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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331339/cardiopulmonary-hemodynamics-and-c-reactive-protein-as-prognostic-indicators-in-compensated-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#1
Laura Turco, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Ilenia Magnani, Marcello Bianchini, Martina Costetti, Cristian Caporali, Stefano Colopi, Emilio Simonini, Nicola De Maria, Federico Banchelli, Rosario Rossi, Erica Villa, Filippo Schepis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The main stages of cirrhosis (compensated and decompensated) have been substaged based on clinical, endoscopic, and portal pressure (determined by the hepatic venous pressure gradient, HVPG) features. Vasodilatation leading to a hyperdynamic circulatory state is central in the development of a late decompensated stage with inflammation being currently considered a key driver. We aimed to assess hepatic/systemic hemodynamics and inflammation (by C reactive protein, CRP) among the different substages of cirrhosis and to investigate their interrelationship and prognostic relevance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331225/influence-of-pressure-on-the-retention-of-resorcinarene-based-cavitands
#2
Ibolya Prauda, Endre Bartó, Attila Felinger
The thermodynamics of the retention mechanism of resorcinarene-based cavitands in RPLC as well as the nature of the binding sites have been studied recently. In the present study, the influence of pressure on the retention of the cyclic tetramers on alkylsilyl and polar-embedded C8 and C18 stationary phases is investigated using aqueous methanol mobile phase. The pressure effect for cavity-shaped molecules has been scarcely studied so far. We observed that the retention factors of the analytes increased with the increase of the average column pressure (1-400 bar) when using restricting capillary tubes...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330589/impact-of-valve-less-vs-standard-insufflation-on-pneumoperitoneum-volume-inflammation-and-peritoneal-physiology-in-a-laparoscopic-sigmoid-resection-experimental-model
#3
Michele Diana, Eric Noll, Andras Legnèr, Seong-Ho Kong, Yu-Yin Liu, Luigi Schiraldi, Francesco Marchegiani, Jordan Bano, Bernard Geny, Anne-Laure Charles, Bernard Dallemagne, Véronique Lindner, Didier Mutter, Pierre Diemunsch, Jacques Marescaux
BACKGROUND: Standard insufflators compensate for intra-abdominal pressure variations with pressure spikes. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a stable, low-pressure pneumoperitoneum induced by a valve-less insufflator, on working space, hemodynamics, inflammation, and peritoneal physiology, in a model of laparoscopic sigmoid resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve pigs (47 ± 3.3 kg) were equipped for invasive hemodynamic monitoring and randomly assigned to Standard (n = 6) vs...
January 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329993/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-four-patients-treated-by-leflunomide
#4
Valentin Coirier, Alain Lescoat, Céline Chabanne, Maxime Fournet, Guillaume Coiffier, Stéphane Jouneau, Elisabeth Polard, Patrick Jégo
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder that can be drug-induced, mostly following treatment by appetite-suppressant drugs. We report four cases of patients who developed PAH following a treatment by leflunomide for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or undetermined connective tissue disease. All patients described a progressive dyspnea from grade II to IV of NYHA classification; clinical examination found signs of heart failure. PAH was finally diagnosed and confirmed by right heart catheterisation...
January 9, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329939/enhanced-mobility-of-non-aqueous-phase-liquid-napl-during-drying-of-wet-sand
#5
Dhivakar Govindarajan, Abhijit P Deshpande, Ravikrishna Raghunathan
Enhanced upward mobility of a non aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) present in wet sand during natural drying, and in the absence of any external pressure gradients, is reported for the first time. This mobility was significantly higher than that expected from capillary rise. Experiments were performed in a glass column with a small layer of NAPL-saturated sand trapped between two layers of water-saturated sand. Drying of the wet sand was induced by flow of air across the top surface of the wet sand. The upward movement of the NAPL, in the direction of water transport, commenced when the drying effect reached the location of the NAPL and continued as long as there was significant water evaporation in the vicinity of NAPL, indicating a clear correlation between the NAPL rise and water evaporation...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324784/multiscale-modelling-of-blood-flow-in-cerebral-microcirculation-details-at-capillary-scale-control-accuracy-at-the-level-of-the-cortex
#6
Myriam Peyrounette, Yohan Davit, Michel Quintard, Sylvie Lorthois
Aging or cerebral diseases may induce architectural modifications in human brain microvascular networks, such as capillary rarefaction. Such modifications limit blood and oxygen supply to the cortex, possibly resulting in energy failure and neuronal death. Modelling is key in understanding how these architectural modifications affect blood flow and mass transfers in such complex networks. However, the huge number of vessels in the human brain-tens of billions-prevents any modelling approach with an explicit architectural representation down to the scale of the capillaries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322280/direct-cardiovascular-impact-of-sglt2-inhibitors-mechanisms-and-effects
#7
REVIEW
Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Ahmed El-Yazbi, Ali Eid, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Diabetes is a global epidemic and a leading cause of death with more than 422 million patients worldwide out of whom around 392 million alone suffer from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are novel and effective drugs in managing glycemia of T2D patients. These inhibitors gained recent clinical and basic research attention due to their clinically observed cardiovascular protective effects. Although interest in the study of various SGLT isoforms and the effect of their inhibition on cardiovascular function extends over the past 20 years, an explanation of the effects observed clinically based on available experimental data is not forthcoming...
January 11, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318469/numerical-simulation-of-ion-transport-in-a-nano-electrospray-ion-source-at-atmospheric-pressure
#8
Wei Wang, Steve Bajic, Benzi John, David R Emerson
Understanding ion transport properties from the ion source to the mass spectrometer (MS) is essential for optimizing device performance. Numerical simulation helps in understanding of ion transport properties and, furthermore, facilitates instrument design. In contrast to previously reported numerical studies, ion transport simulations in a continuous injection mode whilst considering realistic space-charge effects have been carried out. The flow field was solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, and a particle-in-cell (PIC) method was applied to solve a time-dependent electric field with local charge density...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317120/preoperative-invasive-hemodynamic-determinants-of-survival-among-patients-undergoing-aortic-or-mitral-valve-surgery
#9
David X Zhuo, Kenneth C Bilchick, Sula Mazimba
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of preoperative invasive hemodynamic parameters with mortality in valvular heart surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 382 patients who underwent preoperative right and/or left heart catheterization before open aortic valve replacement (AVR), open mitral valve repair/replacement (MVR), or combined AVR and MVR, from July 2009 to December 2014...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311053/reversing-the-cardiac-effects-of-sedentary-aging-in-middle-age-a-randomized-controlled-trial-implications-for-heart-failure-prevention
#10
Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, Justin S Lawley, Mildred Opondo, William Cornwell, Douglas Stoller, Marcus A Urey, Beverley Adams-Huet, Benjamin D Levine
Background - Poor fitness in middle age is a risk factor for heart failure, particularly heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction. The development of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction is likely mediated through increased left ventricular (LV) stiffness, a consequence of sedentary aging. In a prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial, we examined the effect of 2 years of supervised highintensity exercise training on LV stiffness. Methods - Sixty-one (48% male) healthy, sedentary, middle-aged participants (53±5 years) were randomly assigned to either 2 years of exercise training (n=34) or attention control (control; n=27)...
January 8, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306483/left-ventricular-volume-time-relation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#11
Michinari Hieda, Joshua Parker, Tanya Rajabi, Naoki Fujimoto, Paul S Bhella, Anand Prasad, Jeffrey L Hastings, Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures are commonly reported in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and are associated with impaired relaxation in diastole. Relaxation has been assessed by Doppler, but the methods for doing so are indirect and heavily influenced by loading conditions. The aim of this study is to assess LV volume-time relation in patients with HFpEF, when correcting for left atrial driving pressure and chamber size, using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI)...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304490/inflammatory-lung-edema-correlates-with-echocardiographic-estimation-of-capillary-wedge-pressure-in-newly-diagnosed-septic-patients
#12
Thiago M Santos, Daniel Franci, Carolina M Gontijo-Coutinho, Tatiana Mirabetti Ozahata, Tiago de Araújo Guerra Grangeia, José R Matos-Souza, Marco A Carvalho-Filho
PURPOSE: Lung ultrasound is an accurate and accessible tool to quantify lung edema. Furthermore, left ventricle filling pressures (LVFP) can be assessed with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) by the E/e' ratio (E/e'). The present study aimed to assess the correlation between E/e' and lung edema quantified by a simplified lung ultrasound score (LUS) in newly admitted septic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort, septic adult patients admitted at the emergency department of a tertiary hospital were included...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298124/inhaled-budesonide-does-not-affect-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-at-4559-meter-of-altitude
#13
Marc Moritz Berger, Franziska Macholz, Peter Schmidt, Sebastian Fried, Tabea Perz, Daniel Dankl, Josef Niebauer, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, Mahdi Sareban
Berger, Marc Moritz, Franziska Macholz, Peter Schmidt, Sebastian Fried, Tabea Perz, Daniel Dankl, Josef Niebauer, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, and Mahdi Sareban. Inhaled budesonide does not affect hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction at 4559 m of altitude. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Oral intake of the corticosteroid dexamethasone has been shown to lower pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and to prevent high-altitude pulmonary edema. This study tested whether inhalation of the corticosteroid budesonide attenuates PAP and right ventricular (RV) function after rapid ascent to 4559 m...
January 3, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289490/positive-end-expiratory-pressure-during-resuscitation-at-birth-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#14
Ratchada Kitsommart, Kittaya Nakornchai, Buranee Yangthara, Ratchada Jiraprasertwong, Bosco Paes
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during resuscitation soon after birth. Premature neonates may experience respiratory distress from surfactant insufficiency and providing PEEP after the very first breath, may improve outcomes following appropriate resuscitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the short term respiratory outcomes after positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with PEEP in preterm infants at birth. METHODS: A prospective randomized-controlled, pilot trial was conducted...
December 9, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289157/simultaneous-measurements-of-transport-and-poroelastic-properties-of-rocks
#15
Azar K Hasanov, Manika Prasad, Michael L Batzle
A novel laboratory apparatus has been developed for simultaneous measurements of transport and poroelastic rock properties. These transport and poroelastic properties at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions are required inputs for various geoscience applications, such as reservoir simulation, basin modeling, or modeling of pore pressure generation. Traditionally, the transport and poroelastic properties are measured separately using, for example, the oscillating pore pressure method to measure hydraulic transport properties, static strain measurements for elastic properties, and pore volumometry for storage capacity...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287999/the-dependence-of-glomerular-capillary-hemorrhage-induced-by-contrast-enhanced-diagnostic-ultrasound-on-microbubble-diameter
#16
Douglas L Miller, Xiaofang Lu, Chunyan Dou, Mario L Fabiilli, Charles C Church
A recently proposed two-criterion model for cavitational bioeffects in tissue with microbubbles (MBs) was tested. The glomerular capillary hemorrhage bioeffect was observed in rat kidney for contrast agent MB suspensions with mean diameters of 1.6, 3.1 and 5.5 µm. A diagnostic ultrasound machine was used at 3.6 MHz and 5.5 MHz for intermittent scans at power settings 2 dB apart. Petechial hemorrhage counts scored on the surface of the kidneys, and glomeruli were scored in histology. Thresholds for the petechial hemorrhage measurements were the same for the large and medium MB suspensions but substantially higher for the small MBs...
December 26, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287149/shear-induced-migration-of-rigid-particles-near-an-interface-between-a-newtonian-and-a-viscoelastic-fluid
#17
Nick O Jaensson, Christos Mitrias, Martien A Hulsen, Patrick D Anderson
Simulations of rigid particles suspended in two-phase shear flow are presented, where one of the suspending fluids is viscoelastic, whereas the other is Newtonian. The Cahn-Hilliard diffuse-interface model is employed for the fluid-fluid interface, which can naturally describe the interactions between the particle and the interface, e.g. particle adsorption. It is shown that particles can migrate across streamlines of the base flow, which is due to the surface tension of the fluid-fluid interface and a difference in normal stresses between the two fluids...
December 29, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286408/diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-getting-the-capillary-refill-test-under-one-s-thumb
#18
Joakim Henricson, Rani Toll John, Chris D Anderson, Daniel Björk Wilhelms
The capillary refill test was introduced in 1947 to help estimate circulatory status in critically ill patients. Guidelines commonly state that refill should occur within 2 s after releasing 5 s of firm pressure (e.g., by the physician's finger) in the normal healthy supine patient. A slower refill time indicates poor skin perfusion, which can be caused by conditions including sepsis, blood loss, hypoperfusion, and hypothermia. Since its introduction, the clinical usefulness of the test has been debated. Advocates point out its feasibility and simplicity and claim that it can indicate changes in vascular status earlier than changes in vital signs such as heart rate...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286398/evaluation-of-vascular-control-mechanisms-utilizing-video-microscopy-of-isolated-resistance-arteries-of-rats
#19
Kathleen M Lukaszewicz, Matthew J Durand, Jessica R C Priestley, James R Schmidt, L Adrienne Allen, Aron M Geurts, Julian H Lombard
This protocol describes the use of in vitro television microscopy to evaluate vascular function in isolated cerebral resistance arteries (and other vessels), and describes techniques for evaluating tissue perfusion using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) and microvessel density utilizing fluorescently labeled Griffonia simplicifolia (GS1) lectin. Current methods for studying isolated resistance arteries at transmural pressures encountered in vivo and in the absence of parenchymal cell influences provide a critical link between in vivo studies and information gained from molecular reductionist approaches that provide limited insight into integrative responses at the whole animal level...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282572/arterioportal-shunting-splanchnic-capillary-perfusion-and-the-effects-of-colloids-during-capnoperitoneum-in-neonatal-and-adolescent-pigs
#20
J F Kuebler, N Schukfeh, G Vieten, W A Osthaus, D Huber, N Dennhard, R Suempelmann, B M Ure, M L Metzelder
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental data indicate that neonates are sensitive to the CO2 pneumoperitoneum. An impaired splanchnic perfusion during laparoscopy in adults has been reported. We recently confirmed that intravenous colloids improve macrocirculatory function in neonates. We aimed to determine the impact of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the perfusion of splanchnic organs in the young including effects of colloid application. METHODS: Male piglets (n = 25) were divided into four groups: (1) neonatal controls, (2) neonates with crystalloid restitution, (3) neonates with colloidal restitution, and (4) adolescents with crystalloid restitution...
December 27, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
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