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Functional diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035438/high-throughput-screening-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-pathogenic-genes-via-pathway-enrichment-and-operon-analysis
#1
Guangxin Yuan, Jia Fu, Liping An, Yan Zhuang, Yu Wang, Yunfeng Song, Zijing Qiao, Xiaolong Wang, Yufei Tian, Xiao Han, Peige Du, Guangyu Xu
BACKGROUND: About thirty thousand people globally die every day from infectious diarrhea, mostly caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. METHODS: In order to search for clinical diagnostic biomarkers and novel drug targets for infectious diarrhea, we used a bibliometric method to collect pathogenic genes of E. coli O157:H7 and performed a functional analysis of the important pathogenic genes by pathway enrichment and operon analysis. RESULTS: We found 364 pathogenic genes which may be involved in infection with E...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028791/is-diacerein-an-alternative-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#2
Anselmo Alegría, Sebastián Irarrázaval
INTRODUCTION: Among the possibilities for the management of osteoarthritis, different pharmacological alternatives have been proposed, being diacerein one of them due to its anti-inflammatory effect. However, diacerein clinical utility is not clear. METHODS: To answer this question, we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others...
October 12, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025977/an-approach-to-discovering-novel-muscarinic-m1-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-with-potent-cognitive-improvement-and-minimized-gastrointestinal-dysfunction
#3
Emi Kurimoto, Satoru Matsuda, Yuji Shimizu, Yuu Sako, Takao Mandai, Takahiro Sugimoto, Hiroki Sakamoto, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) is a promising approach for improving cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. However, an M1 selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), at 30 mg/kg, induced diarrhea in wild-type mice, but not in M1R knock-out mice. Moreover, BQCA (0.1-1000 nM) augmented electric field stimulation (EFS) -induced ileum contraction in an in vitro Magnus assay. Thus, we decided to establish a drug-screening strategy to discover novel M1 PAMs producing potent cognitive improvement with minimized gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025732/rack1-maintains-intestinal-homeostasis-by-protecting-the-integrity-of-the-epithelial-barrier
#4
Zhuan-Fen Cheng, Christine A Cartwright
Previously we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to identify key functions for Rack1 in regulating growth of intestinal epithelia: suppressing crypt cell proliferation and regeneration, promoting differentiation and apoptosis, and repressing development of neoplasia. However, other than low body weight, we did not detect an overt phenotype in mice constitutively deleted of Rack1 in intestinal epithelia (vil-Cre:Rack1(fl/fl) mice), presumably because Rack1 was deleted in < 10% of the total surface area of the epithelia...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019951/chemotherapy-related-toxicity-nutritional-status-and-quality-of-life-in-precachectic-oncologic-patients-with-or-without-high-protein-nutritional-support-a-prospective-randomized-study
#5
Monika Ziętarska, Joanna Krawczyk-Lipiec, Leszek Kraj, Renata Zaucha, Sylwia Małgorzewicz
BACKGROUND: Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS) in adult oncologic patients in the first step of cancer cachexia-asymptomatic precachexia, has an influence on the toxicity of systemic therapy. However, secondary endpoints were established: to determine whether high protein ONS influences the nutritional status, the quality of life, and the performance status...
October 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017894/rotavirus-encoded-virus-like-small-rna-triggers-autophagy-by-targeting-igf1r-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#6
Yan Zhou, Panpan Geng, Yalin Liu, Jinyuan Wu, Hongtu Qiao, Yuping Xie, Na Yin, Linlin Chen, Xiaochen Lin, Yang Liu, Shan Yi, Guangming Zhang, Hongjun Li, Maosheng Sun
Rotaviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that are a major cause of viral diarrhea in infants. Examining virus-host cell interaction is important for elucidating mechanisms of virus proliferation in host cells. Viruses can create an environment that promotes their survival and self-proliferation by encoding miRNAs or miRNA-like molecules that target various host cell. However, it remains unclear whether RNA viruses encode viral miRNAs, and their regulation mechanisms are largely unknown. We previously performed deep sequencing analysis to investigate rotavirus-encoded miRNAs, and identified the small RNA molecule Chr17_1755, which we named RV-vsRNA1755...
October 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991769/let-s-go-bananas-gren-bananas-and-their-health-benefits
#7
Vasso Apostolopoulos, Juliana Antonipillai, Kathy Tangalakis, John F Ashton, Lily Stojanovska
Bananas have enormous health benefits as a food for both animals and humans. They have been used as a complimentary medicine to treat pathological conditions since ancient times. Recently, there has been increased interest in the scientific validity of the beneficial effects of bananas in alleviating and treating disease conditions including, ulcers, infections, diabetes, diarrhea, colitis and blood pressure. Herein, we write on the potential therapeutic and functional benefits of certain species of bananas when consumed green as well as considering the properties of extracts from the non-fruit parts of the plant...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986192/effect-of-antibiotics-for-infectious-diarrhea-on-the-duration-of%C3%A2-hospitalization-a-retrospective-cohort-study-at-a-single-center%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-japan-from-2012-to-2015
#8
Yosuke Sasaki, Yoshitaka Murakami, Hiroaki Zai, Hitoshi Nakajima, Yoshihisa Urita
OBJECTIVE: Routine empirical antimicrobial therapy for patients with infectious diarrhea is not recommended in general practice. Conversely, prescription of empirical antibiotics for hospitalized patients remains controversial due to a lack of studies providing evidence for its benefits. Thus, this study aimed to examine whether empirical antimicrobial therapy would shorten the hospitalization duration for infectious diarrhea patients. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was performed at the Department of General Medicine and Emergency Care, Toho University Medical Center Omori Hospital, using medical records...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985140/inflammatory-bactericidal-lectin-regiii%C3%AE-friend-or-foe-for-the-host
#9
Tsuyoshi Miki, Nobuhiko Okada, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
In the inflamed gut, the bactericidal lectin RegIIIβ is massively produced by intestinal mucosa. RegIIIβ binds peptidoglycan and lipid A respectively, and thus can kill certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including the gut commensal microbiota and enteropathogenic bacteria. Considering the expression pattern and bactericidal activity, RegIIIβ is believed to be a host defense factor for protecting against the infection with enteropathogenic bacteria. However, it was poorly understood how RegIIIβ recognizes the target bacteria and kill them, and how RegIIIβ plays role(s) in infectious diarrhea...
October 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983688/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
H Nakamura, T Lim, P Puri
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) continues to be an important cause of morbidity in patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). HAEC can occur at any time during the course of the disease. The reported incidence of HAEC before surgery ranges from 6 to 50%, and after surgery, it ranges from 2 to 35%. HAEC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have similar clinical presentation including diarrhea, hematochezia, and abdominal pain. In recent years, isolated cases of IBD have been reported in patients who had surgical treatment for HSCR...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977871/genistein-improves-inflammatory-response-and-colonic-function-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-in-dss-induced-colonic-injury
#11
Rui Zhang, Jian Xu, Jian Zhao, Yuzhe Chen
This study aimed to investigate the protective potential of genistein in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury in vitro and in vivo models. The results showed that DSS exposure caused growth suppression, colonic injury, inflammation, and barrier dysfunction in mice. Dietary genistein alleviated DSS-caused colonic injury via reducing colonic weight, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea ratio. Meanwhile, genistein reduced colonic inflammatory response via downregulating cytokines expression and improved colonic permeability and barrier in DSS-challenged mice...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975396/colchicine-intoxication-in-familial-mediterranean-fever-patients-using-clarithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-a-series-of-six-patients
#12
Soad Haj Yahia, Ilan Ben Zvi, Avi Livneh
Familial Mediterranean fever is a hereditary disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation. Colchicine, the mainstay of therapy, is administered continuously to all diagnosed FMF patients. Drug-drug interaction between colchicine and clarithromycin, resulting in colchicine intoxication, has been noted, mainly in association with gout and pneumonia. In FMF, this adverse event has been scarcely described. We present and characterize six patients with clarithromycin-related colchicine intoxication, aiming mainly at characterizing the FMF-specific features of this event...
October 3, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966251/enhancement-of-endothelial-barrier-permeability-by-mitragynine
#13
Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yoshifumi Morikawa, Kyoko Kamase, Misato Horinouchi, Yasuhide Sasajima, Koichi Suenami, Kiyohito Sato, Yuji Takekoshi, Satoshi Endo, Ossama El-Kabbani, Akira Ikari
Persistent inhalation of mitragynine (MG), a major alkaloid in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, causes various systemic adverse effects such as seizure, diarrhea and arthralgias, but its toxicity to endothelial cells and effects on barrier function of the cells are poorly understood. In this study, we compared toxicities of MG and mitraphylline, another constituent of the leaves, against human aortic endothelial (HAE), bronchial BEAS-2B, neuronal SK-N-SH, hepatic HepG2, kidney HEK293, gastric MKN45, colon DLD1, lung A549, breast MCF7 and prostate LNCaP cells, and found that MG, but not mitraphylline, shows higher toxicity to HAE cells compared to the other cells...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956377/-advances-in-reverse-genetics-to-treat-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#14
Ruisong Yu, Shijuan Dong, Fusheng Si, Fengying Jiang, Chunfang Xie, Bingqing Chen, Li Yu, Zhen Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is one of the major etiologies responsible for the acute, highly contagious disease in the digestive tract of pigs, especially neonatal piglets. Since PEDV was first identified in Europe in the late 1970s, it has resulted in significant economic losses in many Asian swine-raising countries, including China. Recently, reverse genetics techniques including targeted RNA recombination, bacteria artificial chromosome system and in vitro ligation have been successfully used to manipulate the genome of PEDV, which providing new strategies for the clear delineation of the functions of the viral proteins, the mechanisms behind PEDV pathogenesis and the design of novel vaccines against PEDV...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944135/management-of-syndromic-diarrhea-tricho-hepato-enteric-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Alexandre Fabre, Patrice Bourgeois, Marie-Edith Coste, Céline Roman, Vincent Barlogis, Catherine Badens
Syndromic diarrhea/tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare disease linked to the loss of function of either TTC37 or SKIV2L, two components of the SKI complex. It is characterized by a combination of 9 signs (intractable diarrhea, hair abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, immune abnormalities, IUGR/SGA, liver abnormalities, skin abnormalities, congenital heart defect and platelet abnormalities). We present a comprehensive review of the management of SD/THE and tested therapeutic regimens. A review of the literature was conducted in May 2017: 29 articles and 2 abstracts were included describing a total of 80 patients, of which 40 presented with mutations of TTC37, 14 of SKIV2L...
August 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943870/gastrointestinal-tract-as-entry-route-for-hantavirus-infection
#16
Peter T Witkowski, Casey C Perley, Rebecca L Brocato, Jay W Hooper, Christian Jürgensen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Detlev H Krüger, Roland Bücker
Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. In this study we demonstrate that PUUV infection can occur via the alimentary tract. Methods: We investigated susceptibility of the human small intestinal epithelium for PUUV infection and analyzed the resistance of virions to gastric juice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943447/anti-allergic-effects-of-the-ethanol-extract-of-syzygium-formosum-wall-masam-leaves-and-its-immunoregulatory-mechanisms
#17
Thi Minh Nguyet Nguyen, Maria Lomunova, Thi Phuong Duyen Vu, Ba Vinh Le, Young Ho Kim, Jong Seong Kang, Inkyu Hwang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As documented in a Vietnamese traditional medical encyclopedia, Syzygium formosum (Wall.) Masam leaves have been routinely used among indigenous Vietnamese people for treatment of various allergy-like symptoms including dermatitis and rhinitis. AIM OF THE STUDY: Anti-allergic activity of S. formosum leaves was examined with a mouse model of chicken ovalbumin (cOVA)-induced food allergy, and mechanisms underlying the anti-allergic effect were explored...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941661/molecular-analysis-of-human-solute-carrier-slc26-anion-transporter-disease-causing-mutations-using-3-dimensional-homology-modeling
#18
Chloe Rapp, Xiaoyun Bai, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
The availability of the first crystal structure of a bacterial member (SLC26Dg) of the solute carrier SLC26 family of anion transporters has allowed us to create 3-dimensional models of all 10 human members (SLC26A1-A11, A10 being a pseudogene) of these membrane proteins using the Phyre2 bioinformatic tool. The homology modeling predicted that the SLC26 human proteins, like the SLC26Dg template, all consist of 14 transmembrane segments (TM) arranged in a 7+7 inverted topology with the amino-termini of two half-helices (TM3 and 10) facing each other in the centre of the protein to create the anion-binding site, linked to a C-terminal cytosolic sulfate transporter anti-sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940958/a-novel-neurog3-mutation-in-neonatal-diabetes-associated-with-a-neuro-intestinal-syndrome
#19
Suna Hancili, Amélie Bonnefond, Julien Philippe, Emmanuel Vaillant, Franck De Graeve, Olivier Sand, Kanetee Busiah, Jean-Jacques Robert, Michel Polak, Philippe Froguel, Ayla Güven, Martine Vaxillaire
Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of non-autoimmune diabetes usually diagnosed in the first 6 months of life. Various genetic defects have been shown to cause NDM with diverse clinical presentations and variable severity. Among transcriptional factor genes associated with isolated or syndromic NDM, a few cases of homozygous mutations in the NEUROG3 gene have been reported, all mutated patients presenting with congenital malabsorptive diarrhea with or without diabetes at a variable age of onset from early life to childhood...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939450/prediction-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-the-bedside-the-geih-cdi-score
#20
Javier Cobo, Esperanza Merino, Cristina Martínez, Alberto Cózar-Llistó, Evelyn Shaw, Teresa Marrodán, Esther Calbo, Elena Bereciartúa, Luis A Sánchez-Muñoz, Miguel Salavert, M Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Dácil García-Rosado, J María Bravo-Ferrer, Juan Gálvez-Acebal, César Henríquez-Camacho, Jordi Cuquet, Berta Pino-Calm, Luis Torres, Antonio Sánchez-Porto, Borja M Fernández-Félix
Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has major consequences for both patients and the health system. The ability to predict which patients are at an increased risk of recurrent CDI makes it possible to select candidates for therapy with new drugs and therapies (including fecal microbiota transplantation) that have proven to reduce the incidence of recurrence of CDI. Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction tool, the GEIH-CDI score, to determine the risk of recurrence of CDI. Predictors of recurrence of CDI were investigated using logistic regression in a prospective cohort of 274 patients diagnosed with CDI...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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