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zea technique

Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Peter Thorburn, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Samuel Leiboff, Christopher K DeAllie, Michael J Scanlon
The maize (Zea mays subsp. mays L.) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a self-replenishing pool of stem cells that produces all above-ground plant tissues. Improvements in image acquisition and processing techniques have allowed high-throughput, quantitative genetic analyses of SAM morphology. As with other large-scale phenotyping efforts, meaningful descriptions of genetic architecture depend on the collection of relevant measures. In this study, we tested two quantitative image processing methods to describe SAM morphology within the genus Zea, represented by 33 wild relatives of maize and 841 lines from a domesticated maize by wild teosinte progenitor (MxT) backcross population, along with previously reported data from several hundred diverse maize inbred lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yayin Lu, Dinggui Luo, An Lai, Guowei Liu, Lirong Liu, Jianyou Long, Hongguo Zhang, Yongheng Chen
Chelator-assisted phytoextraction is an alternative and effective technique for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, but the potential for heavy metal leaching needs to be assessed. In the present study, a soil column cultivation-leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the Cd and Pb leaching characteristics during assisted phytoextraction of metal-contaminated soils containing different particle-size soil aggregates. The columns were planted with Zea mays "Zhengdan 958" seedlings and treated with combined applications of EDTA and simulated rainfall (pH 4...
October 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Todd Blevins
Cells have evolved intricate RNA-directed mechanisms that destroy viruses, silence transposons, and regulate gene expression. These nucleic acid surveillance and gene silencing mechanisms rely upon the selective base-pairing of ~19-25 nt small RNAs to complementary RNA targets. This chapter describes northern blot hybridization techniques for the detection of such small RNAs. Blots spiked with synthetic standards are used to illustrate the detection specificity and sensitivity of DNA oligonucleotide probes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leigh Mickelson-Young, Emily Wear, Patrick Mulvaney, Tae-Jin Lee, Eric S Szymanski, George Allen, Linda Hanley-Bowdoin, William Thompson
The duration of the DNA synthesis stage (S phase) of the cell cycle is fundamental in our understanding of cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation, and DNA replication timing programs. Most S-phase duration estimates that exist for plants are based on indirect measurements. We present a method for directly estimating S-phase duration by pulse-labeling root tips or actively dividing suspension cells with the halogenated thymidine analog 5-ethynl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and analyzing the time course of replication with bivariate flow cytometry...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dal-Hoe Koo, Hainan Zhao, Jiming Jiang
Tandemly repetitive DNA sequences, also named satellite repeats, are major DNA components of heterochromatin and are often organized as long arrays in the pericentromeric, centromeric, and subtelomeric regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that transcripts derived from some satellite repeats play important roles in various biological functions. We used a RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) technique to investigate the transcription of the four well-characterized satellite repeats of maize (Zea mays), including the 180-bp knob repeat, the telomeric (TTTAGGG)n repeat, the 156-bp centromeric repeat CentC, and a 350-bp subtelomeric repeat...
September 2, 2016: Chromosome Research
Rujikan Nasanit, Sopin Jaibangyang, Manee Tantirungkij, Savitree Limtong
Culture-independent techniques have recently been used for evaluation of microbial diversity in the environment since it addresses the problem of unculturable microorganisms. In this study, the diversity of epiphytic yeasts from corn (Zea mays Linn.) phylloplanes in Thailand was investigated using this technique and sequence-based analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Thirty-seven samples of corn leaf were collected randomly from 10 provinces. The DNA was extracted from leaf washing samples and the D1/D2 domains were amplified...
August 30, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
S Renuka, B Ramanujam, B Poornesha
The present study was conducted to examine the ability of six promising indigenous isolates of Beauveria bassiana (NBAII-Bb-5a, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 45) as an endophyte in maize stem and leaf tissues. Maize seedlings (var. Nithyashree) were inoculated with conidial suspensions and were examined for endophytic establishment in leaf and stems at different intervals during 15-90 days after treatment. All six isolates showed colonization in stem and leaf tissues with varying abilities of colonization and persistence...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Aimee C McKinnon
The identification of fungal endophytes often relies on culturing isolates from surface-sterilized plant tissue. However, molecular techniques have enabled the rapid detection and identification of targeted endophyte species, and next-generation sequencing technology provides an opportunity to obtain comprehensive information on endophytic communities, directly from plant tissue. In order to achieve accurate detection from internal tissues, surface microbes and associated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) must be eliminated, with particular consideration for the type of plant tissue and the efficacy of the surface sterilization procedure used...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Seung Hwan Hwang, Shin Hwa Kwon, Zhiqiang Wang, Tae Hyun Kim, Young-Hee Kang, Jae-Yong Lee, Soon Sung Lim
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues (such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) has a key role in the regulation of insulin signaling and pathway activation, making protein tyrosine phosphatase a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and response surface methodology (RSM) is an effective statistical technique for optimizing complex processes using a multi-variant approach. METHODS: In this study, Zea mays L...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Raghupathi Matheyarasu, Balaji Seshadri, Nanthi S Bolan, Ravi Naidu
The land disposal of waste and wastewater is a major source of N2O emission. This is due to the presence of high concentrations of nitrogen (N) and carbon in the waste. Abattoir wastewater contains 186 mg/L of N and 30.4 mg/L of P. The equivalent of 3 kg of abattoir wastewater-irrigated soil was sieved and taken in a 4-L plastic container. Abattoir wastewater was used for irrigating the plants at the rates of 50 and 100 % field capacity (FC). Four crop species were used with no crop serving as a control...
November 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tuo Wang, Pyae Phyo, Mei Hong
Plant biomass has become an important source of bio-renewable energy in modern society. The molecular structure of plant cell walls is difficult to characterize by most atomic-resolution techniques due to the insoluble and disordered nature of the cell wall. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is uniquely suited for studying native hydrated plant cell walls at the molecular level with chemical resolution. Significant progress has been made in the last five years to elucidate the molecular structures and interactions of cellulose and matrix polysaccharides in plant cell walls...
September 2016: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Rodney N Nagoshi, Todd M Gilligan, Julieta Brambila
The recent establishment of the Old World pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) into South America has had significant economic consequences and places the rest of the hemisphere at risk, emphasizing the need for improved methods of monitoring. A major complication is that a sibling species endemic to the New World, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is morphologically very similar, with the two species capable of producing fertile hybrids in the laboratory. The consequences of such hybridization in the field are uncertain, but could result in significant and unpredictable changes in the timing, range, and pesticide susceptibilities of Helicoverpa infestations...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jeongeun Ryu, Bae Geun Hwang, Sang Joon Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The refilling of embolized xylem vessels under tension is a major issue in water transport among vascular plants. However, xylem embolism and refilling remain poorly understood because of technical limitations. Direct observation of embolism repair in intact plants is essential to understand the biophysical aspects of water refilling in embolized xylem vessels. This paper reports on details of the water refilling process in leaves of the intact herbaceous monocot plant Zea mays and its refilling kinetics obtained by a direct visualization technique...
August 18, 2016: Annals of Botany
Elmira Adibnia, Mazdak Razi, Hassan Malekinejad
The estrogen receptors (ERs)-dependent effects of Zearalenone (ZEA) on structure and function of the testis as well as sperm parameters were compared with 17-β estradiol as endogenous substance. For this purpose, 30 mature male rats were assigned into five groups as; control (appropriate volume of normal saline, i. p.), ZEA-received (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, b. w., i. p.) and 17 β-estradiol (E2)-received (appropriate dose of 0.1 mg/kg, i. p.). Following 28 days, the mRNA levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in the testis and sperms and the expression of them at protein levels in testicles were estimated...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Liuji Wu, Xintao Wang, Shunxi Wang, Liancheng Wu, Lei Tian, Zhiqiang Tian, Ping Liu, Yanhui Chen
The ZmCCT, one of the most important genes affecting photoperiod response, delays flowering under long-day conditions in maize (Zea mays). In this study we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique-based proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed proteins between a near-isogenic line (NIL) and its recurrent parent, contrasting in alleles of ZmCCT. A total of 5,259 distinct proteins were identified. Among them, 386 proteins were differentially expressed between NIL-cml line (ZmCCT-positive) and H4 line (ZmCCT-negative)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshihito Sunaga, Hisatomi Harada
A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg(-1) dry plant material including soil...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Guangyu Zhao, Zheng Duan, Lian Ming, Yiyun Li, Ruipeng Chen, Jiandong Hu, Sune Svanberg, Yanlai Han
Laser-induced fluorescence is an important technique to study photosynthesis and plants. Information on chlorophyll and other pigments can be obtained. We have been using a mobile laboratory in a Chinese experimental farm setting to study maize (Zea mays L.) leaves by reflectance and fluorescence measurements and correlated the spectroscopic signals to the amount of fertilizer supplied. Further, we studied five different species of maize using the remote monitoring of the fluorescence signatures obtained with the same mobile laboratory, but now in a laser radar remote-sensing configuration...
July 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Muthulakshmi Sellamani, Naveen K Kalagatur, Chandranayaka Siddaiah, Venkataramana Mudili, Kadirvelu Krishna, Gopalan Natarajan, Venkata L Rao Putcha
The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kristen E Elstner, John W Read, Omar Rodriguez-Acevedo, Peter H Cosman, Anthony N Dardano, Anita S W Jacombs, Michael Edye, Aaron Zea, Tillman Boesel, Dean J Mikami, Nabeel Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Repair of complex ventral hernia can be very challenging for surgeons. Closure of large defects can have serious pathophysiological consequences. Botulinum toxin A (BTA) has recently been described to provide flaccid paralysis to abdominal muscles prior to surgery, facilitating closure and repair. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 32 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided injections of BTA to the lateral abdominal wall muscles prior to elective repair of complex ventral hernia between January 2013 and December 2015...
June 28, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
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