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Ayako Tateishi, Satoshi Ohira, Yoichiro Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Kanno
The placental tissues of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) patients exhibit multiple infarctions, acute atherosis, distal villous hypoplasia, and increased syncytial knots. However, these findings are not observed in all cases of PIH; thus, the significance of these changes in PIH is still unclear. We studied the frequency of histopathological changes of placental tissue in the subgroups of PIH, such as mild and severe PIH and early-onset (< 34 weeks) and late-onset (≥ 34 weeks) PIH. One hundred seven cases of PIH diagnosed at the Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto, Japan, between 2008 and 2014 were collected...
February 9, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Placental-related fetal growth restriction arises primarily due to deficient remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries supplying the placenta during early pregnancy. The resultant malperfusion induces cell stress within the placental tissues, leading to selective suppression of protein synthesis and reduced cell proliferation. These effects are compounded in more severe cases by increased infarction and fibrin deposition. Consequently, there is a reduction in villous volume and surface area for maternal-fetal exchange...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ivo Brosens, Marisa Benagiano, Patrick Puttemans, Mario M D'Elios, Giuseppe Benagiano
AIM: The present paper intends in the first place to clarify the confusing terminology for describing the vascular pathology of the placental bed in relation to long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Systematic review of relevant topics. RESULTS: The maternal blood supply to the placenta is achieved by some 100 utero-placental spiral arteries with an outside diameter varying between 200 and 600 microns. Defective physiological changes of the myometrial segment of utero-placental spiral arteries and, particularly in preeclampsia associated to hypertensive disease, the presence of atherosclerosis in their proximal segment are a cause of obstructive vascular pathology...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jerzy Stanek
This study was a comprehensive analysis of placental phenotypes in hypertensive conditions of pregnancy, including recently described placental hypoxic lesions and lesions of shallow placentation. To this end, consecutive placentas from > 21 weeks pregnancies that were signed out by the author at 4 tertiary care centers on 3 continents were included. Twenty-four clinical and 50 placental phenotypes were studied in 6 groups and statistically compared: 91 cases of gestational hypertension, 187 cases of mild preeclampsia, 211 cases of severe preeclampsia, 84 cases of HELLP or eclampsia, 127 cases of chronic hypertension, and 55 cases of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension...
October 2, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Masaki Ryuzaki, Satoshi Morimoto, Michita Niiyama, Yasufumi Seki, Naohiro Yoshida, Yoichi Oshima, Yuki Mizuguchi, Daisuke Watanabe, Takashi Ando, Atsuhiro Ichihara
Objective The management of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients is the key to preventing a progression of organ damage. The brachial BP (bBP) has been used as the representative method for measuring the BP. The central BP (cBP), which is, different from the bBP due to the propagation and the reflection of the pulse wave in the arterial system, has recently received attention because it can now be estimated non-invasively. We examined the relationships between the difference in the central systolic BP (csBP) and the brachial systolic BP (bsBP) (Δ) and other factors in hypertensive patients...
2017: Internal Medicine
Patji Alnaes-Katjavivi, Fiona Lyall, Borghild Roald, Christopher W G Redman, Anne Cathrine Staff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Placenta
Tomasz Zapolski, Jacek Furmaga, Andrzej Jaroszyński, Anna Wysocka, Sławomir Rudzki, Andrzej P Wysokiński
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is regarded as a combination of two major separate diseases: atherosis and sclerosis. Sclerotic component depends on deterioration of elastic properties of the aortic wall and is called aortic stiffness. The most valuable, non-invasive method of aortic stiffness assessment is echocardiography, which allows to calculate the aortic stiffness index (ASI). ASI is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in different groups of patients...
January 23, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Carlos A Labarrere, Hector L DiCarlo, Elaine Bammerlin, James W Hardin, Yeon M Kim, Piya Chaemsaithong, David M Haas, Ghassan S Kassab, Roberto Romero
BACKGROUND: Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries has been reported in preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, fetal death, and spontaneous preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. Spiral arteries with failure of physiologic transformation are prone to develop atherosclerotic-like lesions of atherosis. There are striking parallels between preeclampsia and atherosclerotic disease, and between lesions of atherosis and atherosclerosis. Endothelial activation, identified by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, is present in atherosclerotic-like lesions of heart transplantation, and is considered a manifestation of rejection...
March 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
N M Milic, J Milin-Lazovic, T L Weissgerber, G Trajkovic, W M White, V D Garovic
OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder that has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular changes, such as acute atherosis in placental blood vessels, similar to early-stage atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether women with PE have increased atherosclerotic burden, as determined by the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), compared with women without PE. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported CIMT, a non-invasive, ultrasound-based measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in women who did vs those who did not have PE...
January 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Satoru Kudose, Hannah R Krigman
Although intravascular thrombi and infarct-type necrosis have been reported in leiomyomas following tranexamic acid therapy, intratumoral vasculopathy resembling acute atherosis has not been reported to date in patients without exposure to gonadotropin receptor agonist. We describe a case of intratumoral vasculopathy resembling acute atherosis in a leiomyoma in a 49-year-old woman, with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and menorrhagia, treated with tranexamic acid. The patient had no exposure to gonadotropin receptor agonists...
July 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Jelena Milosevic-Stevanovic, Miljan Krstic, Dragana Radovic-Janosevic, Milan Stefanovic, Vladimir Antic, Ivana Djordjevic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the differences in histopathological features of basal decidua and placenta in cases of preeclampsia with or without fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: A prospective case-control study included a study group consisting of 30 pregnant women with preeclampsia completed by cesarean section (CS), in 19 of whom preeclampsia was associated with IUGR, and in 11 it was not. The control group consisted of 20 healthy pregnant women delivered by elective CS...
November 2016: Hypertension in Pregnancy
Jan H W Veerbeek, Laura Brouwers, Maria P H Koster, Steven V Koenen, Elvira O G van Vliet, Peter G J Nikkels, Arie Franx, Bas B van Rijn
BACKGROUND: Women with a history of placental bed disorders, including preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction have an increased long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Further, similarities exist between atherosclerosis and abnormalities observed in placental bed spiral arteries in pregnancies affected by preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, such as acute atherosis and defective remodeling. This suggests a common pathophysiological pathway underlying both disorders...
August 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xiangqian Zhao, Kai Jiang, Bin Liang, Xiaoqiang Huang
Xanthohumol may prevent and cure diabetes and atherosis, have oxidation resistance and antiviral function as well as anticancer effect preventing cancer cell metastasis. We investigate whether the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. Human liver cancer HepG2 cell were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 40 µM xanthohumol for 48 h. The present study showed that the anticancer effect of xanthohumol was effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells...
February 2016: Oncology Reports
Patji Alnaes-Katjavivi, Fiona Lyall, Borghild Roald, Christopher W G Redman, Anne Cathrine Staff
BACKGROUND: Acute atherosis (AA) of the uteroplacental spiral arteries has been characterised by subendothelial lipid-laden foam cells, perivascular leukocyte infiltrates (PVI) and fibrinoid necrosis. Because precise diagnostic criteria are not available for comparative research studies we developed and tested new simplified criteria based on 237 cases. METHODS: Decidual basalis samples were collected by vacuum suction at elective cesarean deliveries. Spiral arteries were evaluated in serial decidual tissue sections from women with normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and diabetes...
January 2016: Placenta
Kaori Yamazaki, Noritaka Masaki, Yukiko Kohmura-Kobayashi, Chizuko Yaguchi, Takahiro Hayasaka, Hiroaki Itoh, Mitsutoshi Setou, Naohiro Kanayama
Placental villi play pivotal roles in feto-maternal transportation and phospholipids constitute a major part of the villous membrane. We have been developing and optimizing an imaging system based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based mass spectrometer, which provides clear two-dimensional molecular distribution patterns using highly sensitive mass spectrometry from mixtures of ions generated on tissue surfaces. We recently applied this technology to normal human uncomplicated term placentas and detected the specific distribution of sphingomyelin (SM) (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0/20:4) in terminal villi...
2015: PloS One
Joo-Yeon Kim, Yeon Mee Kim
Acute atherosis is unique vascular changes of the placenta associated with poor placentation. It is characterized by subendothelial lipid-filled foam cells, fibrinoid necrosis of the arterial wall, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, and it is histologically similar to early-stage atherosclerosis. Acute atherosis is rare in normal pregnancies, but is frequently observed in non- transformed spiral arteries in abnormal pregnancies, such as preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, spontaneous preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes...
November 2015: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Arnold E Eggers
The hypothesis is set forth that maternal release of epinephrine in the adrenal medulla causes systemic platelet activation (SPA) which, in turn, initiates coagulation via the intrinsic pathway and leads to thrombin generation. Thrombin causes inflammation, which is the underlying cause of acute atherosis in preeclampsia (PE). Each step of this cascade is examined in detail and supporting literature documented. SPA is associated with migraine headaches, which are a prominent clinical feature of PE and may help explain why PE is a risk factor for future maternal cardiovascular disease...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Cwg Redman
For many years pre eclampsia has been considered to be a two-stage disease. The first stage comprises poor placentation. The second stage is the clinical expression of the disease namely new hypertension and new proteinuria. The first stage is preclinical and symptomless, which evolves between weeks 8 and 18 of pregnancy, when the uteroplacental circulation is established by spiral artery remodelling. Its consequence is dysfunctional perfusion of the intervillous space of the placenta with oxidative and haemodynamic stress...
July 2014: Pregnancy Hypertension
Meizheng Dang, Zhenzhen Wang, Ruyou Zhang, Xiaoying Li, Yanqing Peng, Xuesong Han, Litao Sun, Jiawei Tian
Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality worldwide, and it is a major cause of physical disability. Several genome-wide association studies have yielded numerous common variants which increase the risk of ischemic stroke, including the Kalirin-coding gene, KALRN. KALRN strongly associates with early-onset coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis and plays an important role in stroke in the European population. In this study, we analyzed four KALRN gene SNPs in 503 ischemic stroke patients and 493 control subjects, separating the patients into separate research groups based on comorbidity with hypertension or diabetes and stroke type (atherosis or lacunar and combination type)...
September 2015: Neuromolecular Medicine
C A Labarrere, J W Hardin, D M Haas, G S Kassab
INTRODUCTION: Chronic villitis of unknown etiology (CVUE) and massive chronic intervillositis (MCI) are placental lesions associated with infiltration of mononuclear cells in the chorionic villi and the intervillous spaces, respectively. It is not well known whether immune cells in CVUE and MCI have similar phenotypic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of third trimester placentas was conducted to identify immune cell subpopulations in CVUE and MCI (n = 17/group)...
June 2015: Placenta
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