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Long term drug affect studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#1
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068463/long-term-acute-phase-treatment-with-antidepressants-8-weeks-and-beyond-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#2
Jonathan Henssler, Mona Kurschus, Jeremy Franklin, Tom Bschor, Christopher Baethge
OBJECTIVE: In clinical practice, acute antidepressant treatment is often applied for several months until remission is achieved. However, data on treatment outcomes beyond 8 weeks are sparse and no systematic review exists to date. This study aims at assessing efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants compared to placebo in acute treatment at and beyond 8 weeks. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 using generic terms for depressive and affective disorders combined with generic terms for individual drugs and placebo...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053054/long-term-outcome-of-patients-with-steroid-refractory-acute-severe-uc-treated-with-ciclosporin-or-infliximab
#3
D Laharie, A Bourreille, J Branche, M Allez, Y Bouhnik, J Filippi, F Zerbib, G Savoye, L Vuitton, J Moreau, A Amiot, J Cosnes, E Ricart, O Dewit, A Lopez-Sanroman, M Fumery, F Carbonnel, G Bommelaer, B Coffin, X Roblin, G van Assche, M Esteve, M Farkkila, J P Gisbert, P Marteau, S Nahon, M de Vos, J Lambert, J Y Mary, E Louis
OBJECTIVE: Ciclosporin and infliximab have demonstrated short-term similar efficacy as second-line therapies in patients with acute severe UC (ASUC) refractory to intravenous steroids. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcome of patients included in a randomised trial comparing ciclosporin and infliximab. DESIGN: Between 2007 and 2010, 115 patients with steroid-refractory ASUC were randomised in 29 European centres to receive ciclosporin or infliximab in association with azathioprine...
January 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033474/hypothesizing-that-neuropharmacological-and-neuroimaging-studies-of-glutaminergic-dopaminergic-optimization-complex-kb220z-are-associated-with-dopamine-homeostasis-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#4
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Eric R Braverman, Thomas McLaughlin, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
BACKGROUND: There is need for better treatments of addictive behaviors, both substance and non-substance related, termed Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). While the FDA has approved pharmaceuticals under the umbrella term Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), these drugs are not optimal. OBJECTIVES: It is our contention that these drugs work well in the short-term by blocking dopamine function leading to psychological extinction. However, use of buprenorphine/Naloxone over a long period of time results in unwanted addiction liability, reduced emotional affect, and mood changes including suicidal ideation...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033245/vkorc1-and-cyp2c9-polymorphisms-related-to-adverse-events-in-case-control-cohort-of-anticoagulated-patients
#5
Silvia Misasi, Giuliana Martini, Oriana Paoletti, Stefano Calza, Giovanni Scovoli, Alessandra Marengoni, Sophie Testa, Luigi Caimi, Eleonora Marchina
Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are highly effective but have a narrow therapeutic index and require routine monitoring of the INR. The primary aim of pharmacogenetics (PGx) is to optimize patient care, achieving drug treatments that are personalized according to the genetic profile of each patient. The best-characterized genes involved in VKA PGx involve pharmacokinetics (VKORC1) and pharmacodynamics (CYP2C9) of VKA metabolism. The role of these genes in clinical outcomes (bleeding and thrombosis) during oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy is controversial...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028601/voluntary-inhalation-of-methamphetamine-a-novel-strategy-for-studying-intake-non-invasively
#6
C Juarez-Portilla, R D Kim, M Robotham, M Tariq, M Pitter, J LeSauter, R Silver
RATIONALE: The abuse of the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA) is associated with substantial costs and limited treatment options. To understand the mechanisms that lead to abuse, animal models of voluntary drug intake are crucial. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a protocol to study long-term non-invasive voluntary intake of MA in mice. METHODS: Mice were maintained in their home cages and allowed daily 1 h access to an attached tunnel leading to a test chamber in which nebulized MA was available...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013352/methylphenidate-during-early-consolidation-affects-long-term-associative-memory-retrieval-depending-on-baseline-catecholamines
#7
Isabella C Wagner, Mariët van Buuren, Leonore Bovy, Richard G Morris, Guillén Fernández
RATIONALE: Synaptic memory consolidation is thought to rely on catecholaminergic signaling. Eventually, it is followed by systems consolidation, which embeds memories in a neocortical network. Although this sequence was demonstrated in rodents, it is unclear how catecholamines affect memory consolidation in humans. OBJECTIVES: Here, we tested the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on synaptic and subsequent systems consolidation. We expected enhanced memory performance and increased neocortical engagement during delayed retrieval...
December 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013013/a-canine-model-of-chronic-graft-vs-host-disease
#8
Scott S Graves, Andrew Rezvani, George Sale, Diane Stone, Maura Parker, Steven Rosinski, Michele Spector, Bruce Swearingen, Leslie Kean, Rainer Storb
In long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major determinant of quality of life. Chronic GVHD responds poorly to current immunosuppressive drugs, and while T-cell depletion may be preventative, this gain is offset by increased relapse rates. A significant impediment to progress in treating chronic GVHD has been the limitations of existing animal models. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible, comprehensive model of chronic GVHD in the dog...
December 21, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008301/iloperidone-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-an-evidence-based-review-of-its-place-in-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Fernanda S Tonin, Astrid Wiens, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Roberto Pontarolo
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating mental disorder that affects the patient's and their family's quality of life, as well as financial costs and health care settings. Despite the variety of available antipsychotics, optimal treatment outcomes are not always achieved. Novel drugs, such as iloperidone, can provide more effective, tolerable and safer strategies. AIM: To review the evidence for the clinical impact of iloperidone on the treatment of patients with schizophrenia...
2016: Core Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000212/interventions-to-improve-adherence-to-lipid-lowering-medication
#10
REVIEW
Mieke L van Driel, Michael D Morledge, Robin Ulep, Johnathon P Shaffer, Philippa Davies, Richard Deichmann
BACKGROUND: Lipid-lowering drugs are widely underused, despite strong evidence indicating they improve cardiovascular end points. Poor patient adherence to a medication regimen can affect the success of lipid-lowering treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions aimed at improving adherence to lipid-lowering drugs, focusing on measures of adherence and clinical outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to 3 February 2016, and clinical trials registers (ANZCTR and ClinicalTrials...
December 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989591/expected-effects-of-adopting-a-9-month-regimen-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-population-modelling-analysis
#11
Emily A Kendall, Anthony T Fojo, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: In May, 2016, WHO endorsed a 9 month regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that is cheaper and potentially more effective than the conventional, longer (20-24 month) therapy. We aimed to investigate the population-level implications of scaling up this new regimen. METHODS: In this population modelling analysis, we developed a dynamic transmission model to simulate the introduction of this short-course regimen as an instantaneous switch in 2016...
December 15, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988510/in-the-era-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-how-well-do-studies-of-perinatal-neuroprotection-control-temperature
#12
Robert Galinsky, Justin M Dean, Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Simerdeep Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
In the era of therapeutic hypothermia, reliable preclinical studies are integral to successfully identify neuroprotective strategies to further improve outcomes of encephalopathy at term. We reviewed preclinical neuroprotection studies reported between January 2014 and June 2016 to assess the use of effective temperature monitoring and control. As a secondary measure, we examined whether studies addressed other methodological issues such as stage of brain development, sex differences, the timing of the treatment relative to the insult, and the histological and functional endpoints used after hypoxia-ischemia...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986924/pharmacological-rescue-of-long-term-potentiation-in-alzheimer-diseased-synapses
#13
G Aleph Prieto, Brian H Trieu, Cindy T Dang, Tina Bilousova, Karen H Gylys, Nicole C Berchtold, Gary Lynch, Carl W Cotman
: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent and persistent increase in synaptic transmission. Currently available techniques to measure LTP are time-intensive and require highly specialized expertise and equipment, and thus are not well-suited for screening of multiple candidate treatments even in animal models. To expand and facilitate the analysis of LTP, here we use a flow cytometry-based method to track chemically-induced LTP by detecting surface AMPA receptors in isolated synaptosomes (Fluorescence Analysis of Single-Synapse Long-Term Potentiation, FASS-LTP)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981463/interleukin-il-1-inhibition-with-anakinra-and-canakinumab-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-related-uveitis-a-multicenter-retrospective-observational-study
#14
Claudia Fabiani, Antonio Vitale, Giacomo Emmi, Giuseppe Lopalco, Lorenzo Vannozzi, Silvana Guerriero, Stefano Gentileschi, Daniela Bacherini, Rossella Franceschini, Bruno Frediani, Mauro Galeazzi, Florenzo Iannone, Gian Marco Tosi, Luca Cantarini
This study aimed to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-1 inhibitors anakinra (ANA) and canakinumab (CAN) in the treatment of Behçet's disease (BD)-related uveitis. Multicenter retrospective observational study includes 19 consecutive BD patients (31 affected eyes) received treatment with anti-IL-1 agents. Data were analyzed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is the reduction of ocular inflammatory flares (OIF). The secondary endpoints are improvement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA); reduction of macular thickness defined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and of vasculitis identified with fluorescein angiography (FA); evaluation of statistically significant differences between patients treated with IL-1 inhibitors as monotherapy, subjects also administered with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or corticosteroids as well as between patients administered with IL-1 inhibitors as first line biologic treatment and those previously treated with TNF-α inhibitors...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974484/buprenorphine-norbuprenorphine-r-methadone-and-s-methadone-upregulate-bcrp-abcg2-expression-by-activating-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-human-placental-trophoblasts
#15
Naveen K Neradugomma, Michael Z Liao, Qingcheng Mao
Opioid dependence during pregnancy is a rising concern. Maintaining addicted pregnant women on long-acting opioid receptor agonist is the most common strategy to manage pregnancy drug abuse. Methadone (MET) and Buprenorphine (BUP) are widely prescribed for opiate-maintenance therapy. Norbuprenorphine (NBUP) is the primary active metabolite of BUP. These medications can cross the placenta to the fetus, leading to postpartum neonatal abstinence syndrome. Despite their use during pregnancy, little is known about the cellular changes brought about by these drugs in the placenta...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959849/-relapses-in-inflammatory-myopathies
#16
Blas J Larrauri, Diego S Fernández Romero, Maria Cecilia Juri, Alejandro Malbrán
Most studies about treatment of inflammatory myopathies consist of cross-sectional analyses that do not assess long-term efficacy. In the present study we describe the follow-up of seven patients with inflammatory myopathies, 5 polymyositis and 2 dermatomyositis. We describe their clinical features, follow-up, muscle enzyme levels, and treatment responses. We define the latter as treatment cycles, every one of which end when steroid doses need to be increased or a new immunosuppressive drug has to be added because of clinical worsening or sustained increases in muscle enzyme levels...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939228/long-term-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-stroke-in-patients-with-atrial-septal-defect-diagnosed-in-childhood
#17
Zarmiga Karunanithi, Camilla Nyboe, Vibeke Elisabeth Hjortdal
The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) diagnosed before the age of 18 years. Patients diagnosed with ASD from 1963 to 2011 were identified through national Danish registers, of which 1,111 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each patient was matched with 10 control subjects on age and gender. Risk of AF and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Cumulative incidences were calculated using Fine and Gray competing risk regression...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939025/metabolic-syndrome-and-atypical-antipsychotics-possibility-of-prediction-and-control
#18
Clara M Franch Pato, Vicente Molina Rodríguez, Juan I Franch Valverde
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality, due to inherent health factors, genetic factors, and factors related to psychopharmacological treatment. Antipsychotics, like other drugs, have side-effects that can substantially affect the physical health of patients, with substantive differences in the side-effect profile and in the patients in which these side-effects occur. To understand and identify these risk groups could help to prevent the occurrence of the undesired effects...
December 6, 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933543/integrative-analysis-of-genetic-genomic-and-phenotypic-data-for-ethanol-behaviors-a-network-based-pipeline-for-identifying-mechanisms-and-potential-drug-targets
#19
James W Bogenpohl, Kristin M Mignogna, Maren L Smith, Michael F Miles
Complex behavioral traits, such as alcohol abuse, are caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, producing deleterious functional adaptations in the central nervous system. The long-term behavioral consequences of such changes are of substantial cost to both the individual and society. Substantial progress has been made in the last two decades in understanding elements of brain mechanisms underlying responses to ethanol in animal models and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916533/activation-of-beta-and-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-has-opposing-effects-on-hippocampal-prefrontal-long-term-potentiation
#20
Ee Peng Lim, Gavin S Dawe, Thérèse M Jay
Noradrenaline (NA), released by the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a key role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions. The LC provides diffuse projections to many forebrain nuclei including the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). These three structures are intricately interlinked. The hippocampal-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway is involved in various cognitive functions. The first aim of this study was to examine the role of BLA in H-PFC plasticity by infusion of drugs to activate and inactivate the BLA and studying the effects on H-PFC long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat in vivo...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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