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Obesity socioeconomic

Eric B Loucks, Yen-Tsung Huang, Golareh Agha, Su Chu, Charles B Eaton, Stephen E Gilman, Stephen L Buka, Karl T Kelsey
OBJECTIVE: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with adulthood obesity risk; however, epigenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. This work's objective was to evaluate whether associations of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with adulthood body mass index (BMI) are mediated by DNA methylation. METHODS: Participants were 141 men and women from the New England Family Study, prospectively followed prenatally through a mean age of 47 years. Epigenomewide DNA methylation was evaluated in peripheral blood and adipose tissue obtained at adulthood, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
H Wang, R Y Hu, J M Zhong, Y J Qian, C M Wang, K X Xie, L L Chen, Z Bian, Y Guo, M Yu, Z M Chen, L M Li
Objective: To explore the associations between age at menarche and diabetes in adult women. Methods: We analyzed the baseline data of 32 364 female participants who were aged 30-79 years and had been enrolled into China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from Tongxiang, Zhejiang province. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the putative associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Variables of menarche age and others were added to the logistic regression model to evaluate the multiplicative interaction, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Siah Kim, Joshua R Lewis, Louise A Baur, Petra Macaskill, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among young people (ages 15 to 24).. AIM: To characterise the prevalence of obesity and systolic hypertension in young people aged 15 to 24 years across Australia.. METHODS: Using data from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey, a national cross-sectional population-based survey, we included 2 163 young people aged 15 to 24 years. Risk factors were estimated using multinomial logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
J L Carneiro, I M Caldas, A Afonso, H F V Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on tooth mineralization has seldom been evaluated. This is important because SES can be used as a proxy for quantifying factors in the environmental that can impact mineralization but that can be difficult to measure directly, such as nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of SES on third molar mineralization, using a sample of children, adolescents and young adults from Porto, Portugal...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Nassib Bezerra Bueno, Telma Toledo Florêncio, Fabiana Albuquerque Cavalcante, Isabela Lopes Lins, Ana Grotti Clemente, Ana Lydia Sawaya
BACKGROUND: Short stature in adult life, a possible consequence of poor perinatal conditions, is associated with higher risk of mortality and social disabilities. We aimed to determine whether low-income, overweight/obese, short-stature (SS) women show alterations in body composition, self-body-image perception, and biochemical profile compared to their non-short (NS) counterparts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with women living in shantytowns and mother or relatives to undernourished children treated in a center for recuperation and nutritional education...
2016: PeerJ
Ji-Hyun Kim, Sung Man Chang, Jae Nam Bae, Seong-Jin Cho, Jun-Young Lee, Byung-Soo Kim, Maeng Je Cho
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. METHODS: Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Alejandro Rodriguez-Caro, Laura Vallejo-Torres, Beatriz Lopez-Valcarcel
BACKGROUND: There is a well-documented social gradient in obesity in most developed countries. Many previous studies have conventionally categorised individuals according to their body mass index (BMI), focusing on those above a certain threshold and thus ignoring a large amount of the BMI distribution. Others have used linear BMI models, relying on mean effects that may mask substantial heterogeneity in the effects of socioeconomic variables across the population. METHOD: In this study, we measure the social gradient of the BMI distribution of the adult population in Spain over the past two decades (1993-2014), using unconditional quantile regressions...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Abdullah Mamun
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to investigate the developmental stages of hypertension between males and females and identify why young males have higher blood pressure than young females. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study used a sub-sample of 2000 offspring from the original cohort of the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes. The MUSP is a prospective birth cohort study which commenced in early 1980 s in Brisbane, Australia and followed their offspring till young adulthood...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Adel Berbari
The Middle East Region is undergoing a transition from communicable to non-communicable disease. Although the population is to a large extent young, there is also an increasing number of elderly people due to improved health care facilities and socioeconomic status. Similar to developing countries, there is a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors.Hypertension, a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events, is quite prevalent, varying from 25-40%, associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus and high salt intake...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nancy Baugh, David E Harris, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Cheryl Sarton, Erika Lichter
The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000-2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG...
2016: Journal of Pregnancy
Lyndsey M Hornbuckle, J Derek Kingsley, Michael R Kushnick, Robert J Moffatt, Emily M Haymes, Rebecca Miles, Tonya Toole, Lynn B Panton
This study examined the effects of a 12-month walking intervention in overweight/obese, low socioeconomic women. Forty-six women (48.2 ± 8.0 years) entered the study. Outcomes included weight, waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipids, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Both intention-to-treat analyses in all participants and group analyses in study completers only (3K group = increased steps/day by ≥3,000; No Δ group = did not increase steps/day by ≥3,000) were conducted...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
Sarah E Jackson, Clemens Kirschbaum, Andrew Steptoe
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence for weight-based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. METHODS: Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) ) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp-nearest 2-cm hair segment...
October 14, 2016: Obesity
Trinath Kumar Mishra, Biswajit Das
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rising in epidemic proportions with India not being an exception. CAD in Indian scenario has its onset at a younger age with multitude of risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to obtain complete information about demographic profile, risk factors, clinical scenario, therapeutic modalities, natural course, outcome and changing profile of acute ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 45,122 acute STEMI patients admitted 1st March 1990 to 1st March 2014...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Richard J Silverwood, Lee Williamson, Emily M Grundy, Bianca L De Stavola
Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4...
2016: PloS One
Sheila Cyril, Julie Green, Jan M Nicholson, Kingsley Agho, Andre M N Renzaho
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services...
2016: PloS One
Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Andrew J Barr, Flavia M Cicuttini, Philip G Conaghan, Cyrus Cooper, Mary B Goldring, Steven R Goldring, Graeme Jones, Andrew J Teichtahl, Jean-Pierre Pelletier
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder, is associated with an increasing socioeconomic impact owing to the ageing population and mainly affects the diarthrodial joints. Primary OA results from a combination of risk factors, with increasing age and obesity being the most prominent. The concept of the pathophysiology is still evolving, from being viewed as cartilage-limited to a multifactorial disease that affects the whole joint. An intricate relationship between local and systemic factors modulates its clinical and structural presentations, leading to a common final pathway of joint destruction...
October 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
S B Salagre, S M Itolikar, J J Churiwala
OBJECTIVE: (1) To study the prevalence and clinical attributes of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects (2) To identify the factors determining the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects. METHODS: After ethical considerations, this prospective observational study was conducted on 151 non-pregnant essential hypertensive adults. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made as per the NCEP - ATP III criteria. The parameters were compared with those of hypertensive subjects without metabolic syndrome...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shervin Assari
PURPOSE: General self-efficacy has been historically assumed to have universal health implications. However, less is known about population differences in long-term health effects of general self-efficacy across diverse populations. This study compared black and white American adults for (1) the association between psychosocial and health factors and general self-efficacy at baseline, and (2) the association between baseline self-efficacy and long-term risk of all-cause mortality over 25 years...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Thang S Han, Elon Correa, Michael E J Lean, David M Lee, Terrence W O'Neill, György Bartfai, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Krzysztof Kula, Neil Pendleton, Margus Punab, Martin K Rutter, Dirk Vanderschueren, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Frederick C W Wu, Felipe F Casanueva
Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities...
October 13, 2016: Endocrine
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