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Diabetes transition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102355/determining-arterial-wave-transit-time-from-a-single-aortic-pressure-pulse-in-rats-vascular-impulse-response-analysis
#1
Ru-Wen Chang, Chun-Yi Chang, Liang-Chuan Lai, Ming-Shiou Wu, Tai-Horng Young, Yih-Sharng Chen, Chih-Hsien Wang, Kuo-Chu Chang
Arterial wave transit time (τw) in the lower body circulation is an effective biomarker of cardiovascular risk that substantially affects systolic workload imposed on the heart. This study evaluated a method for determining τw from the vascular impulse response on the basis of the measured aortic pressure and an assumed triangular flow (Q(tri)). The base of the unknown Q(tri) was constructed with a duration set equal to ejection time. The timing of the peak triangle was derived using a fourth-order derivative of the pressure waveform...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102311/plin2-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-resolution-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#2
Elaine Chen, Tsung Huang Tsai, Lan Li, Pradip Saha, Lawrence Chan, Benny Hung-Junn Chang
Progressive pancreatic β cell failure underlies the transition of impaired glucose tolerance to overt diabetes; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress expedites β cell failure in this situation. ER stress can be elicited by lipotoxicity and an increased demand for insulin in diabetes. We previously reported that the lipid droplet protein perilipin 2 (PLIN2) modulates lipid homeostasis in the liver. Here, we show that PLIN2 modulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress in pancreatic β cells. PLIN2 expression goes up when β cells are exposed to a lipid load or to chemical ER stress inducers...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097328/diabetes-outpatient-care-and-acute-complications-before-and-after-high-deductible-insurance-enrollment-a-natural-experiment-for-translation-in-diabetes-next-d-study
#3
J Frank Wharam, Fang Zhang, Emma M Eggleston, Christine Y Lu, Stephen Soumerai, Dennis Ross-Degnan
Importance: High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) have expanded under the Affordable Care Act and are expected to play a major role in the future of US health policy. The effects of modern HDHPs on chronically ill patients and adverse outcomes are unknown. Objective: To determine the association of HDHP with high-priority diabetes outpatient care and preventable acute complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Controlled interrupted-time-series study using a large national health insurer database from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012...
January 9, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096640/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-pre-and-post-menopausal-women-a-prospective-study-from-apex-institute-of-north-india
#4
Sandeep Sharma, Neelam Aggarwal, Bharti Joshi, Vanita Suri, Sanjay Badada
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MS) (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities and a complex predisease state that predicts future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal state are considered as a vulnerable period for developing MS, and this increased risk has been attributed to decreasing estrogen levels with an increasing risk of insulin resistance following menopause...
October 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#5
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089584/pterostilbene-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-oxidative-injury-in-hippocampal-neuronal-cells-by-activating-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2
#6
Yang Yang, Chongxi Fan, Bodong Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Dongjin Wang, Bing Gong, Shouyin Di, Shuai Jiang, Yue Li, Tian Li, Zhi Yang, Erping Luo
In the present study, neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were used to investigate the mechanisms mediating the potential protective effects of pterostilbene (PTE) against mitochondrial metabolic impairment and oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia for mimicking the diabetic encephalopathy. High glucose medium (100 mM) decreased cellular viability after 24 h incubation which was evidenced by: (i) reduced mitochondrial complex I and III activities; (ii) reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C; (iii) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; (iv) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); and (v) increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels...
January 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#7
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069522/myeloperoxidase-mediated-protein-lysine-oxidation-generates-2-aminoadipic-acid-and-lysine-nitrile-in-vivo
#8
Hongqiao Lin, Bruce S Levison, Jennifer A Buffa, Ying Huang, Xiaoming Fu, Zeneng Wang, Valentin Gogonea, Joseph A DiDonato, Stanley L Hazen
Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown...
January 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062508/arterial-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus-preclinical-models-and-translational-implications
#9
John N Stabley, Dwight A Towler
Diabetes mellitus increasingly afflicts our aging and dysmetabolic population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the antecedent metabolic syndrome represent the vast majority of the disease burden-increasingly prevalent in children and older adults. However, type 1 diabetes mellitus is also advancing in preadolescent children. As such, a crushing wave of cardiometabolic disease burden now faces our society. Arteriosclerotic calcification is increased in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and type 1 diabetes mellitus-impairing conduit vessel compliance and function, thereby increasing the risk for dementia, stroke, heart attack, limb ischemia, renal insufficiency, and lower extremity amputation...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061319/brief-computer-delivered-intervention-to-increase-parental-monitoring-in-families-of-african-american-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Deborah A Ellis, April Idalski Carcone, Steven J Ondersma, Sylvie Naar-King, Bassem Dekelbab, Kathleen Moltz
BACKGROUND: African American adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at elevated risk for poor diabetes management and metabolic control. Parental supervision and monitoring of adolescent diabetes management have been shown to promote better diabetes management among adolescents, but parents typically decrease their oversight during the transition to independent diabetes care. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to conduct a randomized clinical trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of a three-session, computer-delivered motivational intervention (The 3Ms) to promote increased parental monitoring among primary caregivers of young African American adolescents with T1D...
January 6, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056894/study-protocol-the-norfolk-diabetes-prevention-study-ndps-a-46%C3%A2-month-multi-centre-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-trial-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-with-or-without-additional-support-from-lay-lifestyle-mentors-with-type-2-diabetes-to-prevent-transition
#11
Melanie Pascale, Nikki Murray, Max Bachmann, Garry Barton, Allan Clark, Amanda Howe, Colin Greaves, Mike Sampson
BACKGROUND: This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. METHODS: NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052966/role-of-adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-the-natural-history-of-t2dm-results-from-the-san-antonio-metabolism-study
#12
Amalia Gastaldelli, Melania Gaggini, Ralph A DeFronzo
In the transition from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the role of β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) is well established. However, the impact of dysfunctional adipose tissue has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (Adipo-IR) in a large group of NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects.302 subjects with varying glucose tolerance received OGTT and euglycemic insulin clamp...
January 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052468/young-people-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-attitudes-perceptions-and-experiences-of-diabetes-management-and-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-therapy
#13
Lin Perry, Steven James, Katharine Steinbeck, Janet Dunbabin, Julia Lowe
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII; insulin pump) use is increasing. However, there is little information about how this technology is used compared with other insulin delivery methods (ie, injections) by young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Australia. This study explored young people's attitudes, perceptions, and experiences with diabetes management comparing those using with those not using CSII, and proportions likely to transition to adult services requiring initiation and/or support for CSII use...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049286/is-islet-transplantation-a-realistic-approach-to-curing-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Sang-Man Jin, Kwang-Won Kim
Since the report of type 1 diabetes reversal in seven consecutive patients by the Edmonton protocol in 2000, pancreatic islet transplantation has been reappraised based on accumulated clinical evidence. Although initially expected to therapeutically target long-term insulin independence, islet transplantation is now indicated for more specific clinical benefits. With the long-awaited report of the first phase 3 clinical trial in 2016, allogeneic islet transplantation is now transitioning from an experimental to a proven therapy for type 1 diabetes with problematic hypoglycemia...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043708/emerging-roles-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-cardiology
#15
REVIEW
Atsushi Tanaka, Koichi Node
The ultimate goal of treatment in people with diabetes mellitus is to prevent development of cardiovascular (CV) disease, resulting in prolongation of healthy life expectancy. Although impaired glycemic metabolism has a central role in its pathology, a number of studies have demonstrated that remedy for its imbalance cannot necessarily be accomplished as a therapeutic goal. A comprehensive medical approach against multi-factorial pathologies in diabetes, such as insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in addition to diet and exercise therapy should be rather performed in the routine clinical setting...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042775/inhibition-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-response-to-treatment-with-metformin-and-y27632-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#16
Camila Leonel, Lívia Carvalho Ferreira, Thaiz Ferraz Borin, Marina Gobbe Moschetta, Gabriela Scavacini Freitas, Michel Raineri Haddad, João Antonio de Camargos Pinto Robles, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos Zuccari
BACKGROUND: ROCK-1 expression is associated with the malignant character of tumors, while inhibiting this molecule results in a significant suppression of tumor metastasis. Likewise, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is associated with this malignancy by having the ability to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Metformin, a drug used in the treatment of diabetes, has previously been shown to inhibit EMT in breast cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the TGF-β1 action model for induction of EMT and the action of metformin and ROCK-1 inhibitor (Y27632) in EMT process in breast cancer cell lines...
January 2, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042546/tempol-effect-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-hyperglycemia
#17
Mohammad Jafari, Farahnaz Dadras, Hamid Reza Ghadimipour, Mohamad Ali Seif Rabiei, Farhad Khoshjou
BACKGROUND: One of common mechanisms in pathophysiology of chronic kidney diseases is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the other hand oxidative stress has been known to participate in kidney damage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). OBJECTIVES: We studied if tempol, a well-known antioxidant agent, can ameliorate EMT in DN induced in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven male rats were equally divided in to 4 groups. Group I (control or C), group II (diabetic or D), group III (T) rats which was given tempol (100 mg/kg/day) by gavages for 28 days and group IV (D&T) was diabetic rats that also received same dose of tempol...
January 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041926/chronic-over-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-increases-bile-acid-biosynthesis-by-opposing-fgf15-19-action
#18
Jun Zhang, Jamila Gupte, Yan Gong, Jennifer Weiszmann, Yuan Zhang, Ki Jeong Lee, William G Richards, Yang Li
Pharmacological doses of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 effectively normalize glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis in multiple animal models with many benefits translating to obese humans with type 2 diabetes. However, a role for FGF21 in the regulation of bile acid metabolism has not been reported. Herein, we demonstrate AAV-mediated FGF21 overexpression in mice increases liver expression of the key bile acid producing enzyme, Cyp7a1, resulting in an increased bile acid pool. Furthermore, in cholecystectomized mice, FGF21-mediated bile acid pool increase led to increased transit of bile acids into colon...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035142/assessment-of-nutritional-quality-glycaemic-index-antidiabetic-and-sensory-properties-of-plantain-musa-paradisiaca-based-functional-dough-meals
#19
Opeyemi Famakin, Akindele Fatoyinbo, Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi, Adebanjo Ayobamidele Badejo, Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi
Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients)...
November 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024987/effects-of-high-intensity-training-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#20
Camilla M Mandrup, Jon Egelund, Michael Nyberg, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Caroline Andersen, Sofie Løgstrup, Jens Bangsbo, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Stallknecht, Ylva Hellsten
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health in postmenopausal women is debated as the menopausal transition is also associated with increased age and fat mass. Furthermore, indications of reduced cardio-metabolic adaptations to exercise in postmenopausal women add to the adverse health profile...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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