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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166432/engagement-in-physical-education-classes-and-health-among-young-people-does-sports-practice-matter-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam, Philippe Fanelli Ferraiol
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Physical education classes aim to promote health but it is unknown whether benefits occur independently of sports practice. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between engagement in physical education classes and physical fitness and obesity according to sports practice among Brazilian students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional school-based study involving 737 students aged 10-17 years in southern Brazil. METHODS: Engagement in physical education classes and sports practice were analyzed using a self-report questionnaire...
November 17, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166248/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-allostatic-load-in-african-american-women-at-risk-for-obesity-related-diseases
#2
Marissa Tan, Abdullah Mamun, Heather Kitzman, Surendra Reddy Mandapati, Leilani Dodgen
INTRODUCTION: African American women have higher rates of obesity and related chronic disease than other demographic groups. The poorer health of African American women compared with other groups may be explained by allostatic load, or cumulative physiologic stress, due to chronic socioeconomic disadvantage. The objective of this study was to evaluate neighborhood and individual factors contributing to allostatic load in African American women at risk for obesity-related diseases. METHODS: This study evaluated the relationship of allostatic load with neighborhood disadvantage, individual socioeconomic determinants, and synergism between neighborhood and socioeconomic disadvantage, along with health behaviors and other factors as mediators in African American women...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165104/simple-reaction-time-and-obesity-in-children-whether-there-is-a-relationship
#3
Akbar Moradi, Samad Esmaeilzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Reaction time (RT) testing is one of the oldest diagnostic methods used in modern psychology, and is known as simple and sensitive cognitive test. It has been recently reported that RT is related to obesity in young, adult and elderly individuals. However, most of the studies included small sample of participants, used just body mass index (BMI) as body obesity index, and did not consider some potential confounders such as age, socioeconomic status and physical activity in their studies...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164123/income-gradient-in-renal-disease-mortality-in-the-united-states
#4
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background: Non-communicable diseases and associated mortality follow a social gradient and chronic kidney disease is not an exception to this rule. Intermediate behavioral and medical factors that may explain such social gradients are, however, still unknown. Objectives: Using nationally representative data in the United States, this study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of medical and behavioral risk factors on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and renal disease mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163730/association-between-dental-caries-and-body-mass-index-in-schoolchildren-aged-between-14-and-16-years-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#5
Ahmed Abdullah Alghamdi, Ahmed Almahdy
Background: Dental caries and obesity are multifactorial diseases that have common risk factors. Studies worldwide reported varied outcomes about the association between dental caries and obesity. There is no published study that investigates this association among schoolchildren in Arabic countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dental caries (DMFT) and body mass index (BMI) for children aged between 14 and 16 years old in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The role of oral hygiene habits, parent's education, sugar consumption and physical activity in causing both diseases was also evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163542/effects-of-food-additives-on-immune-cells-as-contributors-to-body-weight-gain-and-immune-mediated-metabolic-dysregulation
#6
REVIEW
Heitor A Paula Neto, Priscila Ausina, Lilian S Gomez, João G B Leandro, Patricia Zancan, Mauro Sola-Penna
Food additives are compounds used in order to improve food palatability, texture, and shelf life. Despite a significant effort to assure safety of use, toxicological analysis of these substances, generally, rely on their direct toxicity to target organs (liver and kidney) or their genotoxic effects. Much less attention is paid to the effects of these compounds on cells of the immune system. This is of relevance given that metabolic dysregulation and obesity have a strong immune-mediated component. Obese individuals present a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the establishment of insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities known as the metabolic syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163027/mechanisms-of-osteoarthritic-pain-studies-in-humans-and-experimental-models
#7
REVIEW
Annett Eitner, Gunther O Hofmann, Hans-Georg Schaible
Pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. This review addresses the mechanisms which are thought to be involved in OA pain, derived from studies on pain mechanisms in humans and in experimental models of OA. Three areas will be considered, namely local processes in the joint associated with OA pain, neuronal mechanisms involved in OA pain, and general factors which influence OA pain. Except the cartilage all structures of the joints are innervated by nociceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162575/patient-and-practice-characteristics-predicting-attendance-and-completion-at-a-specialist-weight-management-service-in-the-uk-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
David N Blane, Philip McLoone, David Morrison, Sara Macdonald, Catherine A O'Donnell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between patient and referring practice characteristics and attendance and completion at a specialist health service weight management service (WMS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Regional specialist WMS located in the West of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 9677 adults with obesity referred between 2012 and 2014; 3250 attending service and 2252 completing. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measure was attendance at the WMS; secondary outcome was completion, defined as attending four or more sessions...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161632/ambient-air-pollution-adipokines-and-glucose-homeostasis-the-framingham-heart-study
#9
Wenyuan Li, Kirsten S Dorans, Elissa H Wilker, Mary B Rice, Itai Kloog, Joel D Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Brent A Coull, Diane R Gold, James B Meigs, Caroline S Fox, Murray A Mittleman
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States. METHODS: We included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) and 8 (2005-2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002-2005) and 2 (2008-2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit...
November 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160432/hypertriglyceridemic-waist-phenotype-and-nutritional-factors-a-study-with-participants-of-elsa-brasil
#10
Juliana Rodrigues de Andrade, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Sandhi Maria Barreto, Taísa Sabrina Silva Pereira, José Geraldo Mill, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fat and fiber intakes and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). METHODS: Cross-sectional survey conducted from the baseline of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health Adult (ELSA-Brasil). Anthropometric measurements were conducted and the body mass index was calculated (BMI). Participants were classified according to the presence of HWP when waist circumference ≥ 102 and ≥ 88 cm, respectively, in men and women, and triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159854/the-effect-of-impaired-glucose-metabolism-on-weight-loss-in-multidisciplinary-childhood-obesity-treatment
#11
Julie T Kloppenborg, Michael Gamborg, Cilius E Fonvig, Tenna R H Nielsen, Oluf Pedersen, Jesper Johannesen, Torben Hansen, Jens-Christian Holm
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children and adolescents exhibiting an impaired glucose metabolism are more obese at treatment entry and less likely to reduce their degree of obesity during treatment. METHODS: The present study is a longitudinal observational study, including children and adolescents from the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbaek, Denmark. Anthropometrics, pubertal development, socioeconomic status (SES), and fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were collected at treatment entry and at follow-up...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158655/bikeshare-use-in-urban-communities-individual-and-neighborhood-factors
#12
Gabriela R Oates, Bryant W Hamby, Sejong Bae, Maria C Norena, H Olivia Hart, Mona N Fouad
Objective: Bicycling is an affordable way to increase access to employment, schooling, and services and an effective measure against obesity. Bikeshare programs can make bicycling accessible to diverse populations, but little evidence exists on their adoption in low-resource neighborhoods. Our study examined factors associated with bikeshare use in a metropolitan area in the southern United States. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a database of clients (N=815) who rented a bicycle from Zyp Bikeshare in Birmingham, Alabama between October 2015 and November 2016...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156933/-prevention-of-obesity-from-perinatal-stage
#13
Rosa Mª Martínez García, Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, Heldry González Torres, Rosa María Ortega
Obesity is one of the major health problems and a determining factor in the prevalence of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, asthma, sleep apnea, infertility and various types of cancer. Its origin is multifactorial, involving genetic, socioeconomic and environmental factors. These last ones contribute mostly to explain the current epidemic growth of this disease. The sedentary lifestyle, inadequate diet, lack of sleep, alterations in intestinal microbiota and stress are factors related to its development...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152311/associations-of-out-of-school-physical-activity-sedentary-lifestyle-and-socioeconomic-status-with-weight-status-and-adiposity-of-cameroon-children
#14
Lifoter K Navti, Mary B Atanga, Loveline L Niba
Background: Low physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle are contributing to overweight/obesity in children. This study aims to explore relationships between out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status indicators with children's weight status and adiposity. Methods: Five hundred twenty-two children of ages 5 to 12 years were randomly selected in a school-based cross sectional study in Bamenda, Cameroon. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151452/development-of-a-new-diet-induced-obesity-dio-model-using-wistar-lean-rats
#15
Yoriko Kimura, Atsushi Yamada, Yoko Takabayashi, Tsunehiko Tsubota, Hisao Kasuga
Obesity is an increasingly severe socioeconomic health issue worldwide. Rodents with diet-induced obesity (DIO) are widely used as models of obesity. The main aim of this study was to establish a DIO model using Wistar lean (+/+ or +/-) rats by feeding a high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) to dams during the latter term of gestation and the lactation period. A second aim was to examine the effect of post-weaning nutrition independently of maternal nutrition. Some pups (group D) were fed the same high-fat diet after weaning, while others (group C) were fed a chow diet after weaning...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146490/educational-inequalities-in-cardiovascular-risk-factor-and-blood-pressure-control-in-elderly-adults-comparison-of-mesa-cohort-and-chilean-nhs-survey-outcome-measures
#16
Carolina Nazzal, Steven Shea, Cecilia Castro-Diehl, Tania Alfaro, Patricia Frenz, Carlos J Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Social determinants differ between countries, which is not always considered when adapting health policies and interventions to face inequalities in noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to analyze educational inequalities in controlled blood pressure (CBP), obesity, and smoking in study populations from Chile and the United States in 2 periods, both countries with large social inequalities. METHODS: The study used data from the first and fifth waves of the MESA (Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) cohort, and the 2003 and 2009 to 2010 Chilean National Health Survey (CNHS) survey outcome measures...
November 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146297/pregnancy-intention-and-contraceptive-use-among-women-by-class-of-obesity-results-from-the-2006-2010-and-2011-2013-national-survey-of-family-growth
#17
Brian T Nguyen, Jennifer L Elia, Cathrine Y Ha, Bliss E Kaneshiro
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting research findings on the association of obesity and pregnancy intention may be due to their collective definition of obesity at a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater. However, obese women with a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) or greater may be both behaviorally and clinically different from obese women with a lower BMI. This study reexamines this relationship, stratifying by class of obesity; the study also explores variations in contraceptive use by class of obesity given their potential contribution to the incidence of unintended or unwanted pregnancy...
November 13, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145539/socioeconomic-deprivation-household-education-and-employment-are-associated-with-increased-hospital-admissions-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Louise J Apperley, Sze M Ng
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic deprivation, obesity, and emotional discomfort are important determinants of health inequalities and poor glycemic control in children and young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of hospital admissions of T1D children in relation to socioeconomic deprivation, and to determine the effects of social deprivation, body mass index (BMI), and patient-reported emotional well-being on glycemic control...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145355/disparities-in-state-specific-adult-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-united-states-2015
#19
Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Latetia V Moore, Heidi M Blanck, Diane M Harris, Deb Galuska
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall dietary pattern to reduce the risk for diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity (1). Adults should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruits and 2.0-3.0 cups of vegetables per day.* Overall, few adults in each state met intake recommendations according to 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; however, sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption were not examined (2)...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143899/headache-in-resource-limited-settings
#20
REVIEW
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the unmet need of headache burden and management in resource-limited settings. It provides a general overview of the nuances and peculiarities of headache disorders in resource-limited settings. The review delivers perspectives and explanations for the emerging burden of both primary and secondary headache disorders. Important discussion on demographic and epidemiologic transition pertinent to low-resource settings is included. A critical analysis of headache disorders is made within the context of growing burden non-communicable disorders in low-resource countries...
November 16, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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