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Long term drug affect studies

Alexis A Krumme, Robert J Glynn, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Niteesh K Choudhry, Angela Y Tong, Joshua J Gagne
BACKGROUND: Continuation of antiplatelet therapy beyond 12 months after a drug-eluting stent procedure reduced the risk of a major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) in the DAPT trial (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy). Observational studies have evaluated outcomes related to different durations of therapy but are susceptible to bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using deidentified claims from commercially insured and Medicare populations in the United States, we compared how increasingly stringent definitions of exposure affect associations between antiplatelet continuation versus discontinuation and MACCE, myocardial infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage or gastrointestinal bleeding in patients meeting DAPT trial inclusion criteria between 2004 and 2013...
July 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Mahima Sharma, Sreedharan Sajikumar
Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) is conventionally considered to be solely dependent on local protein synthesis. Given the impact of epigenetics on memory, the intriguing question is whether epigenetic regulation influences mGluR-LTD as well. G9a/GLP histone lysine methyltransferase complex is crucial for brain development and goal-directed learning as well as for drug-addiction. In this study, we analyzed whether the epigenetic regulation by G9a/GLP complex affects mGluR-LTD in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 5-7 weeks old male Wistar rats...
July 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Shandilya Mahamuni Baira, Dilep Kumar Sigalapalli, Nagendra Babu Bathini, Srinivas R, M V N Kumar Talluri
Pharmaceutical drugs are potential molecules with specific biological activity. However, long-term use of these chemical molecules can affect the human physiological system because of their increased levels in the human body. Therefore, identification and structure elucidation of impurities or degradation products should be taken into consideration in order to assure drug safety. The present study assessed the degradation behaviour of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor anagliptin under different stress conditions as per ICH guidelines Q1A (R2) followed by elucidation of the structure of degradation products...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Roberto Sacco, Nicola Sacco, Umar Hamid, Syed Hasan Ali, Mark Singh, John St J Blythe
Background: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported to be associated with patients receiving primarily bisphosphonate (BP) therapies. However, lately it has been documented that other medications, such as RANK ligand inhibitor (denosumab) and antiangiogenic drug, can cause ONJ. Micro-osseous-vascular reconstruction of the jaws in patients affected by medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw represents a viable option of treatment for patients affected by stage III of the disease...
2018: BioMed Research International
Claudio Liguori, Francesca Izzi, Natalia Manfredi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Fabio Placidi
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first generation anti-seizure drug, considered as first choice therapy in focal epilepsy but associated with cognitive side effects. Lacosamide (LCM) is a third-generation anti-seizure drug approved for treating focal epilepsy. This case series documented the comparable efficacy of LCM and CBZ as first add on treatments in patients affected by uncontrolled focal seizures. LCM showed an increase in EpiTrack scores, which measure cognitive abilities, at follow-up compared to CBZ. This preliminary data may represent the basis for future prospective studies aimed at comparing the long-term cognitive side effects of LCM and CBZ...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Sang Uk Lee, Vin Ryu, Minah Soh, Chul-Eung Kim, Subin Park, Sungwon Roh, In-Hwan Oh, Hye-Young Lee, SungKu Choi
OBJECTIVES: To determine changes in antipsychotic drug usage in all South Korean patients with schizophrenia in 2011-2015 and factors affecting their utilisation in 2015. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study using health insurance claims data on patients with schizophrenia in South Korea in 2011-2015. PARTICIPANTS: All treated patients with schizophrenia in South Korea in 2011-2015. The number of patients with schizophrenia was 171 302 in 2011, 175 488 in 2012, 177 763 in 2013, 180 079 in 2014 and 183 427 in 2015...
June 30, 2018: BMJ Open
Sara I Cunha, Min Jia, Serhiy Souchelnytskyi
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and estrogen are potent regulators of breast tumorigenesis. Their short‑term actions on human breast epithelial cells have been investigated extensively. However, the consequence of a long‑term exposure to EGF and estrogen remains to be fully elucidated. The present study examined the effects of long‑term exposure to EGF and 17β‑estradiol on the proliferation, transformation, expression of markers of stemness, and tumorigenesis of MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
C-Z Liu, X-L Zhang, L Zhou, T Wang, Z-S Quan, Y Zhang, J Li, G-W Li, L-F Zheng, L-S Li, J-X Zhu
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) is a negative modulator of gut motility. Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) is an important metabolic enzyme degrading DA. Rasagiline, an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, is used to treat Parkinson's disease because of its neuroprotective effect and increasing central DA. However, it is unclear whether MAO-B exists in the colon and rasagiline increases colonic DA, thereby affecting colonic motility. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, enzyme activity assay, colonic motility recording, gut transit test, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection were employed in this study...
June 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Elisavet Andrikopoulou, Philip James Scott, Helena Herrera
BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) England spent £15.5 billion on medication in 2015. More than a third of patients affected by at least one long-term condition do not adhere to their drug regime. Many interventions have been trialed to improve medication adherence. One promising innovation is the electronic personal health record. OBJECTIVE: This systematic literature review aims to identify the important design features of personal health records to improve medication adherence for patients with long-term conditions...
June 28, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Barbara Lasut, Artur Palasz, Lukasz Filipczyk, Oscar Arias-Carrion, Ewa Rojczyk, Mariia Savchyna, Katarzyna Bogus, John J Worthington, Marek Krzystanek, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz
Continuously active neurogenic regions in the adult brain are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neurogenesis is modulated by many factors such as growth factors, neurotransmitters and hormones. Neuropsychiatric drugs, especially antidepressants, mood stabilizers and antipsychotics may also affect the origin of neuronal cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic olanzapine treatment on adult rat neurogenesis at the level of the SVZ...
June 26, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ramona Ritzmann, Christina Stark, Anne Krause
The neurological disorder cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by unprogressive lesions of the immature brain and affects movement, posture, and the musculoskeletal system. Vibration therapy (VT) is increasingly used to reduce the signs and symptoms associated with this developmental disability. The purpose of this narrative review was systematically to appraise published research regarding acute and long-term effects of VT on functional, neuromuscular, and structural parameters. Systematic searches of three electronic databases identified 28 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Hugo-Enrique Coutiño, Juan-Pablo Abugattas, Juan Sieira, Francesca Salghetti, Erwin Ströker, Gaetano Paparella, Emmanuel Haine, Varnavas Varnavas, Vincent Umbrain, Muryo Terasawa, Yves De Greef, Pedro Brugada, Saverio Iacopino, Carlo de Asmundis, Gian-Battista Chierchia
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the long-term success rate of a single 3-min freeze per vein ablation strategy in the setting of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by means of second-generation cryoballoon (CB-A; Arctic Front Advance, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients with drug resistant atrial fibrillation (AF) having undergone PVI by means of CB-A using a single 3-min freeze per vein ablation strategy were included in the analysis...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Gabriele Finco, Paolo Mura, Mario Musu, Cristina Deidda, Marcello Saba, Ida Demelas, Maurizio Evangelista, Salvatore Sardo
BACKGROUND: Chronic back pain is a leading cause of disability worldwide and it is still inadequately treated. Tapentadol is a dual-acting analgesic drug μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, carrying a lower risk for opioid withdrawal symptoms and opioid-related adverse effects in comparison to potent opioid drugs. This study investigates the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of the prolonged release oral formulation of tapentadol (tapentadol PR) in 27 patients affected by refractory chronic low back pain during a long-term follow-up (up to 51 months)...
August 2018: Minerva Medica
Luhaka Kanda, Robert Mash
BACKGROUND: Botswana is one of the countries significantly affected by the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Despite an extensive preventive campaign, the incidence of HIV remains high.Condoms are an important contributor to prevention of new HIV infections, although they are not consistently used by young adults. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why condoms are not consistently usedby young adults. SETTING: Mahalapye District Hospital and Airstrip Clinic, Botswana...
May 24, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Cameron A Stewart, Jenny H Hong, Benjamin D Hatton, Yoav Finer
Most dental resin composite restorations are replacements for failing restorations. Degradation of the restoration-tooth margins by cariogenic bacteria results in recurrent caries, a leading cause for restoration failure. Incorporating antimicrobial agents in dental adhesives could reduce interfacial bacterial count and reduce recurrent caries rates, inhibit interfacial degradation, and prolong restoration service life, while minimizing systemic exposure. Direct addition of antimicrobial compounds into restorative materials have limited release periods and could affect the integrity of the material...
June 22, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
J Sastre, I Dávila
Moderate and severe forms of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are a challenge for clinicians. In these conditions, which severely affect the quality of life of the patient and frequently have associated allergic comorbidities, the therapeutic options are often very limited. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressants has adverse effects in the long term, and a significant proportion of patients remain refractory to therapy. In this context, the emerging biological drugs constitute a truly innovative therapeutic approach...
June 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Meng-Na Zhang, Li-Ping Zou, Yang-Yang Wang, Ling-Yu Pang, Shu-Fang Ma, Lu-Lu Huang, Yang Gao, Qian Lu, David Neal Franz
PURPOSE: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene and results in the over-activation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, is clinically used to treat hamartomatous lesionsas in TSC and its effect on controlling epilepsy is also reported in many studies. This study aims to evaluate the risk factors of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in patients with TSC receiving long-term rapamycin treatment...
June 15, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Torill Kaasa, Luis Romundstad, Helge Roald, Knut Skolleborg, Audun Stubhaug
In this long-term follow-up study of 175 women, we investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with persisting pain and sensory changes four years after augmentation mammoplasty. Previously the women had participated in an acute postoperative pain study, and follow-up investigations at 6 weeks and 1 year after surgery. In the present study, the women were mailed questionnaires about pain, sensory changes, and affection of daily life, quality of life and pain catastrophizing 4 years after surgery. One hundred and sixteen women answered the questionnaire...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
K Blum, W Jacobs, E J Modestino, N DiNubile, D Baron, T McLaughlin, D Siwicki, I Elman, M Moran, E R Braverman, P K Thanos, R D Badgaiyan
The United States are amid an opioid overdose epidemic; we are challenged to provide non-addicting/non-pharmacological alternatives to assist in pain attenuation. There are proven strategies available to manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Utilization review providers for insurance companies often ignore medicine based scientific peer-reviewed studies that warn against the chronic use of opioid medications, as well as the lack of evidence to support long-term use of opioids for pain. This paradigm must change if we are to indeed change the drug-embracing culture in American chronic pain management...
October 4, 2018: SEJ surgery and pain
Hasan Hodaj, Jean-François Payen, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVE: To show that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered at high frequency over the motor cortex can improve patients with chronic pain syndrome even if this procedure does not provide an analgesic response. CASE REPORT: A 77-year-old woman presented with drug-resistant chronic neuropathic pain affecting both lower limbs due to segmental spine compression at T9-T10 level. She underwent an rTMS protocol with an induction phase of 12 rTMS sessions during three weeks and a maintenance phase of 3 additional rTMS sessions for 5 weeks...
June 14, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
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