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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806762/a-becn1-mutation-mediates-hyperactive-autophagic-sequestration-of-amyloid-oligomers-and-improved-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Altea Rocchi, Soh Yamamoto, Tabitha Ting, Yuying Fan, Katherine Sadleir, Yigang Wang, Weiran Zhang, Sui Huang, Beth Levine, Robert Vassar, Congcong He
Impairment of the autophagy pathway has been observed during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular and intracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. Yet the role of autophagy in Aβ production and AD progression is complex. To study whether increased basal autophagy plays a beneficial role in Aβ clearance and cognitive improvement, we developed a novel genetic model to hyperactivate autophagy in vivo. We found that knock-in of a point mutation F121A in the essential autophagy gene Beclin 1/Becn1 in mice significantly reduces the interaction of BECN1 with its inhibitor BCL2, and thus leads to constitutively active autophagy even under non-autophagy-inducing conditions in multiple tissues, including brain...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805516/do-graded-activity-therapies-cause-harm-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#2
Tom Kindlon
Reporting of harms was much better in the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, and Cognitive behavioural therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial than earlier chronic fatigue syndrome trials of graded exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, some issues remain. The trial's poor results on objective measures of fitness suggest a lack of adherence to the activity component of these therapies. Therefore, the safety findings may not apply in other clinical contexts. Outside of clinical trials, many patients report deterioration with cognitive behavioural therapy and particularly graded exercise therapy...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804461/the-effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-inflammatory-and-myogenic-markers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Emma L Watson, Joao L Viana, David Wimbury, Naomi Martin, Neil J Greening, Jonathan Barratt, Alice C Smith
Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803675/the-yale-fitness-intervention-trial-in-female-cancer-survivors-cardiovascular-and-physiological-outcomes
#4
M Tish Knobf, Sangchoon Jeon, Barbara Smith, Lyndsay Harris, Siobhan Thompson, Mitchel R Stacy, Karl Insogna, Albert J Sinusas
BACKGROUND: Induced premature menopause and cardio-toxic therapy increase cardiovascular disease risk in female cancer survivors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 12 month aerobic-resistance fitness center intervention to home based physical activity on cardiovascular function and metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Subjects (N = 154) who had completed primary and/or adjuvant chemotherapy (past 3 years) were randomized to a fitness center intervention or a home based group...
August 10, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801415/randomised-feasibility-trial-into-the-effects-of-low-frequency-electrical-muscle-stimulation-in-advanced-heart-failure-patients
#5
Stuart Ennis, Gordon McGregor, Thomas Hamborg, Helen Jones, Robert Shave, Sally J Singh, Prithwish Banerjee
OBJECTIVES: Low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation (LF-EMS) may have the potential to reduce breathlessness and increase exercise capacity in the chronic heart failure population who struggle to adhere to conventional exercise. The study's aim was to establish if a randomised controlled trial of LF-EMS was feasible. DESIGN AND SETTING: Double blind (participants, outcome assessors), randomised study in a secondary care outpatient cardiac rehabilitation programme...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801407/the-boundaries-of-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-design-of-the-searching-clinical-copd-onset-soon-study
#6
Gonzalo Labarca, Andrea Bustamante, Gonzalo Valdivia, Rodrigo Díaz, Álvaro Huete, Paul Mac Nab, Laura Mendoza, Jaime Leppe, Carmen Lisboa, Fernando Saldías, Orlando Díaz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800067/a-randomized-crossover-trial-on-acute-stress-related-physiological-responses-to-mountain-hiking
#7
Martin Niedermeier, Carina Grafetstätter, Arnulf Hartl, Martin Kopp
Green exercise, defined as physical activity in natural environments, might have positive effects on stress-related physiological measures. Little is known about the acute effects of green exercise bouts lasting longer than 60 min. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of a three-hour green exercise intervention (mountain hiking) on stress-related physiological responses. Using a randomized crossover design, 42 healthy participants were exposed to three different conditions in a field-based experiment: outdoor mountain hiking, indoor treadmill walking, and sedentary control condition (three hours each)...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797374/hormone-replacement-the-fountain-of-youth
#8
REVIEW
Bradley R Williams, Janet Soojeung Cho
Natural aging brings reduced production of growth and sex hormones, beginning in middle age, with noticeable physiologic changes by the sixth or seventh decade of life: reduced muscle mass, energy, and exercise capacity and alterations in sexual function. Hormones and hormone precursors have been investigated to delay changes in body composition, strength, and physical and cognitive function. Menopausal hormone therapy is effective for vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms. Testosterone is effective in men with hypogonadism and declines in physiologic function...
September 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796126/physiological-pattern-changes-in-response-to-a-simulated-competition-in-elite-women-artistic-gymnasts
#9
Laurie Isacco, Gaël Ennequin, Johan Cassirame, Nicolas Tordi
The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate i) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and ii) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and a simulated four event competition. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded throughout the duration of the simulated competition...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795013/management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-children-and-adolescents-engaging-in-physical-activity
#10
REVIEW
Silpa Nadella, Justin A Indyk, Manmohan K Kamboj
Regular physical activity is an important component in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM), as it has the potential to improve glycemic control, delay cardiovascular complications, and increase overall well-being. Unfortunately, many children and adolescents with diabetes do not partake in regular exercise and physical activity for multiple reasons. This review identifies the barriers to participation from the aspect of the patient, caregiver, and the healthcare provider...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793058/inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-heart-failure-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-duration
#11
G A Ribeiro-Samora, L A Rabelo, A C C Ferreira, M Favero, G S Guedes, L S M Pereira, V F Parreira, R R Britto
Although acute exercise is apparently pro-inflammatory and increases oxidative stress, it can promote the necessary stress stimulus to train chronic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aimed to compare the effects of exercise intensity and duration on the inflammatory markers soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and on oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] in individuals with CHF...
August 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789970/mitochondrial-fusion-fission-and-mitochondrial-toxicity
#12
Joel N Meyer, Tess C Leuthner, Anthony L Luz
Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background...
August 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789681/study-protocol-on-comparative-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-meditation-and-qigong-on-psychophysiological-outcomes-for-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Rainbow T H Ho, Adrian H Y Wan, Jessie S M Chan, S M Ng, K F Chung, Cecilia L W Chan
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer imposes threats to patients' well-being. Although most physical symptoms can be managed by medication, psychosocial stressors may complicate survival and hamper quality of life. Mindfulness and Qigong, two kinds of mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, has been found effective in symptoms management, improving mental health, and reducing stress. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin intervention on the bio-psychosocial wellbeing of people with colorectal cancer...
August 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789651/effect-of-athletic-fatigue-damage-and-the-associated-bone-targeted-remodeling-in-the-rat-ulna
#14
Li Hao, Li Rui-Xin, Han Biao, Zhao Bin, Hao Bao-Hui, Liu Ying-Jie, Zhang Xi-Zheng
BACKGROUND: Fatigue damage of the long bones is prevalent in running athletes and military recruits due to vigorous mid- and long-term physical activity. The current study attempted to know the features of bony athletic fatigue damage and to explore the mechanism of fatigue damage repair through bone targeted remodeling process. METHODS: Right ulnae of the Wistar rats were fatigue loaded on an INSTRON 5865 to construct the athletic fatigue damage model, and several time points (i...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783845/serotonin-shapes-the-migratory-potential-of-nk-cells-an-in-vitro-approach
#15
Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Markus Kieven, Lukas Lövenich, Jonas Lehmann, Michelle Holthaus, Sebastian Theurich, Alexander Schenk
Increased serotonin (5-HT) levels have been shown to influence natural killer cell (NK cell) function. Acute exercise mobilizes and activates NK cells and further increases serum 5-HT concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different serum 5-HT concentrations on NK cell migratory potential and cytotoxicity.The human NK cell line KHYG-1 was assigned to 4 conditions, including 3 physiological concentrations of 5-HT (100, 130 or 170 µg/l 5-HT) and one control condition...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783384/clinical-physical-physiological-and-dietary-patterns-of-obese-and-sedentary-adults-with-primary-hypertension-characterized-by-sex-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-exerdiet-hta-study
#16
Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, Pablo Corres, Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Aitor Martínez-Aguirre, Javier Pérez-Asenjo, Gualberto R Aispuru, Lide Arenaza, Estibaliz Romaratezabala, Iñaki Arratibel-Imaz, Iñigo Mujika, Silvia Francisco-Terreros, Sara Maldonado-Martín
The main purpose of this study was to determine some key physical, physiological, clinical, and nutritional markers of health status in obese and sedentary adults (54.0 ± 8.1 years, 141 men and 68 women) with primary hypertension (HTN) characterized by sex and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level. The studied population showed a high cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile including metabolically abnormal obese, with poor CRF level (22.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), exercise-induced HTN (Systolic Blood Pressure>210 mmHg in men and >190 mmHg in women at the end of the exercise test) and with non-healthy adherence to dietary pattern (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, 46...
August 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782878/physiological-measures-in-participants-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-multiple-sclerosis-and-healthy-controls-following-repeated-exercise-a-pilot-study
#17
L D Hodges, T Nielsen, D Baken
PURPOSE: To compare physiological responses of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME), multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC) following a 24-h repeated exercise test. METHODS: Ten CFS, seven MS and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (10, CFS HC; and seven, MS HC) were recruited. Each participant completed a maximal incremental cycle exercise test on day 1 and again 24 h later. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), oxygen consumption (V˙O2), carbon dioxide production and workload (WL) were recorded...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782653/a-maximal-incremental-effort-alters-tear-osmolarity-depending-on-the-fitness-level-in-military-helicopter-pilots
#18
Jesús Vera Vilchez, Raimundo Jimenez, Iker Madinabeitia, Nerijus Masiulis, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. METHODS: Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill...
August 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782598/physiological-and-performance-effects-of-nitrate-supplementation-during-roller-skiing-in-normoxia-and-normobaric-hypoxia
#19
Linn Nybäck, Caroline Glännerud, Gustav Larsson, Eddie Weitzberg, Oliver Michael Shannon, Kerry McGawley
The present study examined the effects of acute nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation ingested in the form of concentrated beetroot juice on cross-country roller-ski performance in normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H). Eight competitive cross-country skiers (five males: age 22 ± 3 years, V·O2max 71.5 ± 4.7 mL kg(-1)·min(-1); three females: age 21 ± 1 years, V·O2max 58.4 ± 2.5 mL kg(-1)·min(-1)) were supplemented with a single dose of NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (BRJ, ∼13 mmol NO3(-)) or a NO3(-)-depleted placebo (PL, ∼0 mmol NO3(-)) and performed 2 x 6-min submaximal exercise bouts and a 1000-m time-trial (TT) on a treadmill in N (20...
August 4, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780602/executive-function-after-exhaustive-exercise
#20
Mizuki Sudo, Takaaki Komiyama, Ryo Aoyagi, Toshiya Nagamatsu, Yasuki Higaki, Soichi Ando
PURPOSE: Findings concerning the effects of exhaustive exercise on cognitive function are somewhat equivocal. The purpose of this study was to identify physiological factors that determine executive function after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Thirty-two participants completed the cognitive tasks before and after an incremental exercise until exhaustion (exercise group: N = 18) or resting period (control group N = 14). The cognitive task was a combination of a Spatial Delayed-Response (Spatial DR) task and a Go/No-Go task, which requires executive function...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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