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Diabetes transition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437585/chronic-intestinal-electrical-stimulation-improves-glucose-intolerance-and-insulin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obesity-rats
#1
Shiying Li, Weijian Zhu, Sujuan Zhang, Jiande Dz Chen
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a contributing factor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to study the therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity and associated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats. METHODS: DIO rats were divided into two groups to receive sham or IES for 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit tests were performed...
April 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435650/postnatal-transitional-weight-loss-and-adverse-outcomes-in-extremely-premature-neonates
#2
Rita P Verma, Syed Shibli, Eugene Komaroff
The early postnatal weight loss (EPWL) is highly variable in the extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight <1000 g, ELBW). It is reported to be unassociated with adverse outcomes within a range of 3-21% of birth weight. Its wide range might have contributed to this lack of association. The aim of our paper is to study the effects of maximum EPWL, graded as low, medium and large on clinical outcomes in ELBW infants. In a retrospective cohort observational study EPWL was measured as maximum weight loss from birth weight (MWL) in ELBW infants and grouped as low (5-12%) moderate (18...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430872/optimal-screening-schedules-for-disease-progression-with-application-to-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Ionut Bebu, John M Lachin
Clinical management of chronic diseases requires periodic evaluations. Subjects transition between various levels of severity of a disease over time, one of which may trigger an intervention that requires treatment. For example, in diabetic retinopathy, patients with type 1 diabetes are evaluated yearly for either the onset of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or clinically significant macular edema (CSME) that would require immediate treatment to preserve vision. Herein, we investigate methods for the selection of personalized cost-effective screening schedules and compare them with a fixed visit schedule (e...
April 20, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429611/consensus-statement-on-inpatient-use-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#4
Amisha Wallia, Guillermo E Umpierrez, Robert J Rushakoff, David C Klonoff, Daniel J Rubin, Sherita Hill Golden, Curtiss B Cook, Bithika Thompson
In June 2016, Diabetes Technology Society convened a panel of US experts in inpatient diabetes management to discuss the current and potential role of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the hospital. This discussion combined with a literature review was a follow-up to a meeting, which took place in May 2015. The panel reviewed evidence on use of CGM in 3 potential inpatient scenarios: (1) the intensive care unit (ICU), (2) non-ICU, and (3) transitioning outpatient CGM use into the hospital setting. Panel members agreed that data from limited studies and theoretical considerations suggested that use of CGM in the hospital had the potential to improve patient clinical outcomes, and in particular reduction of hypoglycemia...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426686/reactive-oxygen-species-are-required-for-driving-efficient-and-sustained-aerobic-glycolysis-during-cd4-t-cell-activation
#5
Dana M Previte, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Christina P Martins, Kevin P Mollen, Jon D Piganelli
The immune system is necessary for protecting against various pathogens. However, under certain circumstances, self-reactive immune cells can drive autoimmunity, like that exhibited in type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4+ T cells are major contributors to the immunopathology in T1D, and in order to drive optimal T cell activation, third signal reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be present. However, the role ROS play in mediating this process remains to be further understood. Recently, cellular metabolic programs have been shown to dictate the function and fate of immune cells, including CD4+ T cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423509/histone-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-novel-epigenetic-target-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Masayuki Yokoyama, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Yoh Zen, Motohiko Oshima, Yuko Kusakabe, Yoshiko Noguchi, Kaori Yuki, Shuhei Koide, Shiro Tara, Atsunori Saraya, Kazumasa Aoyama, Naoya Mimura, Satoru Miyagi, Masanori Inoue, Toru Wakamatsu, Tomoko Saito, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Eiichiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Ooka, Akinobu Tawada, Masayuki Otsuka, Masaru Miyazaki, Osamu Yokosuka, Atsushi Iwama
Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) is mainly regulated by the histone lysine methyltransferase G9a and is associated with the repression of transcription. However, both the role of G9a and the significance of H3K9me2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unclear. In this study, we conducted loss-of-function assay of G9a using short-hairpin RNA and pharmacological interference. Knockdown of G9a reduced H3K9me2 levels and impaired both HCC cell growth and sphere formation. However, transforming growth factor β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) was not suppressed by G9a knockdown...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422124/prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-and-its-complications-in-india-and-economic-costs-to-the-nation
#7
REVIEW
R Pradeepa, V Mohan
Diabetes, a major lifestyle disorder, has become a global burden, and the prevalence rates are rising steeply in developing economies. Rapid socioeconomic transition with urbanization and industrialization are the main causes for the global diabetes epidemic. Among developing economies, the highest increase in number of people with diabetes is in China followed by India. In India, the epidemic of diabetes continue to increase and is experiencing a shift in diabetes prevalence from urban to rural areas, the affluent to the less privileged and from older to younger people...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422123/role-of-lifestyle-factors-in-the-epidemic-of-diabetes-lessons-learnt-from-india
#8
REVIEW
M Deepa, R M Anjana, V Mohan
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing steadily globally with the largest increases occurring in developing countries like India. This is attributed to the changes in the lifestyle factors, including physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, both of which are modifiable. Existing evidence suggests that increasing physical activity reduces the risk of T2D. Improving the built environment can make it more conducive to people to increase physical activity. There is also a rapid nutrition transition with consumption of diets with higher intake of refined grains, higher fat, increased consumption of sugar and sweetened beverages, and lower intake of fruits and vegetables...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#9
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414179/alteration-of-b-cell-subsets-and-the-receptor-for-b-cell-activating-factor-baff-in-paediatric-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
Zuzana Parackova, Adam Klocperk, Michal Rataj, Jana Kayserova, Irena Zentsova, Zdenek Sumnik, Stanislava Kolouskova, Jana Sklenarova, Stepanka Pruhova, Barbora Obermannova, Lenka Petruzelkova, Jan Lebl, Tomas Kalina, Anna Sediva
BACKGROUND: Lately, mounting evidence has shown that B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we present alterations in B cell subsets including BAFF receptor (BAFFR) expression in cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their relatives. PATIENTS AND METHODS: B cells were studied in 438 patients with T1D (158 at disease onset and 280 with long-term disease), 136 first-degree relatives and 53 healthy controls. The B cell panel included transitional, naïve, MZ-like, switched memory B cells and plasmablasts...
April 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413908/molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-podocyte-emt-and-concomitant-diabetic-kidney-diseases-an-update
#11
Qidi Ying, Guanzhong Wu
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a tightly regulated process by which epithelial cells lose their hallmark epithelial characteristics and gain the features of mesenchymal cells. For podocytes, expression of nephrin, podocin, P-cadherin, and ZO-1 is downregulated, the slit diaphragm (SD) will be altered, and the actin cytoskeleton will be rearranged. Diabetes, especially hyperglycemia, has been demonstrated to incite podocyte EMT through several molecular mechanisms such as TGF-β/Smad classic pathway, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, Integrins/integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling pathway, MAPKs signaling pathway, Jagged/Notch signaling pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412852/transitional-hemodynamics-in-infants-of-diabetic-mothers-by-targeted-neonatal-echocardiography-electrocardiography-and-peripheral-flow-study
#12
Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Giuseppa Pinello, Ettore Piro, Mario Giuffrè, Simona La Placa, Giovanni Corsello
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic alterations of intrauterine environment in diabetes mellitus (DM) lead to fetal cardiac dysfunctions that can persist after birth. The aim of the study was to assess the cardiovascular adaptation in infants born to diabetic mothers (IDM) with different degrees of glycometabolic control, in relation to revised guidelines for diagnosis of DM and quality improvements in neonatal care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational case-control study was conducted on IDM with gestational, type 1, and type 2 DM...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408805/effect-of-berberine-on-the-renal-tubular-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-inhibition-of-the-notch-snail-pathway-in-diabetic-nephropathy-model-kkay-mice
#13
Guannan Yang, Zongjiang Zhao, Xinxue Zhang, Amin Wu, Yawei Huang, Yonghui Miao, Meijuan Yang
Renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal tubular interstitial fibrosis are the main pathological changes of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Previous studies have suggested that berberine (BBR) has antifibrotic effects in the kidney and can reduce apoptosis and inhibit the EMT of podocytes in DN. However, the effect of BBR on the renal tubular EMT in DN and its mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was performed to explore the effects of BBR on the renal tubular EMT and the molecular mechanisms of BBR in DN model KKAy mice and on the high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in mouse renal tubular epithelial cells...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397702/the-shifting-epidemiology-of-colorectal-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Leolin Katsidzira, Innocent Gangaidzo, Sandie Thomson, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Jonathan Matenga, Raj Ramesar
The perception that colorectal cancer is rare in sub-Saharan Africa is widely held; however, it is unclear whether this is due to poor epidemiological data or to lower disease rates. The quality of epidemiological data has somewhat improved, and there is an ongoing transition to western dietary and lifestyle practices associated with colorectal cancer. The impact of these changes on the incidence of colorectal cancer is not as evident as it is with other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the epidemiology of colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395175/oxygen-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-perinatal-period
#15
REVIEW
Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Anna Parra-Llorca, Angel Sánchez-Illana, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Julia Kuligowski, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás, María Cernada, Justo Escobar, Máximo Vento
Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage...
March 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393534/the-impact-of-smoking-on-the-development-of-diabetes-and-its-complications
#16
Mariola Śliwińska-Mossoń, Halina Milnerowicz
Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and emerges secondary to an interaction between genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. This work provides an overview of the impact of smoking on the development of vascular complications in this condition and also provides an overview of the potential role of smoking in predisposition to diabetes. There are many studies documenting the impact of smoking on health (not focused on patients with diabetes), suggesting that the health exposure in these individuals is at least comparable to that observed in the general population...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392041/arterial-stiffness-is-an-independent-predictor-for-albuminuria-progression-among-asians-with-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Xiao Zhang, Serena Low, Chee Fang Sum, Subramaniam Tavintharan, Yeoh Lee Ying, Jianjun Liu, Na Li, Keven Anga, Simon Bm Lee, Wern Ee Tang, Su Chi Lim
AIM: Albuminuria progression has been associated with renal deterioration in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Central arterial stiffness can aggravate systemic vasculopathy by propagating elevated systolic and pulse pressures forward, thereby accentuating global vascular injury. We aim to investigate whether central arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for albuminuria progression in a multi-ethnic T2DM Asian cohort in Singapore. METHODS: In a prospective cohort, 1012 T2DM patients were assessed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 3...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390382/cooperative-structural-transitions-in-amyloid-like-aggregation
#18
Timothy Steckmann, Yuba R Bhandari, Prem P Chapagain, Bernard S Gerstman
Amyloid fibril aggregation is associated with several horrific diseases such as Alzheimer's, Creutzfeld-Jacob, diabetes, Parkinson's, and others. Although proteins that undergo aggregation vary widely in their primary structure, they all produce a cross-β motif with the proteins in β-strand conformations perpendicular to the fibril axis. The process of amyloid aggregation involves forming myriad different metastable intermediate aggregates. To better understand the molecular basis of the protein structural transitions and aggregation, we report on molecular dynamics (MD) computational studies on the formation of amyloid protofibrillar structures in the small model protein ccβ, which undergoes many of the structural transitions of the larger, naturally occurring amyloid forming proteins...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378847/developmental-origins-of-type-2-diabetes-a-perspective-from-china
#19
REVIEW
R C W Ma, K Y Tsoi, W H Tam, C K C Wong
There has been a marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes in Asia, including China, over the last few decades. While the increased prevalence of diabetes has often been attributed to the nutritional transition associated with recent economic development, emerging data suggest that early-life exposures also play a major role in shaping developmental trajectories, and contributes to alter an individual's susceptibility to diabetes and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Early-life exposures such as in utero exposure to undernutrition has been consistently linked with later risk of diabetes and obesity...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376438/those-left-behind-from-voluntary-medical-home-reforms-in-ontario-canada
#20
Tara Kiran, Alexander Kopp, Richard H Glazier
PURPOSE: Health systems are transitioning patients to medical homes to improve health outcomes and reduce cost. We sought to understand the characteristics and quality of care for patients who did and did not participate in the voluntary transition to medical homes. METHODS: We used administrative data for diabetes monitoring and cancer screening to compare services received by patients attached to a medical home (n = 10,785,687) with services received by those seeing a fee-for-service physician (n = 1,321,800) in Ontario, Canada, on March 31, 2011...
November 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
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