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Long term drug affect studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529701/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Bandello, Riccardo Sacconi, Lea Querques, Eleonora Corbelli, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Giuseppe Querques
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most important cause of vision loss in elderly people, is a degenerative disorder of the central retina with a multifactorial etiopathology. AMD is classified in dry AMD (d-AMD) or neovascular AMD depending on the presence of choroidal neovascularization. Currently, no therapy is approved for geographic atrophy, the late form of d-AMD, because no treatment can restore the damage of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or photoreceptors. For this reason, all treatment approaches in d-AMD are only likely to prevent and slow down the progression of existing atrophy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528404/a-direct-comparison-of-the-effects-of-the-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-tenofovir-and-the-combination-lopinavir-ritonavir-on-bone-metabolism-in-a-rat-model
#2
M M Conradie, M van de Vyver, E Andrag, M Conradie, W F Ferris
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may induce metabolic complications in HIV patients on long-term therapy that can affect bone health. In this study, the effects of the ARVs Stavudine (d4T), Tenofovir (TDF) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on bone metabolism and lipodystrophy were directly compared in rats to negate the consequences of HIV-associated confounding factors. Healthy 12-14-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were divided into four treatment groups and received an oral animal equivalent dose of either Stavudine (6...
May 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521247/cognitive-performance-of-juvenile-monkeys-after-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment
#3
Mari S Golub, Edward P Hackett, Casey E Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D Elsworth, Robert H Roth
Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520570/long-term-exposure-to-mst-312-leads-to-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-overexpression-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Karollyne S Morais, Ana Flávia R Guimarãesb, Doralina A R Ramos, Fábio P Silva, Diêgo M de Oliveira
Telomerase is an enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance in almost all human cancer cells, but generally not expressed in somatic ones. Therefore, antitelomerase therapy is a potentially revolutionary therapeutic strategy, and the antitumor activity of telomerase inhibitors (TI) has been studied extensively recently, mainly for breast cancer. However, the effects expected from treatment with TI will appear only after many cell divisions, but the effects of this long-term approach are unknown. In this work, the consequences of 3120 h exposure of human breast cancer cells to TI MST-312 were investigated...
May 17, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507448/thiopurine-s-methyltransferase-polymorphisms-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-autoimmune-disorders-influence-on-treatment-response
#5
REVIEW
Rachid Abaji, Maja Krajinovic
The thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene encodes for the TPMT enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs. Genetic polymorphisms in this gene can affect the activity of the TPMT enzyme and have been correlated with variability in response to treatment with thiopurines. Advances in the pharmacogenetics of TPMT allowed the development of dosing recommendations and treatment strategies to optimize and individualize prescribing thiopurine in an attempt to enhance treatment efficacy while minimizing toxicity...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495514/neurobehavioral-risks-of-ssris-in-pregnancy-comparing-human-and-animal-data
#6
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy
During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. The literature on the possible association of SSRIs with ASD is inconsistent, and if an association exists it is apparently throughout pregnancy...
May 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486627/re-exploration-due-to-bleeding-is-not-associated-with-severe-postoperative-complications
#7
Sandeep P Tambe, Hans-Henrik Kimose, Jakob Raben Greisen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen
OBJECTIVES: In cardiac surgery, postoperative bleeding remains a frequent complication with various possible adverse outcomes. Re-exploration due to bleeding is frequent in this type of patient. Sternal wound infection is an infrequent but serious and devastating complication. Whether re-exploration due to bleeding significantly affects the incidence of sternal wound infection is uncertain. There is no consensus on allowed severity of bleeding and timing of intervention. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of 15 350 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures from 1 April 2006 through 31 December 2013 in 3 different university hospitals in Denmark was performed...
May 8, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467963/her2-isoforms-co-expression-differently-tunes-mammary-tumor-phenotypes-affecting-onset-vasculature-and-therapeutic-response
#8
Arianna Palladini, Giordano Nicoletti, Alessia Lamolinara, Massimiliano Dall'Ora, Tania Balboni, Marianna L Ianzano, Roberta Laranga, Lorena Landuzzi, Veronica Giusti, Claudio Ceccarelli, Donatella Santini, Mario Taffurelli, Enrico Di Oto, Sofia Asioli, Augusto Amici, Serenella M Pupa, Carla De Giovanni, Elda Tagliabue, Manuela Iezzi, Patrizia Nanni, Pier-Luigi Lollini
Full-length HER2 oncoprotein and splice variant Delta16 are co-expressed in human breast cancer. We studied their interaction in hybrid transgenic mice bearing human full-length HER2 and Delta16 (F1 HER2/Delta16) in comparison to parental HER2 and Delta16 transgenic mice. Mammary carcinomas onset was faster in F1 HER2/Delta16 and Delta16 than in HER2 mice, however tumor growth was slower, and metastatic spread was comparable in all transgenic mice. Full-length HER2 tumors contained few large vessels or vascular lacunae, whereas Delta16 tumors presented a more regular vascularization with numerous endothelium-lined small vessels...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462699/pegylated-liposomes-of-meloxicam-optimization-by-quality-by-design-in-vitro-characterization-and-cytotoxicity-evaluation
#9
Jessy Shaji, Ipshita Menon
BACKGROUND: Chemoprevention is a strategy which uses therapeutic agents which are essentially not anti-cancer drugs but, however, impedes the carcinogenesis. Meloxicam (MLX) is one such agent which has the potential to be employed in the chemopreventive therapy of colorectal cancer. However, MLX poses shortcomings with respect to its dose required for cytotoxicity. To improve the formulation, we used Quality by design (QbD) for optimization. QbD is a method that employs quality-improving scientific methods that build quality into the formulation by isolating the factors which affect the critical quality attributes the formulation...
April 28, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461010/effects-of-ketamine-dexmedetomidine-and-propofol-anesthesia-on-emotional-memory-consolidation-in-rats-consequences-for-the-development-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Maria Morena, Andrea Berardi, Andrea Peloso, Daniela Valeri, Maura Palmery, Viviana Trezza, Gustav Schelling, Patrizia Campolongo
Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or emergency care patients, exposed to traumatic events, are at increased risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) development. Commonly used sedative/anesthetic agents can interfere with the mechanisms of memory formation, exacerbating or attenuating the memory for the traumatic event, and subsequently promote or reduce the risk of PTSD development. Here, we evaluated the effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol on fear memory consolidation and subsequent cognitive and emotional alterations related to traumatic stress exposure...
April 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453558/tumor-targeted-sn38-inhibits-growth-of-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-in-a-kras-p53-transgenic-mouse-model
#11
Alexander Y Deneka, Leora Haber, Meghan C Kopp, Anna V Gaponova, Anna S Nikonova, Erica A Golemis
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with a 5-year survival of only ~16%. Potential strategies to address NSCLC mortality include improvements in early detection and prevention, and development of new therapies suitable for use in patients with early and late stage diagnoses. Controlling the growth of early stage tumors could yield significant clinical benefits for patients with comorbidities that make them poor candidates for surgery: however, many drugs that limit cancer growth are not useful in the setting of long-term use or in comorbid patients, because of associated toxicities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452903/zonisamide-in-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy-an-observational-pilot-study
#12
Marta Maschio, Loredana Dinapoli, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Diana Giannarelli, Alessandra Fabi, Antonello Vidiri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy heavily affects the quality of life (QoL) of patients with brain tumor because in addition to taking treatments for the oncological illness, patients are required to live with the long-term taking of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The AEDs' adverse effects are common in these patients and can negatively influence their perceptions of their QoL.We conducted an observational pilot study in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy to verify efficacy, tolerability, and impact on QoL and global neurocognitive performances of zonisamide (ZNS) in add-on...
May 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448718/cannabis-use-by-women-during-pregnancy-does-not-influence-infant-dna-methylation-of-the-dopamine-receptor-drd4
#13
Peter D Fransquet, Delyse Hutchinson, Craig A Olsson, Steve Allsop, Elizabeth J Elliott, Lucinda Burns, Richard Mattick, Richard Saffery, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: Maternal cannabis use in pregnancy is linked with long-term adverse behavioral outcomes in offspring. Epigenetic processes established in utero that affect dopaminergic (reward) signaling may mediate risks. Associations between cannabis use and offspring DNA methylation have not been investigated; however, maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy is associated with distinct patterns of DNA methylation at birth and beyond. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether maternal cannabis use is associated with methylation of the dopamine receptor gene DRD4 promoter in infants...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446565/murinization-and-h-chain-isotype-matching-of-the-anti-gitr-antibody-dta-1-reduces-immunogenicity-mediated-anaphylaxis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Nicole A Belmar, Sarah W Chan, Melvin I Fox, Josue A Samayoa, Marcia M Stickler, Ninian N Tran, Yoshiko Akamatsu, Diane Hollenbaugh, Fiona A Harding, Hamsell M Alvarez
Recent advances in immuno-oncology have shown that the immune system can be activated to induce long-term, durable antitumor responses. For immuno-oncology drug development, immune activation is often explored using rat Abs in immunocompetent mouse models. Although these models can be used to show efficacy, antidrug immune responses to experimental protein-based therapeutics can arise. Immunogenicity of surrogate Abs may therefore represent an important obstacle to the evaluation of the antitumor efficacy of immunomodulator Abs in syngeneic models...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442372/long-term-release-and-stability-of-pharmaceutical-proteins-delivered-from-solid-lipid-implants
#15
Moritz Vollrath, Julia Engert, Gerhard Winter
Solid lipid implants (SLIs) prepared by twin-screw (tsc) extrusion represent a promising technology platform for the sustained release of pharmaceutical proteins. In this work, we report on two aspects, long-term release and stability of released protein. First, SLIs were produced by tsc-extrusion containing the low melting triglyceride H12 and the high melting triglyceride Dynasan D118. Two different proteins available in a freeze-dried matrix containing hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrine (HP-β-CD) were incorporated into the lipid matrix: a monoclonal antibody (mAb) from the IgG1 class and the fab-fragment Ranibizumab (Lucentis(®))...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442303/clinical-evaluation-of-ropinirole-controlled-release-formulation-at-18-24%C3%A2-mg-day-in-japanese-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Nobutaka Hattori, Kazuko Hasegawa, Katsuaki Sato, Erika Mitsuyama, Yotaro Numachi
INTRODUCTION: There has been no clinical data on Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease with which to examine whether motor symptoms improve and to assess the safety profile after the dose of ropinirole was increased in those who had not achieved an optimal response to the ropinirole immediate-release formulation 15 mg/day or the controlled-release (CR) formulation 16 mg/day. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study, followed by an open-label, long-term study...
April 13, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440193/neurocognitive-correlates-in-driving-under-the-influence-of-cannabis
#17
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini, Julia Klein, Natale Mario di Luca
Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is commonly identified in blood samples from arrested drivers assumed to drive under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for comprehensive understanding of the severe neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and EMBASE databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive...
April 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435972/-glp-1-gip-gcg-receptor-triagonist-improves-the-cognitive-behaviors-in-triple-transgenic-mice-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Tian Li, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429976/reimbursement-changes-and-drug-switching-are-severe-patients-more-affected
#19
Shou-Hsia Cheng, Chi-Chen Chen, Hung-Chih Kuo, Chi-Chuan Wang
Objectives To examine the long-term effects of drug reimbursement adjustments on drug-switching decisions and to investigate whether patients with complicated or severe conditions are more affected. Methods A population-based, longitudinal study with a before-and-after design. Analysis of 141,703 patients with type 2 diabetes covered by the universal health insurance program in Taiwan. Observation of five 6-month phases before and after a drug reimbursement adjustment implemented in October 2009. Drug switching was defined as a brand change within the same anatomical therapeutic chemical group between two consecutive physician visits...
April 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#20
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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