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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#1
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917636/-immune-mediated-necrotizing-myopathy-associated-with-statin-treatment
#2
Jiří Vencovský
Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is an acquired inflammatory myopathy. One form of the disease is associated with serum anti-HMGCR autoantibodies and significant proportion of patients has a history of statin treatment. The disease is rare with the incidence estimated around 23 cases/100 000 statin treated individuals. In contrast to direct statin toxicity, anti-HMGCR associated IMNM is an induced autoimmune disease.Patients suffer particularly from severe muscle weakness, which may be occasionally totally immobilizing...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#3
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897416/curcumin-an-effective-adjunct-in-patients-with-statin-associated-muscle-symptoms
#4
REVIEW
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Nikou Saboni, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach
In spite of the unequivocal efficacy of statins in reducing primary and secondary cardiovascular events, the use of these drugs in a considerable number of patients is limited because of statin intolerance, mainly statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). SAMS encompass a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, including mild muscular aching and other types of myalgias, myopathy with the significant elevation of creatine kinase, and the rare but life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Among several pathophysiologic mechanisms of SAMS, mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be one of the main one...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889702/statins-and-the-cholesterol-mortality-paradox
#5
José Pedro L Nunes
Large-scale randomised controlled trials, carried out in the context of secondary cardiovascular prevention, have shown that statins are superior to placebo: these drugs were shown to decrease cardiovascular events and total mortality. A further set of clinical trials compared high intensity to low/standard intensity LDL cholesterol lowering in the same setting (using either statins or a statin/ezetimibe association). In this case, a decrease in LDL cholesterol and a concomitant significant reduction in cardiovascular events were seen with intensive therapy, however with no change in total mortality...
November 26, 2016: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885903/opinions-of-nephrologists-on-the-efficacy-and-tolerance-of-statins-in-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Ewa Budzisz, Michał Nowicki
Large randomized controlled trials have not confirmed the effects of statin therapy on reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in end-stage kidney disease, despite that statins are still widely prescribed by nephrologists to chronic dialysis patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the attitudes of nephrologists towards statin use in hemodialysis patients. Self-designed questionnaire, containing 18 questions, was distributed among 115 nephrologists. The survey contained description of the results of 3 largest statin trials in nephrology...
November 25, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876175/-anti-hmg-coa-reductase-necrotizing-myopathy-a-report-of-4-cases
#7
J Marti, I Kolev, A Lorleac'h, S Besnard, M Pihan, P Marcorelles
INTRODUCTION: Anti-3-hydroxy-3-méthylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibody-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy has been recently described (2011). This myopathy is distinct from statin toxic myopathy. Our objective is to report on the clinical and para-clinical characteristics of this myopathy and to show the difficulties of therapeutic care. CASE REPORTS: We describe 4 cases of patients followed-up in Brittany, France. All data have been analyzed retrospectively...
November 18, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858897/anti-hmgcr-antibodies-in-systemic-sclerosis
#8
Marie Hudson, Yael Luck, Mathew Stephenson, May Y Choi, Mianbo Wang, Murray Baron, Marvin J Fritzler
The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of autoantibodies to hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and associations with inflammatory myositis and statin exposure.This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study of 306 subjects from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group cohort who had complete data on statin exposure and serology for anti-HMGCR antibodies assayed by an addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the baseline characteristics of the patients and to compare subjects with and without anti-HMGCR antibodies...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818386/pediatric-necrotizing-myopathy-associated-with-anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-reductase-antibodies
#9
Wen-Chen Liang, Akinori Uruha, Shigeaki Suzuki, Nobuyuki Murakami, Eri Takeshita, Wan-Zi Chen, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Yukari Endo, Hirofumi Komaki, Tatsuya Fujii, Yutaka Kawano, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yasushi Oya, Jianying Xi, Wenhua Zhu, Chongbo Zhao, Yurika Watanabe, Keisuke Ikemoto, Atsuko Nishikawa, Kohei Hamanaka, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Norihiro Suzuki, Ichizo Nishino
OBJECTIVE: Antibodies against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) have recently been associated with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, especially in patients with statin exposure. As the data are very limited concerning phenotypes and treatment in paediatric patients, we aimed to identify the paediatric patients positive for anti-HMGCR antibodies and clarify their features and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We screened 62 paediatric patients who were clinically and/or pathologically suspected to have inflammatory myopathy for anti-HMGCR antibodies...
November 6, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815113/rosuvastatin-safety-an-experimental-study-of-myotoxic-effects-and-mitochondrial-alterations-in-rats
#10
Samar O El-Ganainy, Ahmed El-Mallah, Dina Abdallah, Mahmoud M Khattab, Mahmoud M Mohy El-Din, Aiman S El-Khatib
Myopathy is the most commonly reported adverse effect of statins. All statins are associated with myopathy, though with different rates. Rosuvastatin is a potent statin reported to induce myopathy comparable to earlier statins. However, in clinical practice most patients could tolerate rosuvastatin over other statins. This study aimed to evaluate the myopathic pattern of rosuvastatin in rats using biochemical, functional and histopathological examinations. The possible deleterious effects of rosuvastatin on muscle mitochondria were also examined...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805428/statin-myopathy-navigating-the-maze
#11
Christos V Rizos, Moses S Elisaf
Statins hold a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention having proved both their efficacy and their safety. However, the development of side effects, most commonly muscle related symptoms, can lead to suboptimal treatment adhesion or even discontinuation. This translates to poor CVD risk management. As a result, it is imperative that physicians differentiate true statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) from other causes as well as assess statin intolerance. Moreover, an alternative treatment strategy should be implemented for the management of these patients...
November 2, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798813/economic-evaluation-of-a-pharmacogenomics-test-for-statin-induced-myopathy-in-cardiovascular-high-risk-patients-initiating-a-statin
#12
Dominic Mitchell, Jason R Guertin, Ange Christelle Iliza, Fiorella Fanton-Aita, Jacques LeLorier
BACKGROUND: Statins are the mainstay hypercholesterolemia treatment and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients. However, statin therapy is often interrupted in patients experiencing musculoskeletal pain or myopathy, which are common in this patient group. Currently, the standard tests for diagnosing statin myopathies are difficult to interpret. A pharmacogenomics (PGx) test to diagnose statin-induced myopathy would be highly desirable. METHODS: We developed a Markov state model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical PGx test, which aims to identify statin-induced myopathy in high-risk, secondary prevention cardiovascular patients...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798247/rechallenging-statin-therapy-in-veterans-with-statin-induced-myopathy-post-vitamin-d-replenishment
#13
Jenny H Kang, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Juleann Mutka, Quang A Le
BACKGROUND: Statins are the primary class of medications used to lower cholesterol and reduce risks for coronary heart disease. However, statin muscular adverse effects are one of the main reasons for statin nonadherence and a barrier to cardiovascular risk reduction. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of our study was to examine the effect of replenishing vitamin D on statin-induced myopathy in veteran patients who failed to maintain statin therapy in a pharmacist-run ambulatory care setting...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798246/high-intensity-atorvastatin-induced-rhabdomyolysis-in-an-elderly-patient-with-nstemi-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Glen A Huynh, Audrey J Lee
A 91-year-old male was admitted to the hospital for worsening muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unexplained soreness for the past 10 days. Four months prior to his admission, the patient had experienced a myocardial infarction and was initiated on atorvastatin 80 mg daily. Although the provider had instructed the patient to decrease the atorvastatin dose to 40 mg daily 3 months prior to admission, the patient did not adhere to the lower dose regimen until 10 days prior to hospitalization. Upon admission, the patient presented with muscle weakness and pain, a serum creatinine phosphokinase of 18 723 U/L, and a serum creatinine of 1...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793139/a-short-term-statin-treatment-changes-the-contractile-properties-of-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles
#15
Antoine Boulanger Piette, Sébastien S Dufresne, Jérôme Frenette
BACKGROUND: Cumulative evidence indicates that statins induce myotoxicity. However, the lack of understanding of how statins affect skeletal muscles at the structural, functional, and physiological levels hampers proper healthcare management. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the early after-effects of lovastatin on the slow-twitch soleus (Sol) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated with placebo or lovastatin [50 mg/kg/d] for 28 days...
October 28, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761483/cancer-association-as-a-risk-factor-for-anti-hmgcr-antibody-positive-myopathy
#16
Masato Kadoya, Ayumi Hida, Meiko Hashimoto Maeda, Kenichiro Taira, Chiseko Ikenaga, Naohiro Uchio, Akatsuki Kubota, Kenichi Kaida, Yusuke Miwa, Kazuhiro Kurasawa, Hiroyuki Shimada, Masahiro Sonoo, Atsuro Chiba, Yasushi Shiio, Yoshikazu Uesaka, Yasuhisa Sakurai, Toru Izumi, Manami Inoue, Shin Kwak, Shoji Tsuji, Jun Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: To show cancer association is a risk factor other than statin exposure for anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase autoantibody-positive (anti-HMGCR Ab+) myopathy. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features and courses of 33 patients (23 female and 10 male) with anti-HMGCR Ab+ myopathy among 621 consecutive patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. RESULTS: Among the 33 patients, 7 (21%) were statin-exposed and 26 were statin-naive...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757045/pharmacogenomics-of-statins-understanding-susceptibility-to-adverse-effects
#17
Joseph P Kitzmiller, Eduard B Mikulik, Anees M Dauki, Chandrama Murkherjee, Jasmine A Luzum
Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy...
2016: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752355/cardiac-involvement-in-adult-and-juvenile-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Schwartz, Louise Pyndt Diederichsen, Ingrid E Lundberg, Ivar Sjaastad, Helga Sanner
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM (JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also be affected as well. Even though clinically significant heart involvement is uncommon, heart disease is one of the major causes of death in IIM. Recent studies show an increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in JDM and DM/PM, which need attention...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734117/igf-1-prevents-simvastatin-induced-myotoxicity-in-c2c12-myotubes
#19
Annalisa Bonifacio, Gerda M Sanvee, Karin Brecht, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717598/-statin-associated-myopathy-in-clinical-practice-results-of-dama-study
#20
Jesús Millán, Juan Pedro-Botet, Elisenda Climent, Joaquín Millán, Joan Rius
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Muscle symptoms, with or without elevation of creatin kinase are one of the main adverse effects of statin therapy, a fact that sometimes limits their use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients treated with statins who have complained muscle symptoms and to identify possible predictive factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional one-visit, non-interventional, national multicenter study including patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred for past or present muscle symptoms associated with statin therapy was conducted...
October 4, 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
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