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Physiology, exercise,

Chip P Rowan, Michael C Riddell, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
PURPOSE: Prediabetes is linked to several modifiable risk factors, in particular, physical activity participation. The optimal prescription for physical activity remains uncertain. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of continuous moderate intensity (CON) versus high intensity interval (HIIT) aerobic training in persons with prediabetes. Outcome measures included hemoglobin A1c (A1C), body composition, musculoskeletal and aerobic fitness. METHODS: Participants (n= 35) were recruited and screened using a questionnaire plus capillary blood point-of-care A1C analysis...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yi-Ju Hsu, Wen-Ching Huang, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yan-Lin Liu, Wan-Chun Chiu, Chun-Hui Chiu, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang
Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
Ruben Posada-Gómez, Roberto A Montaño-Murillo, Albino Martínez-Sibaja, Giner Alor-Hernández, Alberto A Aguilar-Lasserre, Miriam C Reyes-Fernández
PURPOSE: One of the most important aspects in neuromotor rehabilitation is the need of feedback for patients. The rehabilitation system's efficiency relies on the therapist's judgment, who tells the patient whether he/she is performing the exercises correctly. This process may be quite subjective, because it depends on the therapist's personal opinion. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that vibrotactile biofeedback can improve the effectiveness of interaction as it is a very helpful tool in the physiological process of neuromotor rehabilitation...
October 24, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Justin X Nicoll, Andrew C Fry, Andrew J Galpin, Adam J Sterczala, Donald B Thomason, Christopher A Moore, Lawrence W Weiss, Loren Z F Chiu
PURPOSE: Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder, Ingrid Harle, Onofre Moran-Mendoza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most common forms of interstitial lung disease, with a median survival time of two to five years. Most patients with IPF experience chronic breathlessness, which is closely linked to poor perceived quality of life and significant restriction of daily activities; therefore, effective management of this distressing symptom is a major goal of patient care. Areas covered: This report summarizes the physiology of IPF during rest and exercise, outlines current concepts of the mechanisms of breathlessness, and provides a physiological rationale for optimal management of individual patient...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Montana F McLean, Kyle C Hanson, Steven J Cooke, Scott G Hinch, David A Patterson, Taylor L Nettles, Matt K Litvak, Glenn T Crossin
White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Pavol Sajgalik, Vaclav Kremen, Alex R Carlson, Vratislav Fabian, Chul-Ho Kim, Courtney M Wheatley, Vaclav Gerla, John A Schirger, Thomas P Olson, Bruce D Johnson
Cardiac output (CO) assessment as a basic hemodynamic parameter has been of interest in exercise physiology, cardiology and anesthesiology. Non-invasive techniques available are technically challenging, and thus difficult to use outside of the clinical or laboratory setting. We propose a novel method of non-invasive CO assessment using a single upper arm cuff. The method uses the arterial pressure pulse wave signal acquired from the brachial artery during 20 second intervals of suprasystolic occlusion. This method was evaluated on a cohort of 12 healthy individuals (age of 27...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Victor M Niemeijer, Ruud F Spee, Thijs Schoots, Pieter F F Wijn, Hareld M Kemps
The extent and speed of transient skeletal muscle deoxygenation during exercise onset in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is related to impairments of local O2 delivery and utilization. This study examined the physiological background of submaximal exercise performance in 19 moderately impaired CHF patients (Weber class A, B, and C) compared with 19 matched healthy control (HC) subjects by measuring skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO2) changes during cycling exercise. All subjects performed two subsequent moderate-intensity 6-minute exercise tests (bout 1 and 2) with measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics, and SmO2 using near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) at the vastus lateralis for determination of absolute oxygenation values, amplitudes, kinetics (mean response time for onset), and deoxygenation overshoot characteristics...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Rafael E Pedro, Débora A Guariglia, Sidney B Peres, Solange M Moraes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a major problem among people living with HIV/aids. The exercise training has been used for its treatment; however, the knowledge about benefits and safety still is emerging. The aim was systematically review the literature for physiological, metabolic, immunologic, and morphologic adaptations to aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training in people living with HALS. METHODS: A search of the Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library and PEDro was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Michel van Schaardenburgh, Martin Wohlwend, Øivind Rognmo, Erney J R Mattsson
PURPOSE: Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease...
2016: PloS One
Sree Vamsee Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen dependent manner. This suggests that Oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g., type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with Oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alexandra Louise Webb, Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Maria Stokes, Sarah Mottram
The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented...
October 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Pedro M D Agrícola, Daniel G da Silva Machado, Luiz F de Farias Junior, Luiz I do Nascimento Neto, André I Fonteles, Samara K A da Silva, Cheng H N Chao, Eduardo B Fontes, Hassan M Elsangedy, Alexandre H Okano
Pleasure plays a key role in exercise behavior. However, the influence of cycling cadence needs to be elucidated. Here, we verified the effects of cycling cadence on affect, perceived exertion (ratings of perceived exertion), and physiological responses. In three sessions, 15 men performed a maximal cycling incremental test followed by two 30-min constant workload (50% of peak power) bouts at 60 and 100 r/min. The pleasure was higher when participants cycled at 60 r/min, whereas ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate, and oxygen uptake were lower (p < ...
October 17, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model, however the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n=16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hotfiel T, Swoboda B, Krinner S, Grim C, Engelhardt M, Uder M, Hei R
Foam rolling has been developed as a popular intervention in training and rehabilitation. However, evidence on its effects on the cellular and physiological level is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foam rolling on arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh. Twenty-one healthy participants (age 25 ± 2 years, height 177 ± 9 cm, body weight 74 ± 9 kg) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. Arterial tissue perfusion was determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, represented as peak flow (Vmax), time average velocity maximum (TAMx), time average velocity mean (TAMn), and resistive index (RI), and with semiquantitative grading that was assessed by four blind-folded investigators...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Martin J MacInnis, Martin J Gibala
Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (VO2max ) and mitochondrial content...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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