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Functional diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915982/a-continuous-time-multistate-markov-model-to-describe-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diarrhea-events-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-lumretuzumab-in-combination-with-pertuzumab-and-paclitaxel
#1
Chao Xu, Patanjali Ravva, Jun Steve Dang, Johann Laurent, Céline Adessi, Christine McIntyre, Georgina Meneses-Lorente, François Mercier
PURPOSE: To inform lumretuzumab and pertuzumab dose modifications in order to decrease the incidence, severity, and duration of the diarrhea events in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with a combination therapy of lumretuzumab (anti-HER3) in combination with pertuzumab (anti-HER2) and paclitaxel using quantitative clinical pharmacology modeling approaches. METHODS: The safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) data from three clinical trials (lumretuzumab monotherapy n = 47, pertuzumab monotherapy n = 78, and the combination therapy of lumretuzumab, pertuzumab and paclitaxel n = 35) were pooled together to develop a continuous-time discrete states Markov model describing the dynamics of the diarrhea events...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914507/impact-of-tgev-infection-on-the-pig-small-intestine
#2
Lu Xia, Yunhan Yang, Jialu Wang, Yuchao Jing, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Pig diarrhea causes high mortality and large economic losses in the swine industry. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea, with 100% mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks old. No investigation has yet been made of the small intestine of piglets that survived infection by TGEV. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. RESULTS: Histological analyses showed that TGEV infection led to villi atrophy, and reduced villous height and crypt depth...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909964/neonatal-onset-chronic-diarrhea-caused-by-homozygous-nonsense-wnt2b-mutations
#3
Amy E O'Connell, Fanny Zhou, Manasvi S Shah, Quinn Murphy, Hannah Rickner, Judith Kelsen, John Boyle, Jefferson J Doyle, Bharti Gangwani, Jay R Thiagarajah, Daniel S Kamin, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Camilla Richmond, David T Breault, Pankaj B Agrawal
Homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B were identified in three individuals from two unrelated families with severe, neonatal-onset osmotic diarrhea after whole-exome sequencing was performed on trios from the two families. Intestinal biopsy samples from affected individuals were used for histology and immunofluorescence and to generate enteroids ex vivo. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated chronic inflammatory changes in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diminished staining for OLFM4, a marker for intestinal stem cells (ISCs)...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908044/utilization-and-efficacy-of-elbasvir-grazoprevir-for-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-after-liver-transplantation
#4
Satoshi Miuma, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Hidetaka Shibata, Naota Taura, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
AIM: Recently, elbasvir/grazoprevir combination therapy (EBR/GZR therapy) has been reported to have excellent antiviral effects for chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, it has not been recommended for patients with post-liver transplant (LT) HCV re-infections because of a lack of evidence for effectiveness and drug-drug interactions. METHODS: We report the usage of EBR/GZR in five post-LT HCV re-infected patients with the kinetics of renal function and tacrolimus (Tac) trough levels during and after therapy...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904454/a-rare-case-of-native-mitral-valve-bacillus-cereus-endocarditis-culminating-into-a-cerebrovascular-infarction
#5
Bibai Ren, Glenmore Lasam
We report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented initially with a sudden onset of right-sided facial droop and weakness, aphasia, and confusion with no associated fever, chills, syncope, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, odontalgia, palpitations, cough, or dyspnea. Code stroke was called and the patient received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with subsequent resolution of his symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left frontal punctate cortical restricted diffusion consistent with subacute to acute infarction...
June 2018: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904158/association-between-ultra-processed-food-consumption-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-results-from-the-french-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-cohort
#6
Laure Schnabel, Camille Buscail, Jean-Marc Sabate, Michel Bouchoucha, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Mathilde Touvier, Carlos A Monteiro, Serge Hercberg, Robert Benamouzig, Chantal Julia
OBJECTIVES: Ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has increased over the last decades and is raising concerns about potential adverse health effects. Our objective was to assess the association between UPF consumption and four functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FDh), and functional dyspepsia (FDy), in a large sample of French adults. METHODS: We analyzed dietary data of 33,343 participants from the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24 h food records, prior to a Rome III self-administered questionnaire...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903911/ac6-is-the-major-adenylate-cyclase-forming-a-diarrheagenic-protein-complex-with-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-in-cholera
#7
Andrew Thomas, Yashaswini Ramananda, Kyushik Mun, Anjaparavanda P Naren, Kavisha Arora
The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported a world-wide surge in cases of cholera caused by the intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae, and, combined, such surges have claimed several million lives, mostly in early childhood. Elevated cAMP production in intestinal epithelial cells challenged with cholera toxin (CTX) results in diarrhea due to chloride transport by a cAMP-activated channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, the identity of the main cAMP-producing proteins that regulate CFTR in the intestine and may be relevant for secretory diarrhea is unclear...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902647/analysis-of-fecal-primary-bile-acids-detects-increased-stool-weight-and-colonic-transit-in-patients-with-chronic-functional-diarrhea
#8
Priya Vijayvargiya, Michael Camilleri, Victor Chedid, Paula Carlson, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Leslie Donato
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with bile acid diarrhea (BAD) are identified based on increased levels of BAs in fecal samples collected over a 48-hr period while on a 100-gram fat diet (48-hr BA), retention of 75 Se-labeled homocholic acid taurine, or serum levels of C4 or FGF19. BAD increases fecal weight and colonic transit. We investigated whether results of tests for BAD associate with increased fecal weight and more rapid colonic transit over a 24- or 48-hr period in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D)...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898979/development-interlaboratory-evaluations-and-application-of-a-simple-high-throughput-shigella-serum-bactericidal-assay
#9
Moon H Nahm, Jigui Yu, Hailey P Weerts, Heather Wenzel, Chitradevi S Tamilselvi, Lakshmi Chandrasekaran, Marcela F Pasetti, Sachin Mani, Robert W Kaminski
Shigella is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide, with serotypes Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei demonstrating epidemiological prevalence. Many development efforts are focused on Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based vaccines, as O antigen-specific conjugate vaccines are immunogenic and efficacious. Immunization with Shigella vaccines containing LPS can elicit antibodies capable of killing Shigella in a serotype-specific manner. Thus, to facilitate Shigella vaccine development, we have developed a serum bactericidal assay (SBA) specific for three Shigella serotypes that measures killing of target bacteria at multiple serum dilutions and in the presence of exogenous complement...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896738/-immune-dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-x-linked-syndrome-in-two-cases
#10
Qiong Zhu, Ke Yuan, Chunlin Wang, Yanlan Fang, Jianfang Zhu, Li Liang
OBJECTIVE: To report on two cases affected with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX). METHODS: Two unrelated Chinese infants affected with IPEX were investigated. Case 1 was a 4-month-old boy with neonatal diabetes and severe enteropathy. Case 2 was a 6-day newborn boy with neonatal diabetes and ketoacidosis. DNA samples of the two infants and their parents were sequenced for FOXP3 gene mutations. Suspected mutations were verified among 100 unrelated healthy controls...
June 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893516/stool-patterns-and-symptoms-of-disordered-anorectal-function-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Paweł W Petryszyn, Leszek Paradowski
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) typically clinically manifest with symptoms like chronic diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. However, symptoms of abnormal anorectal function seem to be of equal importance, regardless of the presence or absence of perianal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess stool patterns and the prevalence of symptoms of disordered anorectal function, particularly urgency and fecal incontinence, and their severity in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)...
June 12, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892169/assessment-of-colonic-contents-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation-using-mri
#12
Yumi Inoh, Kenji Kanoshima, Kanji Ohkuma, Akiko Fuyuki, Shiori Uchiyama, Hidenori Ohkubo, Takuma Higurashi, Hiroshi Iida, Takashi Nonaka, Koji Fujita, Akihiko Kusakabe, Masahiko Inamori, Kazumasa Hiroishi, Hajime Nagase, Atushi Nakajima, Taro Takahara
Although chronic constipation is common, colonic functional evaluating tests are uncommon. This study examines whether chronic constipation and gastrointestinal symptoms are correlated with the lateral diameter of the colon measured from MRI images. We included chronic constipation patients in a prospective, cross-sectional study using MRI at three centers. We divided 3D MRI colorectal images into 6 segments using with specified sequences and selected the maximum luminal diameter from each segment. We used the GSRS questionnaire to evaluate gastrointestinal symptoms...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890559/severe-eosinophilic-colitis-caused-by-neuropathic-agents-in-a-patient-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-functional-abdominal-pain-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Konstantinos C Fragkos, John Barragry, Charisma Shahi Fernando, Marco Novelli, Joanna Begent, Natalia Zárate-Lopez
Eosinophilic colitis is a rare clinical condition that belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Its occurrence can be primary or secondary to infection, medications, or autoimmune/hematological conditions. We present a case of a young female adult with severe chronic fatigue syndrome, widespread chronic pain, including functional abdominal pain, who developed severe eosinophilic colitis following successive treatments with gabapentin and pregabalin. On both occasions, symptoms manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia and improved upon discontinuation of the medications...
June 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888206/a-phase-i-randomized-phase-ii-study-to-evaluate-the-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-efficacy-of-nintedanib-versus-sorafenib-in-asian-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Chia-Jui Yen, Tae-You Kim, Yin-Hsun Feng, Yee Chao, Deng-Yn Lin, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, Dennis Chin-Lun Huang, David Schnell, Julia Hocke, Arsène-Bienvenu Loembé, Ann-Lii Cheng
Background: Nintedanib is an oral, triple angiokinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptors. This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in terms of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and efficacy of nintedanib versus sorafenib in Asian patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods: For the phase I portion, patients were stratified into two groups according to their alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and Child-Pugh score at baseline...
May 2018: Liver Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881387/a-decade-of-th9-cells-role-of-th9-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Shachi Pranjal Vyas, Ritobrata Goswami
T helper cell subsets play a critical role in providing protection against offending pathogens by secreting specific cytokines. However, unrestrained T helper cell responses can promote chronic inflammation-mediated inflammatory diseases. Dysregulated T helper cell responses have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among others. Aberrant pro-inflammatory responses induced by Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets are known to trigger IBD...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880353/exploration-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-diarrhea-after-renal-transplantation
#16
B Gu, G Z Bo, C Ke
OBJECTIVE: Exploration of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of refractory diarrhea after renal transplantation. METHODS: Summarize the etiology of 120 cases with diarrhea after renal transplantation from 2014 to 2017 in our hospital. There were 4 recipients of refractory diarrhea who accepted fecal microbiota transplantation with informed consent, and we collected clinical data of stool and bacterial culture, gut microbiota analysis, graft function, electrolytes, immunosuppressant concentrations of prognostic evaluation of patients with fecal transplantation...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879143/an-open-label-multiple-ascending-dose-study-of-the-anti-ctla-4-antibody-ipilimumab-in-viremic-hiv-patients
#17
Elizabeth Colston, Dennis Grasela, David Gardiner, R Pat Bucy, Blisse Vakkalagadda, Alan J Korman, Israel Lowy
Expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a negative regulator of T-cell function, is increased in chronic HIV-1 infection. It was hypothesized that CTLA-4 blockade may enhance immune response to HIV-1 and result in better control of viremia. This open-label, multiple ascending dose study (NCT03407105)-the first to examine ipilimumab in participants with HIV-1 infection-assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ipilimumab, as well as whether ipilimumab enhanced immune response to HIV-1 and improved control of viremia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878866/health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-progressive-midgut-neuroendocrine-tumors-treated-with-177-lu-dotatate-in-the-phase-iii-netter-1-trial
#18
Jonathan Strosberg, Edward Wolin, Beth Chasen, Matthew Kulke, David Bushnell, Martyn Caplin, Richard P Baum, Pamela Kunz, Timothy Hobday, Andrew Hendifar, Kjell Oberg, Maribel Lopera Sierra, Thomas Thevenet, Ines Margalet, Philippe Ruszniewski, Eric Krenning
Purpose Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) progression is associated with deterioration in quality of life (QoL). We assessed the impact of 177 Lu-Dotatate treatment on time to deterioration in health-related QoL. Methods The NETTER-1 trial is an international phase III study in patients with midgut NETs. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 177 Lu-Dotatate versus high-dose octreotide. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaires QLQ C-30 and G.I.NET-21 were assessed during the trial to determine the impact of treatment on health-related QoL...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878124/a-unique-case-of-metastatic-functional-hereditary-paraganglioma-associated-with-an-sdhc-germline-mutation
#19
Raquel Kristin S Ong, Shahida K Flores, Robert L Reddick, Patricia L M Dahia, Hassan Shawa
Context: Mutations in genes encoding for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex are linked to hereditary paraganglioma syndromes. Paraganglioma syndrome 3 (PGL3) is associated with mutations in SDHC and typically manifests as benign, nonfunctional head and neck paragangliomas. Case Description: We describe a case of a 51-year-old woman who initially presented with diarrhea and hypertension and was found to have a retroperitoneal mass, which was resected with a pathology consistent with paraganglioma...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875530/stress-and-quality-of-life-in-cancer-patients-medical-and-psychological-intervention
#20
Prasad Vijay Barre, Gadiraju Padmaja, Suvashisa Rana, Tiamongla
Background: Cancer pervades many dimensions of an individual's life - demanding a holistic treatment approach. However, studies with combined medical and psychological interventions (MPIs) are sparse. High-level stress and poor quality of life (QoL) can hinder patients' prognosis. The study thus aimed to analyze the impact of combined medical and psychological (psychoeducation, relaxation technique-guided imagery, and cognitive therapy) interventions on stress and QoL of cancer patients - head and neck, breast, and lung cancers...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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