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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282614/inhibition-of-drp1-protects-against-senecionine-induced-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-primary-hepatocytes-and-in-mice
#1
Xiao Yang, Hua Wang, Hong-Min Ni, Aizhen Xiong, Zhengtao Wang, Hiromi Sesaki, Wen-Xing Ding, Li Yang
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of compounds found in various plants and some of them are widely consumed in the world as herbal medicines and food supplements. PAs are potent hepatotoxins that cause irreversible liver injury in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms by which PAs induce liver injury are not clear. In the present study, we determined the hepatotoxicity and molecular mechanisms of senecionine, one of the most common toxic PAs, in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes as well as in mice...
March 2, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255652/attenuation-of-liver-cancer-development-by-oral-glycerol-supplementation-in-the-rat
#2
Alejo M Capiglioni, Florencia Lorenzetti, Ariel D Quiroga, Juan P Parody, María T Ronco, Gerardo B Pisani, María C Carrillo, María P Ceballos, María de Luján Alvarez
PURPOSE: Glycerol usage is increasing in food industry for human and animal nutrition. This study analyzed the impact of glycerol metabolism when orally supplemented during the early stage of rat liver carcinogenesis. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to a 2-phase model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiated-promoted, IP group). IP animals also received glycerol by gavage (200 mg/kg body weight, IPGly group). RESULTS: Glycerol treatment reduced the volume of preneoplastic lesions by decreasing the proliferative status of liver foci, increasing the expression of p53 and p21 proteins and reducing the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246130/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-an-nad-precursor-rescues-age-associated-susceptibility-to-aki-in-a-sirtuin-1-dependent-manner
#3
Yi Guan, Su-Rong Wang, Xin-Zhong Huang, Qiong-Hong Xie, Yun-Yu Xu, Da Shang, Chuan-Ming Hao
The rapid growth of an aging population creates challenges regarding age-related diseases, including AKI, for which both the prevalence and death rate increase with age. The molecular mechanism by which the aged kidney becomes more susceptible to acute injury has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we found that, compared with the kidneys of 3-month-old mice, the kidneys of 20-month-old mice expressed reduced levels of the renal protective molecule sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and its cofactor NAD(+) Supplementation with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an NAD(+) precursor, restored renal SIRT1 activity and NAD(+) content in 20-month-old mice and further increased both in 3-month-old mice...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228072/curcumin-and-endothelial-function-evidence-and-mechanisms-of-protective-effects
#4
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a large paracrine organ regulating cell growth, vascular tone and thrombogenicity as well as platelet and leukocyte interactions. Endothelial function can be assessed by non-invasive techniques [e.g. flow-mediated vasodilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity] and measuring specific circulating biomarkers [cell adhesion molecules, endothelial microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells]. Impaired endothelial function plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions...
February 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178378/melatonin-promotes-sorafenib-induced-apoptosis-through-synergistic-activation-of-jnk-c-jun-pathway-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Shibo Lin, Katrin Hoffmann, Chao Gao, Marius Petrulionis, Ingrid Herr, Peter Schemmer
Melatonin has been shown to exert anticancer activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect in both experimental and clinical studies, and sorafenib is the only approved drug for the systemic treatment of HCC. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the combined effect of melatonin and sorafenib on proliferation, apoptosis, and its possible mechanism in human HCC. Here, we found that both melatonin and sorafenib resulted in a dose-dependent growth inhibition of HuH-7 cells after 48 hours treatment, and the combination of them enhanced the growth inhibition in a synergistic manner...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160636/daily-sesame-oil-supplementation-attenuates-local-renin-angiotensin-system-via-inhibiting-mapk-activation-and-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#6
Chuan-Teng Liu, Ming-Yie Liu
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by which increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and oxidative stress are important in RAS-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Sesame oil, a potent antioxidant, attenuates hypertension-dependent LVH. We examined the protective role of sesame oil on RAS-mediated MAPK activation and oxidative stress in rats. We induced LVH using a hypertensive model by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/ml/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats...
May 28, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105758/chicory-inulin-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-suppresses-jnk-and-mapk-pathways-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Chong Ning, Xiyao Wang, Song Gao, Jingjing Mu, Yuehua Wang, Suwen Liu, Jinyan Zhu, Xianjun Meng
SCOPE: Chicory inulin is a naturally occurring fructan that is conducive to glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism by which chicory inulin improves glucolipid metabolism in diabetic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were injected with streptozotocin and fed with high fat diet to induce diabetes, and then administrated with different doses of chicory inulin for 8 weeks. The glycometabolism and lipid metabolism parameters were determined, the activity of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined by western blot...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074603/supplementing-diet-with-manitoba-lingonberry-juice-reduces-kidney-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Cara K Isaak, Pengqi Wang, Suvira Prashar, Karmin O, Daniel C W Brown, Samir C Debnath, Yaw L Siow
BACKGROUND: Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) contains high levels of anthocyanins which are bioavailable in the kidney and may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effect of lingonberry juice on IR-induced stress-activated signaling pathway and inflammatory response in the kidney. RESULTS: Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to kidney IR had significantly impaired kidney function, with increased activation of the JNK signaling pathway and increased inflammatory response, measured using a multiplex panel containing an extensive array of inflammatory biomarkers...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035371/the-anti-metastatic-effects-of-the-phytoestrogen-arctigenin-on-human-breast-cancer-cell-lines-regardless-of-the-status-of-er-expression
#10
Thressi Maxwell, So-Young Chun, Kyu-Shik Lee, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
Arctigenin is a plant lignan extracted from Arctium lappa that has been shown to have estrogenic properties. In spite of the health benefits of phytoestrogens reducing the risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, and menopausal symptoms, its benefits against the risk of breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on metastasis of breast cancer using both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines to see if the effects are dependent on the status of ER expression...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959936/a-low-dose-of-dietary-quercetin-fails-to-protect-against-the-development-of-an-obese-phenotype-in-mice
#11
Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velázquez, Meredith S Carson, Jamie L McClellan, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, J Mark Davis, E Angela Murphy
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with a dietary attainable level of quercetin (0.02%) on body composition, adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease (NAFLD), and metabolic outcomes. Diets were administered for 16 weeks to C57BL/6J mice (n = 10/group) beginning at 4 weeks of age. Body composition and fasting blood glucose, insulin, and total cholesterol concentrations were examined intermittently. AT and liver mRNA expression (RT-PCR) of inflammatory mediators (F4/80, CD206 (AT only), CD11c (AT only) TLR-2 (AT only), TLR-4 (AT only), MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 (AT only), and IL-10 (AT only)) were measured along with activation of NFκB-p65, and JNK (western blot)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929393/xylobiose-an-alternative-sweetener-ameliorates-diabetes-related-metabolic-changes-by-regulating-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-mir-122a-33a-in-db-db-mice
#12
Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim, Yoo-Sun Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR...
December 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821438/akkermansia-muciniphila-improves-metabolic-profiles-by-reducing-inflammation-in-chow-diet-fed-mice
#13
Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Ruixin Liu, Jie Hong
Abnormal shifts in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The crosstalk between gut microbes and the host affects the inflammatory status and glucose tolerance of the individuals, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated completely. In this study, we treated the lean chow diet-fed mice with Akkermansia muciniphila, which is thought to be inversely correlated with inflammation status and body weight in rodents and humans, and we found that A...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785026/amorphous-silica-nanoparticles-trigger-vascular-endothelial-cell-injury-through-apoptosis-and-autophagy-via-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mapk-bcl-2-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling
#14
Caixia Guo, Man Yang, Li Jing, Ji Wang, Yang Yu, Yang Li, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Environmental exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) is inevitable due to their widespread application in industrial, commercial, and biomedical fields. In recent years, most investigators focus on the evaluation of cardiovascular effects of SiNPs in vivo and in vitro. Endothelial injury and dysfunction is now hypothesized to be a dominant mechanism in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to explore interaction of SiNPs with endothelial cells, and extensively investigate the exact effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in SiNPs-induced endothelial injury...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747357/oral-administration-of-lentinus-edodes-%C3%AE-glucans-ameliorates-dss-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice-via-mapk-elk-1-and-mapk-ppar%C3%AE-pathways
#15
Limin Shi, Qinlu Lin, Tao Yang, Ying Nie, Xinhua Li, Bo Liu, Junjun Shen, Ying Liang, Yiping Tang, Feijun Luo
To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of β-glucans from Lentinus edodes, and its molecular mechanism, the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced colitis model of mice and the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell inflammation model were used in this study. 40 ICR male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, DSS (DSS treated only), DSS + low-βGs (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and DSS + high-βGs (1000 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). The body weight of the mice with Lentinus edodes β-glucan supplementation increased significantly compared to the DSS group and the disease activity index (DAI) was improved in both βG-treated groups...
November 9, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732911/preventive-effects-of-dietary-walnuts-on-high-fat-induced-hepatic-fat-accumulation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-mice
#16
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
We hypothesized that dietary walnut would prevent high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic apoptosis based on its antioxidant properties. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a rodent chow or HFD (45% energy-derived)±walnuts (21.5% energy-derived) for 6 weeks. Liver histological and biochemical analyses revealed significantly elevated fat accumulation in mice fed HFD compared to mice fed the chow or HFD±walnuts. Walnut supplementation prevented HFD-mediated alteration of the levels of key proteins in lipid homeostasis such as Sirt1, AMPK and FAS, leading to decreased fat accumulation...
December 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713954/anti-inflammatory-activities-of-essential-oil-isolated-from-the-calyx-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l
#17
Chun-Yan Shen, Tian-Tian Zhang, Wen-Li Zhang, Jian-Guo Jiang
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665434/quercetin-modulates-toll-like-receptor-mediated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathways-in-oxldl-challenged-human-pbmcs-and-regulates-tlr-activated-atherosclerotic-inflammation-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#18
Shobha Bhaskar, A Helen
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that have a unique and essential function in innate immunity. The effect of quercetin on TLR-mediated downstream signaling mechanism and its effect on TLR-mediated MAP kinase and Akt pathways were studied in oxLDL-stimulated hPBMCs using specific inhibitors. The pretreatment of hPBMCs with specific TLR inhibitor, CLI-095, decreased the NF-κB nuclear translocation and TNF-α release by oxLDL. When the cells treated with inhibitor and quercetin together, the inhibition was more effective...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660266/neurotoxicity-of-methylmercury-in-isolated-astrocytes-and-neurons-the-cytoskeleton-as-a-main-target
#19
Paula Pierozan, Helena Biasibetti, Felipe Schmitz, Helena Ávila, Carolina Gonçalves Fernandes, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Angela T S Wyse
In the present work, we focused on mechanisms of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in primary astrocytes and neurons of rats. Cortical astrocytes and neurons exposed to 0.5-5 μM MeHg present a link among morphological alterations, glutathione (GSH) depletion, glutamate dyshomeostasis, and cell death. Disrupted neuronal cytoskeleton was assessed by decreased neurite length and neurite/neuron ratio. Astrocytes presented reorganization of actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) networks and reduced cytoplasmic area...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611982/boldine-inhibits-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-in-vivo-and-human-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#20
Pavel Tomšík, Stanislav Mičuda, Darina Muthná, Eva Čermáková, Radim Havelek, Emil Rudolf, Miloš Hroch, Zuzana Kadová, Martina Řezáčová, Jana Ćmielová, Pavel Živný
Boldine is an aporphine alkaloid widely consumed in the folk medicine of some regions. Its anticancer potential has been shown but not yet elucidated. We compared the antitumor effect of orally and parenterally applied boldine in mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor. We also explored the effects of boldine on breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells in vitro. Repeated i. p. injections of 30, 60, or 90 mg boldine/kg, either alone or combined with doxorubicin, slowed tumor growth in vivo. The latter two doses also prolonged the post-therapeutic survival of the mice...
November 2016: Planta Medica
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