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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220082/benefits-of-multimodal-enhanced-recovery-pathway-in-patients-undergoing-kidney-transplantation
#1
Kevin A Espino, J Reinier F Narvaez, Michael C Ott, Liise K Kayler
BACKGROUND: Use of Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways to accelerate functional recovery and reduce length of stay (LOS) has rarely been investigated in kidney transplantation (KTX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive adult isolated KTXs between 7/2015-7/2016 (ERAS, n=139) were compared with a historical cohort between 1/2014-7/2015 (HISTORIC, n=95). RESULTS: ERAS recipients were significantly more likely to receive kidneys that were non-local (56...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#2
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
December 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217619/microrna-4331-promotes-tgev-induced-mitochondrial-damage-via-targeting-rb1-up-regulating-il1rap-and-activating-p38-mapk-pathway-in-vitro
#3
Xiaomin Zhao, Xiaoyuan Bai, Lijuan Guan, Juejun Li, Xiangjun Song, Xuelian Ma, Jianxiong Guo, Zhichao Zhang, Qian Du, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronaviridae family, could cause fatal diarrhea of piglets and result in numerous economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that TGEV infection could lead to mitochondrial damage and up-regulate miR-4331 level. So miR-4331 may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To explore the potential role of miR-4331 in mitochondrial damage, we adopted a strategy consisting of quantitative proteomic analysis of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in response to miR-4331 and TGEV infection...
December 7, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216383/genetic-susceptibility-to-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-after-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-infection-a-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-cdc-foodnet-study
#4
Asha R Kallianpur, Yuki Bradford, Rajal K Mody, Katie N Garman, Nicole Comstock, Sarah L Lathrop, Carol Lyons, Amy Saupe, Katie Wymore, Jeffrey A Canter, Lana M Olson, Amanda Palmer, Timothy F Jones
Background: Post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D+HUS) following Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is a serious condition lacking specific treatment. Host immune dysregulation and genetic susceptibility to complement hyperactivation are implicated in non-STEC-related HUS. However, genetic susceptibility to D+HUS remains largely uncharacterized. Methods: Patients with culture-confirmed STEC diarrhea, identified through the CDC FoodNet surveillance system (2007-2012), were serotyped and classified by laboratory and/or clinical criteria as suspected, probable, or confirmed D+HUS, or as controls and genotyped at 200 loci linked to non-diarrheal HUS or similar pathologies...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212396/dysautonomia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-migraine
#5
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Migraine is a common complex neurological disorder involving multiple brain areas that regulate autonomic, affective, cognitive, and sensory functions. This review explores autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in migraine headache sufferers. Areas covered: Reference material for this review was obtained through PubMed searches. Migraine attacks can present with up to 4 phases (premonitory, aura, headache, postdrome) each with distinguishable signs and symptoms. Altered ANS tone can be found from the premonitory through the postdrome phases...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210011/n-of-1-randomized-trials-of-ultra-micronized-palmitoylethanolamide-in-older-patients-with-chronic-pain
#6
Federico Germini, Anna Coerezza, Luca Andreinetti, Alessandro Nobili, Paolo Dionigi Rossi, Daniela Mari, Gordon Guyatt, Maura Marcucci
BACKGROUND: Ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) represents an attractive option for chronic pain control in complex older patients at higher risk of adverse effects with traditional analgesics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of um-PEA versus placebo on chronic pain intensity and function in individual geriatric patients. DESIGN: We performed randomized, blinded N-of-1 trials with two 3-week um-PEA versus placebo comparisons, separated by 2-week washout periods...
December 5, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201570/impacts-of-diarrhea-on-the-immune-system-intestinal-environment-and-expression-of-pgrps-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#7
Yang Chen, Bohao Zhao, Yuwei Wu, Shuaishuai Hu, Lin Mu, Cigen Zhu, Yulai Pan, Xinsheng Wu
Diarrhea is a syndrome of digestive disorders in young rabbits and may lead to secondary infections resulting in reduced immunity and higher mortality in baby rabbits, with serious impacts on rabbit farming. In this study, we investigated the effects of diarrhea on the health of baby rabbits in terms of intestinal mucosal development, immune function, and intestinal microbial diversity. We found that the duodenal villus length and the villus/crypt ratio in rabbits with diarrhea were significantly reduced compared with those in healthy rabbits (P < 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196208/eradicate-a-prospective-evaluation-combining-radium-223-dichloride-and-abiraterone-acetate-plus-prednisone-in-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#8
Neal D Shore, Ronald F Tutrone, Neil F Mariados, Luke T Nordquist, Bryan A Mehlhaff, Karyn J Steere, Stacey S Harrelson
BACKGROUND: Multiple castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) therapies are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Radium-223 dichloride (Ra-223) with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone have different mechanisms of action and distinct off-target side-effect profiles. We prospectively investigated their combined safety, tolerability, and patient-reported outcome measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: eRADicAte, an investigator-initiated, phase II trial, studied 31 patients with metastatic CRPC, from 5 United States uro-oncology research sites...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193561/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-therapy-with-exenatide-once-weekly-versus-basal-insulin-among-injectable-na%C3%A3-ve-elderly-or-renal-impaired-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-united-states
#9
Anita M Loughlin, Qing Qiao, Anthony Philip Nunes, Peter Öhman, Stephen Ezzy, Laura Yochum, C Robin Clifford, Robert Gately, David D Dore, John Seeger
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of exenatide once-weekly (EQW) compared to basal insulin (BI) among injectable-naïve T2DM patients who are elderly or have renal impairment (RI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Initiators of EQW and BI with T2DM were identified from 2012-2015 within a United States electronic health record database and matched by propensity score. Matched EQW and BI initiators aged 65+ years or who have RI were compared. Weight, HbA1c, eGFR, blood pressure, and lipids were obtained at baseline and quarterly (Q1-Q4) or semi-annually for one year following drug initiation...
November 30, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190927/dietary-apple-pectic-oligosaccharide-improves-gut-barrier-function-of-rotavirus-challenged-weaned-pigs-by-increasing-antioxidant-capacity-of-enterocytes
#10
Xiangbing Mao, Xiangjun Xiao, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Hao Chen, Xuechun Xiao, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Gang Tian, Jianping Wang
Rotavirus can lead to decreasing gut barrier function and diarrhea of children and young animals. Apple pectic oligosaccharide treatment reduced diarrhea in rotavirus-infected piglets. This study was conducted to explore whether apple pectic oligosaccharide administration could protect gut barrier function of piglets against rotavirus infection. A total of 28 crossbred weaned barrows were allotted into 2 treatments fed the diets supplementing 0 and 200 mg/kg apple pectic oligosaccharide. Half of pigs in each diet treatment were challenged by rotavirus on d 15...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187713/injury-and-mechanism-of-recombinant-e-coli-expressing-sta-on-piglets-colon
#11
Yang Lv, Xueni Li, Lin Zhang, Yutao Shi, Linxiao DU, Binying Ding, Yongqing Hou, Joshua Gong, Tao Wu
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is primary pathogenic bacteria of piglet diarrhea, over two thirds of piglets diarrhea caused by ETEC are resulted from STa-producing ETEC strains. This experiment was conducted to construct the recombinant E.coli expressing STa and study the injury and mechanism of recombinant E.coli expressing STa on 7 days old piglets colon. Twenty-four 7 days old piglets were allotted to four treatments: control group, STa group (2×109 CFU E.coli LMG194-STa), LMG194 group (2×109 CFU E...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184433/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-constipation-in-the-primary-care-setting-focus-on-linaclotide
#12
REVIEW
Apoorva Krishna Chandar
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder that is exceedingly common in clinical practice. IBS with predominant constipation (IBS-C) is a subtype of IBS that accounts for more than a third of the IBS diagnosed. Diagnosis of IBS requires a careful personalized approach, a comprehensive clinical history, limited but relevant investigations, and continued follow-up. Major IBS societies and guidelines recommend offering a positive diagnosis of IBS based on presenting symptomatology...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181134/a-nine-month-old-boy-with-atypical-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#13
Monia Ouederni, Monia Ben Khaled, Samia Rekaya, Ilhem Ben Fraj, Fethi Mellouli, Mohamed Bejaoui
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammation caused by uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes. Often, HLH is an acquired syndrome. We report a case of a nine month-old-boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly, severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and high hyperferritinemia. These clinical features of HLH prompted a wide range of infectious and auto-immune tests to be performed. After an extensive diagnostic workup, he was referred to the immune-hematologic unit for HLH suspicion with an unknown cause...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180448/a-neutralizing-antibody-that-blocks-delivery-of-the-enzymatic-cargo-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-tcdb-into-host-cells
#14
Heather K Kroh, Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, Zhifen Zhang, Kim Rosenthal, Rob Woods, Xiaofang Jin, Andrew C Nyborg, G Jonah Rainey, Paul Warrener, Roman A Melnyk, Benjamin W Spiller, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is mediated by the actions of two toxins, TcdA and TcdB. The toxins perturb host cell function through a multi-step process of receptor binding, endocytosis, low pH-induced pore formation, and the translocation and delivery of an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) that inactivates host GTPases. Infection studies with isogenic strains having defined toxin deletions have established TcdB as an important target for therapeutic development...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172123/existing-and-emerging-therapies-for-managing-constipation-and-diarrhea
#15
REVIEW
Adil E Bharucha, Mira M Wouters, Jan Tack
Functional bowel disorders (i.e., constipation and diarrhea) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and/or bowel habit abnormalities in the absence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on routine diagnostic tests. These symptoms are attributable to gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunctions resulting from peripheral and/or central mechanisms. Available drugs target the underlying bowel disturbance (i.e., constipation, diarrhea, or both), supplemented when necessary by management of pain...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169893/potential-for-a-booster-dose-of-rotavirus-vaccine-to-further-reduce-diarrhea-mortality
#16
Eleanor Burnett, Ben A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar
Concern has grown that children vaccinated against rotavirus in developing countries may be vulnerable to rotavirus diarrhea in the second year of life due to waning immunity. Adding a booster dose of rotavirus vaccine at 9 or 12 months of age with measles vaccine has been suggested as a strategy to address this. We evaluated the hypothetical potential benefits of a booster dose on reduction of rotavirus mortality. The projected number of deaths averted were calculated using national level full series vaccination coverage, estimated national rotavirus deaths by week of age, and VE at <12 months of age and ≥12 months of age derived from the published literature...
November 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164561/study-of-prevalence-and-influencing-factors-of-depression-in-tumor-patients-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-fluoxetine
#17
J Dai, N Liao, J Shi, J-Q Tao
OBJECTIVE: To observe the depression in patients with malignant tumor and influencing factors of the disease, as well as to investigate the effects of fluoxetine on depressive symptoms in cancer patients and the immune function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 262 patients with malignant tumors, confirmed by pathological and radiological diagnosis as malignant tumor were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group with chemotherapy; the treatment group with chemotherapy and 20 mg/d fluoxetine for six weeks...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164142/pathogenesis-molecular-genetics-and-genomics-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-the-etiologic-agent-of-johne-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K Zinniel, John P Bannantine, Judith R Stabel, Yrjö T Gröhn, Michael T Collins, Raúl G Barletta
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal-oral route. MAP attaches to, translocates via the intestinal mucosa, and is phagocytosed by macrophages. The ensuing host cellular immune response leads to granulomatous enteritis characterized by a thick and corrugated intestinal wall. We review various tissue culture systems, ileal loops, and mice, goats, and cattle used to study MAP pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158365/phase-ii-trial-using-a-combination-of-oxaliplatin-capecitabine-and-celecoxib-with-concurrent-radiation-for-newly-diagnosed-resectable-rectal-cancer
#19
Emilio P Araujo-Mino, Yehuda Z Patt, Cristina Murray-Krezan, Joshua A Hanson, Pranshu Bansal, Ben J Liem, Ashwani Rajput, M Houman Fekrazad, Glenory Heywood, Fa Chyi Lee
LESSONS LEARNED: Colorectal cancers exhibit a high level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression with strong preclinical rationale for improved clinical outcomes with COX-2 inhibition. Celecoxib is a COX-2 inhibitor and we have shown that it can be safely combined with capecitabine and oxaliplatin as part of neoadjuvant treatment with radiation therapy (RT) in rectal cancer.There was a significant improvement in skin toxicity with this combination as compared with historical data. Considering the field has moved on to single-agent capecitabine, we believe future trials with capecitabine and celecoxib hold potential...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152578/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-nonstructural-protein-16-is-necessary-for-interferon-resistance-and-viral-pathogenesis
#20
Vineet D Menachery, Lisa E Gralinski, Hugh D Mitchell, Kenneth H Dinnon, Sarah R Leist, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Eileen T McAnarney, Kelly G Stratton, Adam S Cockrell, Kari Debbink, Amy C Sims, Katrina M Waters, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoVs) encode a mixture of highly conserved and novel genes, as well as genetic elements necessary for infection and pathogenesis, raising the possibility of common targets for attenuation and therapeutic design. In this study, we focused on highly conserved nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16), a viral 2'O-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) that encodes critical functions in immune modulation and infection. Using reverse genetics, we disrupted a key motif in the conserved KDKE motif of Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) NSP16 (D130A) and evaluated the effect on viral infection and pathogenesis...
November 2017: MSphere
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