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Functional diarrhea

Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Junji Kawada, Masaya Nishino, Yohei Hosoda, Hiromitsu Hoshino, Miho Okano, Kenichi Nagai, Masaki Okuyama, Yongkook Kim, Toshimasa Tsujinaka
BACKGROUND: Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy(PPG)has long been used for the treatment of early gastric cancer, and its survival benefits, postoperative symptoms, and functional outcomes have already been reported in several studies. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes after LAPPG in our hospital. METHODS: Ten patients with early gastric cancer underwent LAPPG from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital. Their short-term outcomes after LAPPG were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Sicheng Wu, Shuqi Chen, Yanfang Zhao, Xiuqiang Ma, Rui Wang, Jia He
Background/Aims: Several studies have demonstrated that sleep problems are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and functional dyspepsia etc, but the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and FGIDs has not been systematically studied in general population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between EDS and specific types of FGIDs and the effect of the number of FGIDs on EDS. Methods: A sample of 3600 individuals (aged 18-80 years) was selected from 5 regions in China using a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling method...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Anna Keppner, Sumedha Malsure, Antoine Nobile, Muriel Auberson, Olivier Bonny, Edith Hummler
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are diseases with impaired epithelial barrier function. We aimed to investigate whether mutated prostasin and thus, reduced colonic epithelial sodium channel activity predisposes to develop an experimentally dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Wildtype, heterozygous (fr/+), and homozygous (fr/fr) prostasin-mutant rats were treated 7 days with DSS followed by 7 days of recovery and analyzed with respect to histology, clinicopathological parameters, inflammatory marker mRNA transcript expression, and sodium transporter protein expression...
October 12, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 259 pediatric patients with functional constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
October 14, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Adrien Flahault, Marguerite Vignon, Marion Rabant, Aurélie Hummel, Laure-Hélène Noël, Danielle Canioni, Bertrand Knebelmann, Felipe Suarez, Khalil El Karoui
INTRODUCTION: We report the case of a multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) with initial renal involvement. Although the renal involvement in this case was typical of MCD, it constitutes a rare presentation of the disease, and in our case the renal manifestations led to the haematological diagnosis. CLINICAL FINDINGS/PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was admitted for fever, diarrhea, anasarca, lymphadenopathies and acute renal failure. Despite intravenous rehydration using saline and albumin, renal function worsened and the patient required dialysis...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Frees, A C Schenk, P Rubenwolf, C Ziesel, W Jaeger, J W Thüroff, R Stein
PURPOSE: To evaluate stool habits and associated quality of life (QoL) in a matched pair analysis of patients who underwent continent cutaneous diversion using the ileocecal segment [Mainz pouch I (MzPI)] with an intussuscepted ileal nipple as efferent segment with those receiving an ileal conduit (IC) after radical cystectomy. METHODS: We identified 250 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion (UD) with either MzPI with an ileal nipple or IC in our database...
October 12, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Qing Zhao, Xiao-Ya Chen, Cathie Martin
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, or Chinese skullcap, has been widely used as a medicinal plant in China for thousands of years, where the preparation from its roots is called Huang-Qin. It has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, hemorrhaging, insomnia, inflammation and respiratory infections. Flavones such as baicalin, wogonoside and their aglycones baicalein wogonin are the major bioactive compounds extracted from the root of S. baicalensis. These flavones have been reported to have various pharmacological functions, including anti-cancer, hepatoprotection, antibacterial and antiviral, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects...
2016: Science Bulletin
Jatupon Kongtharvonskul, Patarawan Woratanarat, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Siwadol Wongsak, Viroj Kawinwonggowit, Ammarin Thakkinstian
BACKGROUND: Patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) and diacerein monotherapy have been recommended for treatment of mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA), but evidence of efficacy for combined treatments is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes (i.e., pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] score) at 6 months as well as the safety profile of treatment with combined pCGS and diacerein versus pCGS alone...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Kaare Græsbøll, Lars Ole Andresen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft
Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test-positive samples by pooling...
September 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hui-Fang Wang, Juan Wang, Yan-Ling Wang, Jian-Jian Fan, Gui-Lin Mo, Feng-Yin Gong, Zhi-Ming Chai, Jin Zhang, Hua-Xing Meng, Chang-Xin Li, Jun-Hong Guo, Chuan-Qiang Pu
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with mitochondrial alterations. MNGIE is characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, peripheral neuropathy, and leukoencephalopathy. The condition is caused by mutation of the TYMP gene. We studied the clinical and biochemical characteristics of a family with MNGIE. The proband was a 48-year-old male presenting with diarrhea and progressive weight loss. He also had ptosis and exhibited eyeball fixation...
October 5, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Giulia Pasquini, Enrico Vasile, Chiara Caparello, Caterina Vivaldi, Gianna Musettini, Monica Lencioni, Iacopo Petrini, Lorenzo Fornaro, Alfredo Falcone
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the combination of 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as third-line chemotherapy (CT) in metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) patients pretreated with platinum derivatives, fluoropyrimidines, and taxanes. METHODS: We prospectively collected data of mGC patients treated with third-line FOLFIRI at our institution from 2009 to 2014. Eligible patients should be treated with a fluoropyrimidine-platinum first-line CT and a subsequent taxane-based second-line CT...
October 6, 2016: Oncology
Huan-Sheng Yang, Fei Wu, Li-Na Long, Tie-Jun Li, Xia Xiong, Peng Liao, Hong-Nan Liu, Yu-Long Yin
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of yeast culture, cell wall hydrolysates, and yeast extracts (collectively "yeast products," YP) on the performance, intestinal physiology, and health of weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of three treatments for a 14-d feeding experiment, including (1) a basal diet (control), (2) 1.2 g/kg of YP, and (3) 20 mg/kg of colistin sulfate (CSE). No statistically significant differences were observed in average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or gain-to-feed ratio among CSE, YP, and control piglets...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Sonia Halioui-Louhaichi, Ons Azzabi, Nadia Mattoussi, Hasna Labiadh, Khadija Bousseta, Neji Tebib, Taher Gargah, Sayda Ben Becher, Mohamed Ridha Barbouch, Mohamed Bejaoui, Ahmed Maherzi
Background Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of heterogeneous and relatively rare diseases. Aim to determine the clinical characteristics, outcome and genetic data of primary immunodeficiencies in pediatrics patients. Methods A retrospective, descriptive and multicentered study, enrolling 33 children presenting a PID in Tunis, during a period of 22 years (1991-2012). Resultats a masculine predominance has been noticed with a sex ratio at 2,3. Consanguinity was found in 71% of family cases. History of early infant deaths was found in 42% of cases...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Jessie Signorelli, Arpita Shah Gandhi
OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize data on cobimetinib, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2015 for use in combination with vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAFV600E or V600K mutation. DATA SOURCES: A literature search using PubMed was conducted using the terms cobimetinib, MEK inhibitor, and melanoma from January 2000 to June 2016. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was confined to human studies published in English...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Alberto A Chiappori, Gregory A Otterson, Afshin Dowlati, Anne M Traynor, Leora Horn, Taofeek K Owonikoko, Helen J Ross, Christine L Hann, Taher Abu Hejleh, Jorge Nieva, Xiuhua Zhao, Michael Schell, Daniel M Sullivan
LESSONS LEARNED: Targeted therapy options for SCLC patients are limited; no agent, thus far, has resulted in a strategy promising enough to progress to phase III trials.Linsitinib, a potent insulin growth factor-1-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may be one agent with activity against SCLC.Despite lack of a reliable predictive biomarker in this disease, which may have partly contributed to the negative outcome reported here, linsitinib, although safe, showed no clinical activity in unselected, relapsed SCLC patients...
October 2016: Oncologist
R Abalo, J A Uranga, I Pérez-García, R de Andrés, R Girón, G Vera, A E López-Pérez, M I Martín-Fontelles
BACKGROUND: The antineoplastic drug 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) is a pirimidine analog, which frequently induces potentially fatal diarrhea and mucositis. Cannabinoids reduce gastrointestinal motility and secretion and might prevent 5-FU-induced gut adverse effects. Here, we asked whether cannabinoids may prevent diarrhea and mucositis induced by 5-FU in the rat. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received vehicle or the non-selective cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 0.5 mg kg(-1) injection(-1) , 1 injection day(-1) , 4 consecutive days) by intraperitoneal (ip) route; on the first 2 days, animals received also saline or 5-FU (150 mg kg(-1) injection(-1) , cumulative dose of 300 mg kg(-1) )...
September 30, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Charlotte G Neumann, Winstone Nyandiko, Abraham Siika, Natalie Drorbaugh, Goleen Samari, Grace Ettyang, Judith A Ernst
This paper describes morbidity in a group of HIV-positive drug-naïve rural women in western Kenya. A total of 226 drug-naïve HIV-positive women were evaluated for baseline morbidity, immune function, and anthropometry before a food-based nutrition intervention. Kenyan nurses visited women in their homes and conducted semi-structured interviews regarding symptoms and physical signs experienced at the time of the visit and during the previous week and physical inspection. Blood and urine samples were examined for determination of immune function (CD4, CD8, and total lymphocyte counts), anaemia, malaria, and pregnancy status...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
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