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zea technique

Carla Ribeiro, João Borges, Ana M S Costa, Vítor M Gaspar, Verónica de Zea Bermudez, João F Mano
Hollow multilayered capsules have shown massive potential for being used in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, in applications such as cellular internalization, intracellular trafficking, drug delivery, or tissue engineering. In particular, hollow microcapsules, developed by resorting to porous calcium carbonate sacrificial templates, natural-origin building blocks and the prominent Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology, have attracted increasing attention owing to their key features. However, these microcapsules revealed a great tendency to aggregate, which represents a major hurdle when aiming for cellular internalization and intracellular therapeutics delivery...
March 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Megan M Chang, Danielle Allery Nail, Toni Kazic, Susan J Simmons, Ann E Stapleton
Crop improvement must accelerate to feed an increasing human population in the face of environmental changes. Including anticipated climatic changes with genetic architecture in breeding programs could better optimize improvement strategies. Combinations of drought and nitrogen limitation already occur world-wide. We therefore analyzed the genetic architecture underlying the response of Zea mays to combinations of water and nitrogen stresses. Recombinant inbreds were subjected to nine combinations of the two stresses using an optimized response surface design, and their growth was measured...
March 1, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Charles Farber, Dmitry Kurouski
Rapid detection and identification of crop pathogens is essential for improving crop yield. Typical pathogen assaying methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are time-consuming and destructive to the sample. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a non-invasive non-destructive analytical technique which provides insight on the chemical structure of the specimen. In this study, we demonstrate that using a handheld Raman spectrometer, in combination with chemometric analyses, we can distinguish between healthy and diseased maize (Zea mays) kernels, as well as between different diseases with 100% accuracy...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ivona Lhotská, Barbora Gajdošová, Petr Solich, Dalibor Šatínský
Sample preparation prior to chromatographic separation plays an important role in the analytical process. To avoid time-consuming and manual handling sample-prep, automated on-line techniques such as on-line SPE-HPLC are therefore preferred. In this study, two different on-line extraction approaches for mycotoxin/endocrine disruptor zearalenone (ZEA) determination using either molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with selective cavities and binding sites for extraction or a reversed-phase sorbent C18 providing non-selective interactions have been developed, validated, and compared...
February 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alejandro Velez Zea, John Fredy Barrera Ramirez, Roberto Torroba
We propose a simple and efficient technique capable of generating Fourier phase only holograms with a reconstruction quality similar to the results obtained with the Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) algorithm. Our proposal is to use the traditional G-S algorithm to optimize a random phase pattern for the resolution, pixel size, and target size of the general optical system without any specific amplitude data. This produces an optimized random phase (ORAP), which is used for fast generation of phase only holograms of arbitrary amplitude targets...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Margarite D Matossian, Hope E Burks, Annie C Bowles, Steven Elliott, Van T Hoang, Rachel A Sabol, Nicholas C Pashos, Benjamen O'Donnell, Kristin S Miller, Bahia M Wahba, Bruce A Bunnell, Krzysztof Moroz, Arnold H Zea, Steven D Jones, Augusto C Ochoa, Amir A Al-Khami, Fokhrul Hossain, Adam I Riker, Lyndsay V Rhodes, Elizabeth C Martin, Lucio Miele, Matthew E Burow, Bridgette M Collins-Burow
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes are clinically aggressive and cannot be treated with targeted therapeutics commonly used in other breast cancer subtypes. The claudin-low (CL) molecular subtype of TNBC has high rates of metastases, chemoresistance and recurrence. There exists an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets in TNBC; however, existing models utilized in target discovery research are limited. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have emerged as superior models for target discovery experiments because they recapitulate features of patient tumors that are limited by cell-line derived xenograft methods...
February 1, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Martyna Pajewska, Mariusz Łojko, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Bogusław Buszewski, Renata Gadzała-Kopciuch
Endometrial cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women. The search for factors that contribute to the development of cancer cells in reproductive organs should involve the detection of xenoestrogens, in particular zearalenone (ZEA) and its metabolites. Xenoestrogens are endocrine disruptors-ZEA and its metabolites are structurally similar to estrogens (macrocyclic lactone ring) and show high affinity for estrogen receptors. This study proposes a new method for the preparation of samples of human tissues with endometrial cancer by the use of the QuEChERS technique...
January 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Christopher Pelar, Karima Greenaway, Hugo Zea, Chun-Hsien Wu, Claudia C Luhrs, Jonathan Phillips
This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 5, 2018: Materials
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Soomin Park, Alexandra L Fischer, Zhirong Li, Roberto Bassi, Krishna K Niyogi, Graham R Fleming
Nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms regulate light harvesting in oxygenic photosynthesis. Measurement techniques for nonphotochemical quenching have typically focused on downstream effects of quenching, such as measuring reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, to directly measure a species involved in quenching, we report snapshot transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy, which rapidly tracks carotenoid radical cation signals as samples acclimate to excess light. The formation of zeaxanthin radical cations, which is possible evidence of zeaxanthin-chlorophyll charge-transfer (CT) quenching, was investigated in spinach thylakoids...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Blaise Weber, Suraj Jamge, Maike Stam
With Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C), the relative interaction frequency of one chromosomal fragment with another can be determined. The technique is especially suited for unraveling the 3D organization of specific loci when focusing on aspects such as enhancer-promoter interactions or other topological conformations of the genome. 3C has been extensively used in animal systems, among others providing insight into gene regulation by distant cis-regulatory elements. In recent years, the 3C technique has been applied in plant research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
H M Lopes, C S Bastos, L S Boiteux, J Foresti, F A Suinaga
Helicoverpa armigera is the most significant pest of agriculture in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Australasia, causing damage to crops greater than US$2 billion annually and until 2013 it was not detected in Brazil. Helicoverpa zea is restricted to the American continent and is important to corn and a secondary pest of cotton and tomatoes. The wide range of crops exploited by H. armigera (mainly cotton, soybeans, chickpea, and corn), the possible mating between these species can promote population shifts, that could be assessed by RAPD-PCR technique...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Emilia I Balbi, Fernando M Flores, Daniela S Tosto, Joel D Arneodo
The Helicoverpa/Heliothis complex can cause serious damage to agricultural crops. Phenotypic similarity makes it difficult to discriminate between closely related Helicoverpa species. Currently, morphology of the male genitalia complemented with molecular techniques constitutes the best approach for species identification. In this work, a broad microscopic examination of adult Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) males (n = 200) captured in central Argentina was carried out in order to provide a detailed description of the valvae and the phallus...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Francis O Wamonje, George N Michuki, Luke A Braidwood, Joyce N Njuguna, J Musembi Mutuku, Appolinaire Djikeng, Jagger J W Harvey, John P Carr
BACKGROUND: Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) are important crops that are vulnerable to aphid herbivory and aphid-transmitted viruses. In East and Central Africa, common bean is frequently intercropped by smallholder farmers to provide fixed nitrogen for cultivation of starch crops such as maize. We used a PCR-based technique to identify aphids prevalent in smallholder bean farms and next generation sequencing shotgun metagenomics to examine the diversity of viruses present in aphids and in maize leaf samples...
October 2, 2017: Virology Journal
Ana L Galiano-Carneiro, Thomas Miedaner
Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), the most devastating leaf pathogen in maize (Zea mays L.), is caused by the heterothallic ascomycete Setosphaeria turcica. The pathogen population shows an extremely high genetic diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. Varietal resistance is the most efficient technique to control NCLB. Host resistance can be qualitative based on race-specific Ht genes or quantitative controlled by many genes with small effects. Quantitative resistance is moderately to highly effective and should be more durable combatting all races of the pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
I Bosmali, S A Ordoudi, M Z Tsimidou, P Madesis
Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C...
October 2017: Food Research International
Weiwei Li, Xiaoxia Wen, Juan Han, Yang Liu, Wei Wu, Yuncheng Liao
Water-saving cultivation techniques have been attracting increased attention worldwide. Ridge-furrow mulching system (RFMS), as a prospective rainwater harvesting system, has been widely adopted in arid and semi-arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, maize yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) among different ridge/furrow width arrangements in RFMS comprised of three different ridge/furrow ratios, i.e., 40:70 cm (RFMS40), 55:55 cm (RFMS55), and 70:40 cm (RFMS70) and conventional flat planting (CK, without mulching)...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Justine Marie Gay-des-Combes, Clara Sanz Carrillo, Bjorn Jozef Maria Robroek, Vincent Eric Jules Jassey, Robert Thomas Edmund Mills, Muhammad Saleem Arif, Leia Falquet, Emmanuel Frossard, Alexandre Buttler
In many tropical regions, slash-and-burn agriculture is considered as a driver of deforestation; the forest is converted into agricultural land by cutting and burning the trees. However, the fields are abandoned after few years because of yield decrease and weed invasion. Consequently, new surfaces are regularly cleared from the primary forest. We propose a reclamation strategy for abandoned fields allowing and sustaining re-cultivation. In the dry region of south-western Madagascar, we tested, according to a split-plot design, an alternative selective slash-and-burn cultivation technique coupled with compost amendment on 30-year-old abandoned fields...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Tollamadugu N V K V Prasad, Shaik Adam, Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao, Balam Ravindra Reddy, Thimmavajjula Giridhara Krishna
Advancement in materials synthesis largely depends up on their diverse applications and commercialisation. Antifungal effects of phytogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evident, but the reports on the effects of the same on agricultural crops are scant. Herein, we report for the first time, size dependent effects of phytogenic AgNPs (synthesised using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract) on the germination, growth and biochemical parameters of three important agricultural crops viz., rice (Oryza sativa L), maize (Zea mays L) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Moon-Sub Lee, Eric K Anderson, Duška Stojšin, Marc A McPherson, Baltazar Baltazar, Michael J Horak, Juan Manuel de la Fuente, Kunsheng Wu, James H Crowley, A Lane Rayburn, D K Lee
Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent...
August 2017: Transgenic Research
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