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Functional diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678794/aggravated-gut-inflammation-in-mice-lacking-the-taste-signaling-protein-%C3%AE-gustducin
#1
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669006/gene-signature-based-approach-identified-mek1-2-as-a-potential-target-associated-with-relapse-after-anti-tnf%C3%AE-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease
#2
Kanae Gamo, Yuumi Okuzono, Masato Yabuki, Takashi Ochi, Kyoko Sugimura, Yosuke Sato, Masaki Sagara, Hiroki Hayashi, Yoshimasa Ishimura, Yutaka Nishimoto, Yusuke Murakawa, Zenyu Shiokawa, Masayuki Gotoh, Takahiro Miyazaki, Yukihiko Ebisuno
Background: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapy has become the mainstay of therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). However, post-therapy, the recurrence rate is still high. The aim of this study was to dissect the molecular mechanism for recurrence of CD treated with anti-TNFα therapy and investigate novel therapeutic options that could induce complete remission. Methods: We re-analyzed publicly available mucosal gene expression data from CD patients pre- and post-infliximab therapy to extract the transcriptional differences between responders and healthy controls...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667134/two-phase-i-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-studies-of-dfp-10917-a-novel-nucleoside-analog-with-14-day-and-7-day-continuous-infusion-schedules
#3
Kamalesh Sankhala, Chris H Takimoto, Alain C Mita, Henry Xiong, Jordi Rodón, Amir Mehrvarz Sarshekeh, K Burns, Kenzo Iizuka, Scott Kopetz
Purpose DFP-10917 is a novel deoxycytidine analog with a unique mechanism of action. Brief exposure to high concentrations of DFP-10917 inhibits DNA polymerase resulting in S-phase arrest, while prolonged exposure to DFP-10917 at low concentration causes DNA fragmentation, G2/M-phase arrest, and apoptosis. DFP-10917 demonstrated activity in tumor xenografts resistant to other deoxycytidine analogs. Experimental design Two phase I studies assessed the safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and preliminary efficacy of DFP-10917...
April 18, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663996/-establishment-and-evaluation-of-mouse-models-of-septic-myocardial-injury
#4
Liya Hu, Peijun Li, Chao Chang, Shan Liu, Yanqiu Song, Fumei Zhao, Ting Liu
OBJECTIVE: Mouse models of sepsis-induced myocardial injury by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established in order to provide a reliable method for the research of pathogenesis of sepsis-induced myocardial injury. METHODS: According to the method of random number table, a total of 150 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: NC group, sham group, and LPS 10, 12, 15 mg/kg groups, with 30 in each group. Septic myocardial injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection LPS in mice; sham group was injected with equal 0...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663515/determining-optimal-therapy-of-dogs-with-chronic-enteropathy-by-measurement-of-serum-citrulline
#5
Magda Gerou-Ferriani, Rhiannon Allen, Peter-John M Noble, Alexander J German, Marco Caldin, Daniel J Batchelor
BACKGROUND: Serum concentration of citrulline is a useful biomarker in human intestinal disease and indicates globally reduced enterocyte mass and absorptive function in various disease states. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether serum citrulline concentration is a biomarker in chronic enteropathy (CE) in dogs, to provide useful information regarding optimal treatment or to predict outcome. ANIMALS: Seventy-four dogs with CE and 83 breed- and age-matched hospital controls with no clinical signs of intestinal disease...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661620/tolerability-safety-and-outcomes-of-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-with-capecitabine-for-patients-aged-%C3%A2-70-years-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#6
Lotte Jacobs, Ellen van der Vlies, Daan Ten Bokkel Huinink, Haiko Bloemendal, Martijn Intven, Anke B Smits, Bas L A M Weusten, Peter D Siersema, Niels van Lelyveld, Maartje Los
INTRODUCTION: In studies of colorectal cancer, the elderly have been frequently underrepresented because comorbid conditions and functional status often lead to study exclusion. For elderly patients with an indication for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), physicians usually decide using clinical factors whether nCRT should be offered. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess the tolerability of nCRT with capecitabine and the surgical outcomes in patients aged ≥ 70 years with locally advanced rectal cancer...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661209/gastrointestinal-and-urinary-complaints-in-adults-with-hereditary-spastic-paraparesis
#7
Øivind J Kanavin, Krister W Fjermestad
BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting the central nervous system. Pure HSP is limited to lower limb spasticity and urinary voiding dysfunction. Complex HSP involves additional neurological features. Beyond the described core symptoms, knowledge about the burden of disease for adults with HSP is limited, particularly regarding gastrointestinal functions, fecal incontinence, and urinary symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional self-report survey with 108 adult HSP patients (Mage  = 57...
April 16, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660795/symptom-and-function-profiles-of-men-with-localized-prostate-cancer
#8
Bryce B Reeve, Xianming Tan, Ronald C Chen, Deborah S Usinger, Laura C Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer seek information on how treatment options may impact their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The authors used latent profile analysis (LPA) to group men according to their symptom burden and functional status and to identify patient characteristics associated with each HRQOL profile. METHODS: Patients completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the Expanded Prostate Index Composite measures 3 months after treatment initiation...
April 16, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627862/a-phase-ii-study-of-hmb-arg-gln-against-oral-mucositis-induced-by-chemoradiotherapy-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#9
Tomoya Yokota, Satoshi Hamauchi, Yukio Yoshida, Takashi Yurikusa, Miho Suzuki, Aiko Yamashita, Hirofumi Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Onoe, Keita Mori, Tetsuro Onitsuka
PURPOSE: This phase II trial assessed the clinical benefit of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine (HMB/Arg/Gln) for preventing chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). METHODS: Patients with HNC receiving definitive or postoperative cisplatin-based CRT were enrolled. HMB/Arg/Gln was administered orally or per percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy from the first day of CRT up to its completion...
April 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625238/infection-genetic-and-virulence-characteristics-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-northwest-china
#10
Xing-Ye Wang, Cheng-Jie Ji, Xue Zhang, De-Peng Xu, De-Li Zhang
From September 2015 to May 2016, epidemic outbreaks of a diarrheal disease caused severe economic losses to the swine industry in northwest China. Typical clinical symptoms of the disease included severe diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and death. In order to identify the pathogen, 27 intestinal samples were collected from dead piglets in Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai provinces and from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. All samples were tested using RT-PCR to detect rotavirus (RV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)...
April 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623560/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-pediatrics-a-report-of-seven-cases-from-saudi-arabia
#11
Sarah H Alfaraj, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Talal A Altuwaijri, Ziad A Memish
Infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 as an important respiratory disease with high fatality rates of 40%-60%. Despite the increased number of cases over subsequent years, the number of pediatric cases remained low. A review of studies conducted from June 2012 to April 19, 2016 reported 31 pediatric MERS-CoV cases. In this paper, we present the clinical and laboratory features of seven patients with pediatric MERS. Five patients had no underlying medical illnesses, and three patients were asymptomatic...
April 6, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619071/quantifying-liver-stagnation-spleen-deficiency-pattern-for-diarrhea-predominate-irritable-bowel-syndromes-using-multidimensional-analysis-methods
#12
Zhongyu Huang, Zhengkun Hou, Xianhua Liu, Fengbin Liu, Yuefeng Wu
Objective: This study aims to offer a new approach for quantifying severity of traditional Chinese medicine pattern with multidimensional analysis methods. Methods: A scale and theoretical models were constructed based on the definition of liver stagnation spleen deficiency pattern. Clinical data of 344 IBS-D patients from a cross-sectional study was used for feature validation of the model. Confirmatory factor analysis was used for evaluating the models. Also, multidimensional item response model was used for assessing multidimensional psychometric properties of the scale...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618640/porcine-deltacoronavirus-engages-the-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-functional-receptor-porcine-aminopeptidase-n-for-infectious-cellular-entry
#13
Bin Wang, Yan Liu, Chun-Miao Ji, Yong-Le Yang, Qi-Zhang Liang, Pengwei Zhao, Ling-Dong Xu, Xi-Mei Lei, Wen-Ting Luo, Pan Qin, Jiyong Zhou, Yao-Wei Huang
Identification of cellular receptors used by coronavirus (CoV) entry into the host cells is critical to understand pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies. The fourth CoV genus, Deltacoronavirus , evolutionally related to the Gammacoronavirus , has just been defined recently. In the current study, we demonstrate that porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) acts as a cross-genus CoV functional receptor for both enteropathogenic porcine DeltaCoV (PDCoV) and AlphaCoV (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, TGEV) based upon three lines of evidences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610180/blue-diaper-syndrome-and-pcsk1-mutations
#14
Felix Distelmaier, Diran Herebian, Claudia Atasever, Stefanie Beck-Woedl, Ertan Mayatepek, Tim M Strom, Tobias B Haack
Blue diaper syndrome (BDS) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man number 211000) is an extremely rare disorder that was first described in 1964. The characteristic finding is a bluish discoloration of urine spots in the diapers of affected infants. Additional clinical features of the first described patients included diarrhea, inadequate weight gain, hypercalcemia, and nephrocalcinosis. An intestinal defect of tryptophan absorption was postulated as the underlying pathology. However, functional evidence for this theory is lacking...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606590/structural-basis-of-transcription-inhibition-by-fidaxomicin-lipiarmycin-a3
#15
Wei Lin, Kalyan Das, David Degen, Abhishek Mazumder, Diego Duchi, Dongye Wang, Yon W Ebright, Richard Y Ebright, Elena Sineva, Matthew Gigliotti, Aashish Srivastava, Sukhendu Mandal, Yi Jiang, Yu Liu, Ruiheng Yin, Zhening Zhang, Edward T Eng, Dennis Thomas, Stefano Donadio, Haibo Zhang, Changsheng Zhang, Achillefs N Kapanidis, Richard H Ebright
Fidaxomicin is an antibacterial drug in clinical use for treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea. The active ingredient of fidaxomicin, lipiarmycin A3 (Lpm), functions by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). Here we report a cryo-EM structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNAP holoenzyme in complex with Lpm at 3.5-Å resolution. The structure shows that Lpm binds at the base of the RNAP "clamp." The structure exhibits an open conformation of the RNAP clamp, suggesting that Lpm traps an open-clamp state...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604290/intestinal-failure-and-aberrant-lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-dgat1-deficiency
#16
Jorik M van Rijn, Rico Chandra Ardy, Zarife Kuloğlu, Bettina Härter, Désirée Y van Haaften-Visser, Hubert P J van der Doef, Marliek van Hoesel, Aydan Kansu, Anke H M van Vugt, Marini Ng, Freddy T M Kokke, Ana Krolo, Meryem Keçeli Başaran, Neslihan Gurcan Kaya, Aysel Ünlüsoy Aksu, Buket Dalgıç, Figen Ozcay, Zeren Baris, Renate Kain, Edwin C A Stigter, Klaske D Lichtenbelt, Maarten P G Massink, Karen J Duran, Joke B G M Verheij, Dorien Lugtenberg, Peter G J Nikkels, Henricus G F Brouwer, Henkjan J Verkade, Rene Scheenstra, Bart Spee, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Paul J Coffer, Andreas R Janecke, Gijs van Haaften, Roderick H J Houwen, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Kaan Boztug
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital diarrheal disorders are rare inherited intestinal disorders characterized by intractable, sometimes life-threatening, diarrhea and nutrient malabsorption; some have been associated with mutations in diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes formation of triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We investigated the mechanisms by which DGAT1 deficiency contributes to intestinal failure using patient-derived organoids. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 10 patients, from 6 unrelated pedigrees, who presented with early-onset severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, hypoalbuminemia, and/or (fatal) protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal failure; we performed next-generation sequence analysis of DNA from 8 patients...
March 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596984/cost-effectiveness-of-biomarker-tests-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-a-framework-for-payers
#17
Christopher V Almario, Benjamin D Noah, Alma Jusufagic, Daniel Lew, Brennan M R Spiegel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diagnosis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) relies on the Rome IV symptom-based criteria, which are imperfect for separating functional vs organic disease. Biomarker tests for IBS-D might be added to symptom data to allow clinicians to make more accurate and precise diagnoses in a cost-effective manner. We tested the economic consequences of using a range of hypothetical IBS-D biomarkers, and explored at what cost and level of accuracy a biomarker becomes cost effective...
March 26, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594044/a-phase-ib-ii-study-of-ganetespib-with-doxorubicin-in-advanced-solid-tumors-including-relapsed-refractory-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Deepa S Subramaniam, Stephen V Liu, Jeanette Crawford, Jenna Kramer, Jillian Thompson, Hongkun Wang, Giuseppe Giaccone
Introduction: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15% of all lung cancers and is characterized by high response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy and equally high rates of relapse. Many resistance mechanisms have been proposed including resistance to doxorubicin via induction of a heat shock response. Ganetespib is a novel and potent non-geldanamycin heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor. In preclinical studies, synergy between ganetespib and doxorubicin was shown. We conducted a phase Ib/II study of the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of the combination of ganetespib and doxorubicin...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582557/five-year-results-of-a-phase-ii-trial-of-preoperative-5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel-with-capecitabine-wtx-with-trastuzumab-in-her2-positive-patients-for-patients-with-stage-ii-or-iii-breast-cancer
#19
Frankie Ann Holmes, Beth A Hellerstedt, John E Pippen, Svetislava J Vukelja, Rufus P Collea, Darren M Kocs, Joanne L Blum, Kristi J McIntyre, Minal A Barve, Barry D Brooks, Cynthia R Osborne, Yunfei Wang, Lina Asmar, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
We aimed to increase pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with invasive breast cancer by adding preoperative capecitabine to docetaxel following 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide (FEC) (with trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive disease) and to evaluate 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) associated with this preoperative regimen. Chemotherapy included four cycles of FEC100 (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 , epirubicin 100 mg/m2 , cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 IV on Day 1 every 21 days) followed by 4 21-day cycles of docetaxel (35 mg/m2  days 1 and 8) concurrently with capecitabine (825 mg/m2 orally twice daily for 14 days followed by 7 days off) (wTX)...
March 26, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577855/nanoparticles-in-cancer-treatment-opportunities-and-obstacles
#20
Rajendra Awasthi, Ariane Roseblade, Philip Michael Hansbro, Michael John Rathbone, Kamal Dua, Mary Bebawy
In the United States, the estimated number of new cancer cases in 2018 was approx. 1.7 million. Historically, combination chemotherapy has been the primary choice of treatment. However, chemotherapeutics have pharmaceutical limitations, among which include problems with stability and aqueous solubility. Likewise, dose limiting toxicity is significant with nonspecific toxicity to healthy cells, hair loss, loss of appetite, peripheral neuropathy and diarrhea being typical side effects. The emergence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) also presents s a significant challenge for the successful treatment of cancer whereby cancer cells become cross resistant to many of the chemotherapeutic agents used...
March 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
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