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Long term drug affect studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163061/cyclodextrins-and-iatrogenic-hearing-loss-new-drugs-with-significant-risk
#1
REVIEW
Mark A Crumling, Kelly A King, R Keith Duncan
Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with widespread usage in medicine, industry and basic sciences owing to their ability to solubilize and stabilize guest compounds. In medicine, cyclodextrins primarily act as a complexing vehicle and consequently serve as powerful drug delivery agents. Recently, uncomplexed cyclodextrins have emerged as potent therapeutic compounds in their own right, based on their ability to sequester and mobilize cellular lipids. In particular, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has garnered attention because of its cholesterol chelating properties, which appear to treat a rare neurodegenerative disorder and to promote atherosclerosis regression related to stroke and heart disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#2
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147115/effects-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-on-human-embryonic-stem-cell-viability-during-differentiation-in-vitro
#3
Divya S Varghese, Shama Parween, Mustafa T Ardah, Bright Starling Emerald, Suraiya A Ansari
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are being used extensively in array of studies to understand different mechanisms such as early human embryogenesis, drug toxicity testing, disease modeling, and cell replacement therapy. The protocols for the directed differentiation of hESCs towards specific cell types often require long-term cell cultures. To avoid bacterial contamination, these protocols include addition of antibiotics such as pen-strep and gentamicin. Although aminoglycosides, streptomycin, and gentamicin have been shown to cause cytotoxicity in various animal models, the effect of these antibiotics on hESCs is not clear...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143159/six-year-outcome-in-subjects-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-adults
#4
Dan Edvinsson, Lisa Ekselius
There are very few studies on the long-term outcome in subjects diagnosed with ADHD as adults. The objective of the present study was to assess this and relate the outcome to whether there was current medication or not and to other potential predictors of favourable outcome. A prospective clinical cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation (n = 124; mean age 42 years, 51% males). ADHD symptom trajectories were assessed as well as medication, global functioning, disability, health-related quality of life, and alcohol and drug consumption at follow-up...
November 15, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141069/a-novel-multi-targeting-approach-to-treating-hair-loss-using-standardized-nutraceuticals
#5
Patricia K Farris, Nicole Rogers, Amy McMichael, Sophia Kogan
<p>Hair loss is a complicated problem that causes significant concern for those who are affected. Patients seeking medical treatment have limited options that include topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. While these treatments are backed by long term clinical use and research outcomes, many patients find topical minoxidil difficult to incorporate into their daily routine and some are concerned with the side effects associated with finasteride. In the office setting, patients may be treated with more invasive procedures such as platelet-rich plasma injections (PRP) and hair transplantation, treatments that often must be repeated and can lead to a costly investment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137473/effect-of-short-and-long-term-administration-of-baclofen-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#6
M Holajova, M Franek
Baclofen is the only clinically available metabotropic GABAB receptor agonist. In our experiment, we tested the hypothesis that long-term baclofen administration can impair learning and memory in rats. The experiment consisted of three parts. In the first part of the study the drug was administered simultaneously with the beginning of the behavioral tests. In the second and third part of the experiment baclofen was administered daily for 14 days and for one month before the tests. In each part of the experiment, adult rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136757/muscone-exerts-protective-roles-on-alcohol-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#7
Yan-Jie Guo, Shi-Hua Luo, Ming-Jie Tang, Zu-Bin Zhou, Jun-Hui Yin, You-Shui Gao, Xiao-Qian Dang
Long-term alcohol abuse causes musculoskeletal disorders, among of which, alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is of concern due to its significant and severe complications. A variety of methods have been attempted to prevent alcohol-induced ONFH, and monomers extracted from Chinese herbs might benefit the disease profoundly. In the current study, muscone, the main ingredient of musk, was used to prevent alcohol-induced ONFH. In vitro, ethanol was used to affect the potential of osteogenesis and proliferation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), and beneficial role of muscone was investigated on hBMSCs...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#8
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133762/rare-earth-nanoparticle-induced-cytotoxicity-on-spatial-cognition-memory-of-mouse-brain
#9
Cai-Hou Lin, Gui-Fen Liu, Jing Chen, Yan Chen, Ru-Hui Lin, Hong-Xing He, Jian-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Luminescent rare-earth-based nanoparticles have been increasingly used in nanomedicine due to their excellent physicochemical properties, such as biomedical imaging agents, drug carriers, and biomarkers. However, biological safety of the rare-earth-based nanomedicine is of great significance for future development in practical applications. In particular, biological effects of rare-earth nanoparticles on human's central nervous system are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of rare-earth nanoparticles in nervous system function in the case of continuous exposure...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132552/intravenous-drug-abuse-is-a-risk-factor-in-the-failure-of-two-stage-treatment-for-infected-total-hip-arthroplasty
#10
Yu-Jie Su, Sung-Yen Lin, Hsuan-Ti Huang, Je-Ken Chang, Chung-Hwan Chen
Reinfection after two-stage revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) is still a complex issue. Only few studies revealed the factors affecting the success rate in the treatment of periprosthetic hip infection (PHI), especially risk factors. A retrospective study was conducted using records of 30 patients underwent two-stage RHA for infected total hip arthroplasty (THA). Treatment was defined as successful if a patient did not need any reoperation or invasive procedure such as image-guided drainage during the two years after reimplantation...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#11
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124985/pharmacotherapy-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#12
Luciano Viale, Natalia Paola Catoira, Guillermo Di Girolamo, Claudio Daniel González
Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, produced by drugs commonly used in rehabilitation settings...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108729/-liquid-crystalline-systems-based-on-glyceryl-monooleate-and-penetration-enhancers-for-skin-delivery-of-celecoxib-characterization-in-vitro-drug-release-and-in-vivo-studies
#13
Mariane de Cássia Lima Dante, Livia Neves Borgheti-Cardoso, Marcia Carvalho de Abreu Fantini, Fabíola Silva Garcia Praça, Wanessa Silva Garcia Medina, Maria Bernadete Riemma Pierre, Marilisa Guimarães Lara
Celecoxib (CXB) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug that also acts as a chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer, including skin cancer. As the long-term oral administration of CXB has been associated with severe side effects, the skin delivery of this drug represents a promising alternative for the treatment of skin inflammatory conditions and/or chemoprevention of skin cancer. We prepared and characterized liquid crystalline systems based on glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and water containing penetration enhancers which were primarily designed to promote skin delivery of CXB...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108372/aberrant-patterns-of-brain-cerebral-blood-flow-in-chinese-han-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-depressive-patients-with-and-without-a-family-history-of-depression
#14
Shikai Wang, Lina Wang, Ping Jing, Ping Guo, Weifang Zheng, Jie Li, Mincai Qian
A positive family history plays a key role in the brain pathology of depression patients and previous research has confirmed that disturbed mood maintenance may be related to abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However, little is known about whether the rCBF is different between depression patients with and without family histories. To address this question, we examined the rCBF in drug-naïve, first-episode depression patients with and without family histories of depression using a 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labelling technique...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107747/vanillin-selectively-modulates-the-action-of-antibiotics-against-resistant-bacteria
#15
Camila Fonseca Bezerra, Cicera Janaine Camilo, Maria Karollyna do Nascimento Silva, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
The treatment of infections caused by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics represent one of the main challenges of medicine today, especially due to the inefficacy of long-term drug therapy. In the search for new alternatives to treat these infections, many researchers have been looking for new substances derived from natural products to replace, or be used in combination with conventional antibiotics. Vanillin is a phenolic compound whose antimicrobial activity has been used in the elimination of pathogens present in fruits and vegetables...
October 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107048/beyond-q1-q2-the-impact-of-manufacturing-conditions-and-test-methods-on-drug-release-from-plga-based-microparticle-depot-formulations
#16
John Garner, Sarah Skidmore, Haesun Park, Kinam Park, Stephanie Choi, Yan Wang
Drug-loaded polymeric microparticles have been used as long-acting injectable (LAI) depot formulations. To obtain FDA approval, a generic LAI depot product needs to be qualitatively (Q1) and quantitatively (Q2) the same in terms of inactive ingredients as its reference listed drug (RLD). However, Q1/Q2 sameness as the RLD does not guarantee the same in vitro drug release profile and in vivo performance, especially when the manufacturing methods are different. There is little consensus on how the in vitro testing needs to be done to examine the release profiles of LAI depot formulations...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105621/adalimumab-etanercept-and-ustekinumab-for-treating-plaque-psoriasis-in-children-and-young-people-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#17
Ana Duarte, Teumzghi Mebrahtu, Pedro Saramago Goncalves, Melissa Harden, Ruth Murphy, Stephen Palmer, Nerys Woolacott, Mark Rodgers, Claire Rothery
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the skin. Adalimumab (HUMIRA(®), AbbVie, Maidenhead, UK), etanercept (Enbrel(®), Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) and ustekinumab (STELARA(®), Janssen Biotech, Inc., Titusville, NJ, USA) are the three biological treatments currently licensed for psoriasis in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adalimumab, etanercept and ustekinumab within their respective licensed indications for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in children and young people...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095245/prospective-multicenter-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-comparing-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-cooled-radiofrequency-ablation-with-corticosteroid-injection-in-the-management-of-knee-pain-from-osteoarthritis
#18
Tim Davis, Eric Loudermilk, Michael DePalma, Corey Hunter, David Lindley, Nilesh Patel, Daniel Choi, Marc Soloman, Anita Gupta, Mehul Desai, Asokumar Buvanendran, Leonardo Kapural
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee affects the aging population and has an associated influence on the health care system. Rigorous studies evaluating radiofrequency ablation for OA-related knee pain are lacking. This study compared long-term clinical safety and effectiveness of cooled radiofrequency ablation (CRFA) with intra-articular steroid (IAS) injection in managing OA-related knee pain. METHODS: This is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with 151 subjects with chronic (≥6 months) knee pain that was unresponsive to conservative modalities...
November 1, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093341/effects-of-the-antiepileptic-drugs-phenytoin-gabapentin-and-levetiracetam-on-bone-strength-bone-mass-and-bone-turnover-in-rats
#19
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Yoshiko Kobayashi, Kenji Onodera, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is accompanied by reduced bone mass that is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Although phenytoin has been reported to adversely influence bone metabolism, little is known pertaining to more recent AEDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gabapentin or levetiracetam on bone strength, bone mass, and bone turnover in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered phenytoin (20 mg/kg), gabapentin (30 or 150 mg/kg), or levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091568/ace-inhibitors-and-statins-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M Loredana Marcovecchio, Scott T Chiesa, Simon Bond, Denis Daneman, Sarah Dawson, Kim C Donaghue, Timothy W Jones, Farid H Mahmud, Sally M Marshall, H Andrew W Neil, R Neil Dalton, John Deanfield, David B Dunger
BACKGROUND: Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, rapid increases in albumin excretion during puberty precede the development of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, long-term risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of albumin excretion might benefit from angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statins, drugs that have not been fully evaluated in adolescents. METHODS: We screened 4407 adolescents with type 1 diabetes between the ages of 10 and 16 years of age and identified 1287 with values in the upper third of the albumin-to-creatinine ratios; 443 were randomly assigned in a placebo-controlled trial of an ACE inhibitor and a statin with the use of a 2-by-2 factorial design minimizing differences in baseline characteristics such as age, sex, and duration of diabetes...
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
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