantitative controlled by many genes with small effects. Quantitative resistance is moderately to highly effective and should be more durable combatting all races of the pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873765/greek-pdo-saffron-authentication-studies-using-species-specific-molecular-markers
#7
I Bosmali, S A Ordoudi, M Z Tsimidou, P Madesis
Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828548/optimum-ridge-to-furrow-ratio-in-ridge-furrow-mulching-systems-for-improving-water-conservation-in-maize-zea-may-l-production
#8
Weiwei Li, Xiaoxia Wen, Juan Han, Yang Liu, Wei Wu, Yuncheng Liao
Water-saving cultivation techniques have been attracting increased attention worldwide. Ridge-furrow mulching system (RFMS), as a prospective rainwater harvesting system, has been widely adopted in arid and semi-arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, maize yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) among different ridge/furrow width arrangements in RFMS comprised of three different ridge/furrow ratios, i.e., 40:70 cm (RFMS40), 55:55 cm (RFMS55), and 70:40 cm (RFMS70) and conventional flat planting (CK, without mulching)...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770075/tropical-soils-degraded-by-slash-and-burn-cultivation-can-be-recultivated-when-amended-with-ashes-and-compost
#9
Justine Marie Gay-des-Combes, Clara Sanz Carrillo, Bjorn Jozef Maria Robroek, Vincent Eric Jules Jassey, Robert Thomas Edmund Mills, Muhammad Saleem Arif, Leia Falquet, Emmanuel Frossard, Alexandre Buttler
In many tropical regions, slash-and-burn agriculture is considered as a driver of deforestation; the forest is converted into agricultural land by cutting and burning the trees. However, the fields are abandoned after few years because of yield decrease and weed invasion. Consequently, new surfaces are regularly cleared from the primary forest. We propose a reclamation strategy for abandoned fields allowing and sustaining re-cultivation. In the dry region of south-western Madagascar, we tested, according to a split-plot design, an alternative selective slash-and-burn cultivation technique coupled with compost amendment on 30-year-old abandoned fields...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476985/size-dependent-effects-of-antifungal-phytogenic-silver-nanoparticles-on-germination-growth-and-biochemical-parameters-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-maize-zea-mays-l-and-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#10
Tollamadugu N V K V Prasad, Shaik Adam, Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao, Balam Ravindra Reddy, Thimmavajjula Giridhara Krishna
Advancement in materials synthesis largely depends up on their diverse applications and commercialisation. Antifungal effects of phytogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evident, but the reports on the effects of the same on agricultural crops are scant. Herein, we report for the first time, size dependent effects of phytogenic AgNPs (synthesised using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract) on the germination, growth and biochemical parameters of three important agricultural crops viz., rice (Oryza sativa L), maize (Zea mays L) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466411/assessment-of-the-potential-for-gene-flow-from-transgenic-maize-zea-mays-l-to-eastern-gamagrass-tripsacum-dactyloides-l
#11
Moon-Sub Lee, Eric K Anderson, Duška Stojšin, Marc A McPherson, Baltazar Baltazar, Michael J Horak, Juan Manuel de la Fuente, Kunsheng Wu, James H Crowley, A Lane Rayburn, D K Lee
Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent...
August 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461269/machine-learning-techniques-for-predicting-crop-photosynthetic-capacity-from-leaf-reflectance-spectra
#12
David Heckmann, Urte Schlüter, Andreas P M Weber
Harnessing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a promising route toward yield increases, but physiological phenotyping is still too laborious for large-scale genetic screens. Here, we evaluate the potential of leaf reflectance spectroscopy to predict parameters of photosynthetic capacity in Brassica oleracea and Zea mays, a C3 and a C4 crop, respectively. To this end, we systematically evaluated properties of reflectance spectra and found that they are surprisingly similar over a wide range of species...
June 5, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274446/the-effect-of-pigment-matrix-temperature-and-amount-of-carrier-on-the-yield-and-final-color-properties-of-spray-dried-purple-corn-zea-mays-l-cob-anthocyanin-powders
#13
Fei Lao, M Monica Giusti
Spray drying is an economic technique to produce anthocyanin-based colorants. High pigments yields with minimum color degradation are desirable to maximize quality and profits. This study evaluated the impacts of purple corncob (PCC) anthocyanin extraction matrices (hot water, 40% ethanol, C18 purified), drying inlet temperature (130, 150, 170°C) and amount of carrier (2%, 5%, 10% maltodextrin) on the yields and quality of PCC anthocyanin powders. Monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, color properties (CIELch, haze), and pigments composition before and after spray drying were determined...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257978/purple-corn-silk-a-potential-anti-obesity-agent-with-inhibition-on-adipogenesis-and-induction-on-lipolysis-and-apoptosis-in-adipocytes
#14
Rungsiri Chaiittianan, Khaetthareeya Sutthanut, Ariya Rattanathongkom
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corn silk or the stigma of Zea mays L. has traditionally been used in weight loss stimulation and treatment of cystitis, urinary infections and obesity. Purple corn silk, rich of polyphenolic substances, was reported on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effect in animal studies. However, scientific evidence on mechanisms and targets of action of purple corn silk related to adipocyte life cycle has been limited. AIM OF STUDY: To determine phytochemical compositions and investigate anti-obesity potential of the purple corn silk focusing on interruption of adipocyte life cycle; effect on pre-adipocyte proliferation, adipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and apoptosis...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224059/identification-of-downy-mildew-resistance-gene-candidates-by-positional-cloning-in-maize-zea-mays-subsp-mays-poaceae
#15
Jae Yoon Kim, Jun-Cheol Moon, Hyo Chul Kim, Seungho Shin, Kitae Song, Kyung-Hee Kim, Byung-Moo Lee
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Positional cloning in combination with phenotyping is a general approach to identify disease-resistance gene candidates in plants; however, it requires several time-consuming steps including population or fine mapping. Therefore, in the present study, we suggest a new combined strategy to improve the identification of disease-resistance gene candidates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Downy mildew (DM)-resistant maize was selected from five cultivars using a spreader row technique...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122143/metabolic-robustness-in-young-roots-underpins-a-predictive-model-of-maize-hybrid-performance-in-the-field
#16
Francisco de Abreu E Lima, Matthias Westhues, Álvaro Cuadros-Inostroza, Lothar Willmitzer, Albrecht E Melchinger, Zoran Nikoloski
Heterosis has been extensively exploited for yield gain in maize (Zea mays L.). Here we conducted a comparative metabolomics-based analysis of young roots from in vitro germinating seedlings and from leaves of field-grown plants in a panel of inbred lines from the Dent and Flint heterotic patterns as well as selected F1 hybrids. We found that metabolite levels in hybrids were more robust than in inbred lines. Using state-of-the-art modeling techniques, the most robust metabolites from roots and leaves explained up to 37 and 44% of the variance in the biomass from plants grown in two distinct field trials...
January 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060300/kinematic-analysis-of-cell-division-and-expansion-quantifying-the-cellular-basis-of-growth-and-sampling-developmental-zones-in-zea-mays-leaves
#17
Katrien Sprangers, Viktoriya Avramova, Gerrit T S Beemster
Growth analyses are often used in plant science to investigate contrasting genotypes and the effect of environmental conditions. The cellular aspect of these analyses is of crucial importance, because growth is driven by cell division and cell elongation. Kinematic analysis represents a methodology to quantify these two processes. Moreover, this technique is easy to use in non-specialized laboratories. Here, we present a protocol for performing a kinematic analysis in monocotyledonous maize (Zea mays) leaves...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053646/comparison-of-three-genomic-dna-extraction-methods-to-obtain-high-dna-quality-from-maize
#18
Amani Abdel-Latif, Gamal Osman
BACKGROUND: The world's top three cereals, based on their monetary value, are rice, wheat, and corn. In cereal crops, DNA extraction is difficult owing to rigid non-cellulose components in the cell wall of leaves and high starch and protein content in grains. The advanced techniques in molecular biology require pure and quick extraction of DNA. The majority of existing DNA extraction methods rely on long incubation and multiple precipitations or commercially available kits to produce contaminant-free high molecular weight DNA...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043337/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-in-chlumetia-transversa-walker
#19
Hui Wei, Hong Chang, Lizhen Zheng, Shuo Lin, Yixin Chen, Houjun Tian, Jianwei Zhao, Yong Chen, Hongjiao Cai, Xiaojun Gu, Kadarkarai Murugan
Insect neuropeptides (NPs) in the pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family are actively involved in many essential endocrine functions. These peptides are potential targets in the search for novel insect control agents. This is the first report on the cloning and sequence determination of Chlumetia transversa (Walker) PBAN (Ct-PBAN) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of Ct-PBAN was 588bp in length and encoded 195 amino acids, which were assembled into five putative neuropeptides (diapause hormone homolog, α-neuropeptide, β-neuropeptide, PBAN, and γ-neuropeptide)...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995590/behavioral-comparisons-of-ingestion-and-excretion-by-selected-species-of-pentatomids-evidence-of-feeding-on-different-food-sources-supports-pest-status
#20
T Lucini, A R Panizzi
Laboratory studies were conducted on food ingestion and excretion by selected species of pentatomids on different food sources to support their pest status. We compared the frequency and time of feeding on vegetative (stem) and reproductive (seed) structures of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill and of maize, Zea mays L. by Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Edessa meditabunda (F.); in addition, the amount of excreta (feces) produced were compared for D. melacanthus feeding on seed of soybean and stem of maize seedling...
August 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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