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Diabetes transition

Xiaowei Dong
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been a great hurdle for brain drug delivery. The BBB in healthy brain is a diffusion barrier essential for protecting normal brain function by impeding most compounds from transiting from the blood to the brain; only small molecules can cross the BBB. Under certain pathological conditions of diseases such as stroke, diabetes, seizures, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease, the BBB is disrupted. The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview on current strategies for brain drug delivery and related subjects from the past five years...
2018: Theranostics
Natalie Koch Levy, Natasha A Orzeck-Byrnes, Sneha R Aidasani, Dana N Moloney, Lisa H Nguyen, Agnes Park, Lu Hu, Aisha T Langford, Binhuan Wang, Mary Ann Sevick, Erin S Rogers
BACKGROUND: The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) program helps patients with type 2 diabetes find their correct basal insulin dose without in-person care. Requiring only basic cell phone technology (text messages and phone calls), MITI is highly accessible to patients receiving care in safety-net settings. MITI was shown in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to be efficacious at a New York City (NYC) safety-net clinic where patients often have challenges coming for in-person care...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Marc J Weigensberg, Cheryl Vigen, Paola Sequeira, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Magaly Juarez, Daniella Florindez, Joseph Provisor, Anne Peters, Elizabeth A Pyatak
Background: The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Caslin A Gilroy, Stefan Roberts, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is under investigation as a type 2 diabetes protein drug, but its efficacy is impeded by rapid in vivo clearance and by costly production methods. To improve the protein's therapeutic utility, we recombinantly expressed FGF21 as a fusion with an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), a peptide polymer that exhibits reversible thermal phase behavior. Below a critical temperature, ELPs exist as miscible unimers, while above, they associate into a coacervate. The thermal responsiveness of ELPs is retained upon fusion to proteins, which has notable consequences for the production and in vivo delivery of FGF21...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Zezhao Li, Zhen Hong, Zhiqing Peng, Yongcai Zhao, Rusheng Shao
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetic patients. Zicao, a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, has attracted much attention due to its beneficial effects in various medical fields. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin, the main ingredient of Zicao, on renal dysfunction in DN. Our results showed that administration with acetylshikonin not only decreased blood urea nitrogen, urine creatinine and the mean kidney-to-body weight ratio in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, but also restored the loss of body weight, whereas the blood glucose was not changed...
March 17, 2018: Human Cell
Natércia Fernandes Brás, Diogo Santos-Martins, Pedro A Fernandes, Maria João Ramos
The excessive consumption of starch in human diets is associated with highly prevalent chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. α-glucosidase enzymes contribute for the digestion of starch into glucose and are thus attractive therapeutic targets for diabetes. Given that the active sites of the various families of α-glucosidases have different sizes and structural features, atomistic descriptions of the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes can support the development of potent and selective new inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Marion Waite, Clare Martin, Rachel Franklin, David Duce, Rachel Harrison
BACKGROUND: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) undertake self-management to prevent short and long-term complications. Advanced technology potentially supports such activities but requires consideration of psychological and behavioral constructs and usability issues. Economic factors and health care provider capacity influence access and uptake of advanced technology. Previous reviews have focused upon clinical outcomes or were descriptive or have synthesized studies on adults with those on children and young people where human factors are different...
March 15, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
K Farrell, R Fernandez, Y Salamonson, R Griffiths, D J Holmes-Walker
AIMS: To identify a) determinants of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at 18 and 30 months following transition in young people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) to a youth-specific diabetes service; and to b) evaluate the impact of the service on acute admissions with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) over a 14-year period. METHODS: An audit of records of youth with T1DM referred from paediatric services to the multidisciplinary transition service at Westmead Hospital, from 2001-2012, and followed-up to 2014...
March 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Diego Martin-Sanchez, Olga Ruiz-Andres, Jonay Poveda, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Lara Valiño-Rivas, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Alberto Ortiz, Ana Belén Sanz
Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression patterns not caused by an altered nucleotide sequence, and includes non-coding RNAs and covalent modifications of DNA and histones. This review focuses on functional evidence for the involvement of DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and the potential therapeutic implications. There is evidence of activation of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the AKI-to-CKD transition of diverse aetiologies, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, nephrotoxicity, ureteral obstruction, diabetes, glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease...
March 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Ya-Kun Li, Dong-Xia Ma, Zhi-Min Wang, Xiao-Fan Hu, Shang-Lin Li, Hong-Zhe Tian, Meng-Jun Wang, Yan-Wen Shu, Jun Yang
Renal fibrosis is recognized as the common route of all chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Additionally, accumulating evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in the process of renal fibrogenesis. Liraglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that has been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the GLP-1 analogs could also exert protective effects in cardiac fibrosis models...
March 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Hui Ran, Yemin Zhu, Ruyuan Deng, Qi Zhang, Xisheng Liu, Ming Feng, Jie Zhong, Shuhai Lin, Xuemei Tong, Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients have a higher risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the main enzyme responsible for producing monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA) from saturated fatty acids, is frequently deregulated in both diabetes and CRC. The function and mechanism of SCD1 in metastasis of CRC and its relevance to glucose remains largely unknown. METHODS: SCD1 expression levels were analyzed in human CRC tissues and the Cancer Browser database ( https://genome-cancer...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Scott J Pilla, James R Dotimas, Nisa M Maruthur, Jeanne M Clark, Hsin-Chieh Yeh
AIMS: When patients with type 2 diabetes initiate insulin, metformin should be continued while continuation of other antihyperglycemics has unclear benefit. We aimed to identify practice patterns in antihyperglycemic therapy during the insulin transition, and determine factors associated with metformin continuation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial which randomized overweight/obese adults under ambulatory care for type 2 diabetes to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education...
March 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
N-N Song, H-L Lu, C Lu, L Tong, S-Q Huang, X Huang, J Chen, Y-C Kim, W-X Xu
BACKGROUND: A major complication related to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in diabetic patients is chronic constipation. Constipation has serious negative impacts on quality of life; however, without a comprehensive understanding of the disease, currently available treatments cannot provide a cure. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive cells (PDGFRα+ cells), which form the SIP syncytium with interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle cells, play important roles in GI motility...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Han Ying Tng, Win Pa Pa Thu, Susan Logan, Izzuddin M Aris, Jane Cauley, Eu Leong Yong
The relationship between sleep apnea and bone health remains controversial. This study explored the relationship between sleep apnea and femoral neck BMD in midlife Asian women. Partner-witnessed apnea predicted higher femoral neck BMD, an effect validated by the STOP index. Our findings suggest that sleep apnea may protect bone health. PURPOSE: The menopause transition is associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and sleep quality. However, any relationship between these two factors remains controversial...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Fitsum Eyayu Tarekegne, Mojgan Padyab, Julia Schröders, Jennifer Stewart Williams
Objective: The objective is to identify and describe the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of adults, aged 50 years and over, who self-reported having been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus (DM) in Ghana and South Africa. Research design and methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1. Information on sociodemographic factors, health states, risk factors and chronic conditions is captured from questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Christina R Whitehouse, Nancy C Sharts-Hopko, Suzanne C Smeltzer, David A Horowitz
The aim of the current study was to compare outcomes for older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity following participation in a transitional care intervention that included diabetes self-management education (DSME) and homecare. The three groups analyzed comprised an inpatient DSME plus homecare group (n = 35); an inpatient DSME only group (n = 100); and a group who received usual care (n = 45). Outcomes of interest included rehospitalization rates and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) for up to 1-year post hospital discharge...
March 1, 2018: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Andrew Kimball, Matthew Schaller, Amrita Joshi, Frank Davis, Aaron denDekker, Anna Boniakowski, Jennifer Bermick, Andrea Obi, Bethany Moore, Peter K Henke, Steve L Kunkel, Katherine A Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Wound monocyte-derived macrophage plasticity controls the initiation and resolution of inflammation that is critical for proper healing, however, in diabetes mellitus, the resolution of inflammation fails to occur. In diabetic wounds, the kinetics of blood monocyte recruitment and the mechanisms that control in vivo monocyte/macrophage differentiation remain unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we characterized the kinetics and function of Ly6CHi [Lin- (CD3- CD19- NK1...
March 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Mattea Müller, Emanuel E Canfora, Ellen E Blaak
Gastrointestinal transit time may be an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and metabolic health through effects on nutrient absorption and microbial composition, among other mechanisms. Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers. These effects include improved glucose homeostasis and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we first discuss the regulation of gastric emptying rate, small intestinal transit and colonic transit as well as their relation to glucose homeostasis and metabolic health...
February 28, 2018: Nutrients
Keizo Kanasaki
Emerging evidence suggests that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors used to treat type 2 diabetes may have nephroprotective effects beyond the reduced renal risk conferred by glycemic control. DPP-4 is a ubiquitous protein with exopeptidase activity that exists in cell membrane-bound and soluble forms. The kidneys contain the highest levels of DPP-4, which is increased in diabetic nephropathy. DPP-4 inhibitors are a chemically heterogeneous class of drugs with important pharmacological differences. Of the globally marketed DPP-4 inhibitors, linagliptin is of particular interest for diabetic nephropathy as it is the only compound that is not predominantly excreted in the urine...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Gitte Reventlov Husted, Janne Weis, Grete Teilmann, Pernille Castensøe-Seidenfaden
BACKGROUND: Adequate self-management is the cornerstone of preventing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) complications. However, T1DM self-management is challenging for young people, who often struggle during the transition from childhood to adulthood. The mobile health (mHealth) app Young with Diabetes (YWD) was developed in collaboration with young people to enhance their T1DM self-management during this transition. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of YWD on young people's self-management during a 12-month period...
February 28, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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