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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900437/genetics-of-resistance-and-pathogenicity-in-the-maize-setosphaeria-turcica-pathosystem-and-implications-for-breeding
#1
REVIEW
Ana L Galiano-Carneiro, Thomas Miedaner
Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), the most devastating leaf pathogen in maize (Zea mays L.), is caused by the heterothallic ascomycete Setosphaeria turcica. The pathogen population shows an extremely high genetic diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. Varietal resistance is the most efficient technique to control NCLB. Host resistance can be qualitative based on race-specific Ht genes or quantitative controlled by many genes with small effects. Quantitative resistance is moderately to highly effective and should be more durable combatting all races of the pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873765/greek-pdo-saffron-authentication-studies-using-species-specific-molecular-markers
#2
I Bosmali, S A Ordoudi, M Z Tsimidou, P Madesis
Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828548/optimum-ridge-to-furrow-ratio-in-ridge-furrow-mulching-systems-for-improving-water-conservation-in-maize-zea-may-l-production
#3
Weiwei Li, Xiaoxia Wen, Juan Han, Yang Liu, Wei Wu, Yuncheng Liao
Water-saving cultivation techniques have been attracting increased attention worldwide. Ridge-furrow mulching system (RFMS), as a prospective rainwater harvesting system, has been widely adopted in arid and semi-arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, maize yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) among different ridge/furrow width arrangements in RFMS comprised of three different ridge/furrow ratios, i.e., 40:70 cm (RFMS40), 55:55 cm (RFMS55), and 70:40 cm (RFMS70) and conventional flat planting (CK, without mulching)...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770075/tropical-soils-degraded-by-slash-and-burn-cultivation-can-be-recultivated-when-amended-with-ashes-and-compost
#4
Justine Marie Gay-des-Combes, Clara Sanz Carrillo, Bjorn Jozef Maria Robroek, Vincent Eric Jules Jassey, Robert Thomas Edmund Mills, Muhammad Saleem Arif, Leia Falquet, Emmanuel Frossard, Alexandre Buttler
In many tropical regions, slash-and-burn agriculture is considered as a driver of deforestation; the forest is converted into agricultural land by cutting and burning the trees. However, the fields are abandoned after few years because of yield decrease and weed invasion. Consequently, new surfaces are regularly cleared from the primary forest. We propose a reclamation strategy for abandoned fields allowing and sustaining re-cultivation. In the dry region of south-western Madagascar, we tested, according to a split-plot design, an alternative selective slash-and-burn cultivation technique coupled with compost amendment on 30-year-old abandoned fields...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476985/size-dependent-effects-of-antifungal-phytogenic-silver-nanoparticles-on-germination-growth-and-biochemical-parameters-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-maize-zea-mays-l-and-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#5
Tollamadugu N V K V Prasad, Shaik Adam, Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao, Balam Ravindra Reddy, Thimmavajjula Giridhara Krishna
Advancement in materials synthesis largely depends up on their diverse applications and commercialisation. Antifungal effects of phytogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evident, but the reports on the effects of the same on agricultural crops are scant. Herein, we report for the first time, size dependent effects of phytogenic AgNPs (synthesised using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract) on the germination, growth and biochemical parameters of three important agricultural crops viz., rice (Oryza sativa L), maize (Zea mays L) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466411/assessment-of-the-potential-for-gene-flow-from-transgenic-maize-zea-mays-l-to-eastern-gamagrass-tripsacum-dactyloides-l
#6
Moon-Sub Lee, Eric K Anderson, Duška Stojšin, Marc A McPherson, Baltazar Baltazar, Michael J Horak, Juan Manuel de la Fuente, Kunsheng Wu, James H Crowley, A Lane Rayburn, D K Lee
Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent...
August 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461269/machine-learning-techniques-for-predicting-crop-photosynthetic-capacity-from-leaf-reflectance-spectra
#7
David Heckmann, Urte Schlüter, Andreas P M Weber
Harnessing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a promising route toward yield increases, but physiological phenotyping is still too laborious for large-scale genetic screens. Here, we evaluate the potential of leaf reflectance spectroscopy to predict parameters of photosynthetic capacity in Brassica oleracea and Zea mays, a C3 and a C4 crop, respectively. To this end, we systematically evaluated properties of reflectance spectra and found that they are surprisingly similar over a wide range of species...
June 5, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274446/the-effect-of-pigment-matrix-temperature-and-amount-of-carrier-on-the-yield-and-final-color-properties-of-spray-dried-purple-corn-zea-mays-l-cob-anthocyanin-powders
#8
Fei Lao, M Monica Giusti
Spray drying is an economic technique to produce anthocyanin-based colorants. High pigments yields with minimum color degradation are desirable to maximize quality and profits. This study evaluated the impacts of purple corncob (PCC) anthocyanin extraction matrices (hot water, 40% ethanol, C18 purified), drying inlet temperature (130, 150, 170°C) and amount of carrier (2%, 5%, 10% maltodextrin) on the yields and quality of PCC anthocyanin powders. Monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, color properties (CIELch, haze), and pigments composition before and after spray drying were determined...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257978/purple-corn-silk-a-potential-anti-obesity-agent-with-inhibition-on-adipogenesis-and-induction-on-lipolysis-and-apoptosis-in-adipocytes
#9
Rungsiri Chaiittianan, Khaetthareeya Sutthanut, Ariya Rattanathongkom
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corn silk or the stigma of Zea mays L. has traditionally been used in weight loss stimulation and treatment of cystitis, urinary infections and obesity. Purple corn silk, rich of polyphenolic substances, was reported on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effect in animal studies. However, scientific evidence on mechanisms and targets of action of purple corn silk related to adipocyte life cycle has been limited. AIM OF STUDY: To determine phytochemical compositions and investigate anti-obesity potential of the purple corn silk focusing on interruption of adipocyte life cycle; effect on pre-adipocyte proliferation, adipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and apoptosis...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224059/identification-of-downy-mildew-resistance-gene-candidates-by-positional-cloning-in-maize-zea-mays-subsp-mays-poaceae
#10
Jae Yoon Kim, Jun-Cheol Moon, Hyo Chul Kim, Seungho Shin, Kitae Song, Kyung-Hee Kim, Byung-Moo Lee
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Positional cloning in combination with phenotyping is a general approach to identify disease-resistance gene candidates in plants; however, it requires several time-consuming steps including population or fine mapping. Therefore, in the present study, we suggest a new combined strategy to improve the identification of disease-resistance gene candidates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Downy mildew (DM)-resistant maize was selected from five cultivars using a spreader row technique...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122143/metabolic-robustness-in-young-roots-underpins-a-predictive-model-of-maize-hybrid-performance-in-the-field
#11
Francisco de Abreu E Lima, Matthias Westhues, Álvaro Cuadros-Inostroza, Lothar Willmitzer, Albrecht E Melchinger, Zoran Nikoloski
Heterosis has been extensively exploited for yield gain in maize (Zea mays L.). Here we conducted a comparative metabolomics-based analysis of young roots from in vitro germinating seedlings and from leaves of field-grown plants in a panel of inbred lines from the Dent and Flint heterotic patterns as well as selected F1 hybrids. We found that metabolite levels in hybrids were more robust than in inbred lines. Using state-of-the-art modeling techniques, the most robust metabolites from roots and leaves explained up to 37 and 44% of the variance in the biomass from plants grown in two distinct field trials...
January 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060300/kinematic-analysis-of-cell-division-and-expansion-quantifying-the-cellular-basis-of-growth-and-sampling-developmental-zones-in-zea-mays-leaves
#12
Katrien Sprangers, Viktoriya Avramova, Gerrit T S Beemster
Growth analyses are often used in plant science to investigate contrasting genotypes and the effect of environmental conditions. The cellular aspect of these analyses is of crucial importance, because growth is driven by cell division and cell elongation. Kinematic analysis represents a methodology to quantify these two processes. Moreover, this technique is easy to use in non-specialized laboratories. Here, we present a protocol for performing a kinematic analysis in monocotyledonous maize (Zea mays) leaves...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053646/comparison-of-three-genomic-dna-extraction-methods-to-obtain-high-dna-quality-from-maize
#13
Amani Abdel-Latif, Gamal Osman
BACKGROUND: The world's top three cereals, based on their monetary value, are rice, wheat, and corn. In cereal crops, DNA extraction is difficult owing to rigid non-cellulose components in the cell wall of leaves and high starch and protein content in grains. The advanced techniques in molecular biology require pure and quick extraction of DNA. The majority of existing DNA extraction methods rely on long incubation and multiple precipitations or commercially available kits to produce contaminant-free high molecular weight DNA...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043337/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-in-chlumetia-transversa-walker
#14
Hui Wei, Hong Chang, Lizhen Zheng, Shuo Lin, Yixin Chen, Houjun Tian, Jianwei Zhao, Yong Chen, Hongjiao Cai, Xiaojun Gu, Kadarkarai Murugan
Insect neuropeptides (NPs) in the pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family are actively involved in many essential endocrine functions. These peptides are potential targets in the search for novel insect control agents. This is the first report on the cloning and sequence determination of Chlumetia transversa (Walker) PBAN (Ct-PBAN) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of Ct-PBAN was 588bp in length and encoded 195 amino acids, which were assembled into five putative neuropeptides (diapause hormone homolog, α-neuropeptide, β-neuropeptide, PBAN, and γ-neuropeptide)...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995590/behavioral-comparisons-of-ingestion-and-excretion-by-selected-species-of-pentatomids-evidence-of-feeding-on-different-food-sources-supports-pest-status
#15
T Lucini, A R Panizzi
Laboratory studies were conducted on food ingestion and excretion by selected species of pentatomids on different food sources to support their pest status. We compared the frequency and time of feeding on vegetative (stem) and reproductive (seed) structures of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill and of maize, Zea mays L. by Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Edessa meditabunda (F.); in addition, the amount of excreta (feces) produced were compared for D. melacanthus feeding on seed of soybean and stem of maize seedling...
August 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939195/characterization-of-transformations-of-maize-residues-into-soil-organic-matter
#16
Guixue Song, Etelvino H Novotny, Jing-Dong Mao, Michael H B Hayes
An awareness of the transformation of plant residues returned to cultivated soils is vital for a better understanding of carbon cycles, the maintenance of soil fertility and the practice of a sustainable agriculture. The transformation of maize (Zea mays L) straw residues into soil organic matter (SOM) in a one year incubation experiment was studied in a soil that had been under long term cultivation with wheat (Triticum aestivum L) for >30years. A novel sequential exhaustive extraction and fractionation procedure isolated a series of fractions of SOM...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933246/a-quantitative-report-on-the-impact-of-chloride-on-the-kinetic-coefficients-of-auxin-induced-growth-a-numerical-contribution-to-the-acid-growth-hypothesis
#17
Mariusz Pietruszka, Aleksandra Haduch-Sendecka
This work presents the application of several our own novel methods of analysing the kinetics of plant growth, which create, among others, a common platform for the comparison of experimental results. A relatively simple formula is used to parameterize the wide range of data that has been obtained for Zea mays L. in the literature, though it can also be used for different species. A biophysical/biochemical interpretation of the parameters was obtained from a theoretical model that is based on a modified Lockhart equation...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891133/modeling-long-term-corn-yield-response-to-nitrogen-rate-and-crop-rotation
#18
Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Peter Thorburn, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867389/modeling-the-morphometric-evolution-of-the-maize-shoot-apical-meristem
#19
Samuel Leiboff, Christopher K DeAllie, Michael J Scanlon
The maize (Zea mays subsp. mays L.) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a self-replenishing pool of stem cells that produces all above-ground plant tissues. Improvements in image acquisition and processing techniques have allowed high-throughput, quantitative genetic analyses of SAM morphology. As with other large-scale phenotyping efforts, meaningful descriptions of genetic architecture depend on the collection of relevant measures. In this study, we tested two quantitative image processing methods to describe SAM morphology within the genus Zea, represented by 33 wild relatives of maize and 841 lines from a domesticated maize by wild teosinte progenitor (MxT) backcross population, along with previously reported data from several hundred diverse maize inbred lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796994/leaching-characteristics-of-edta-enhanced-phytoextraction-of-cd-and-pb-by-zea-mays-l-in-different-particle-size-fractions-of-soil-aggregates-exposed-to-artificial-rain
#20
Yayin Lu, Dinggui Luo, An Lai, Guowei Liu, Lirong Liu, Jianyou Long, Hongguo Zhang, Yongheng Chen
Chelator-assisted phytoextraction is an alternative and effective technique for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, but the potential for heavy metal leaching needs to be assessed. In the present study, a soil column cultivation-leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the Cd and Pb leaching characteristics during assisted phytoextraction of metal-contaminated soils containing different particle-size soil aggregates. The columns were planted with Zea mays "Zhengdan 958" seedlings and treated with combined applications of EDTA and simulated rainfall (pH 4...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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