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Functional diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636623/the-basolateral-vesicle-sorting-machinery-and-basolateral-proteins-are-recruited-to-the-site-of-enteropathogenic-e-coli-microcolony-growth-at-the-apical-membrane
#1
Gitte A Pedersen, Helene H Jensen, Anne-Sofie B Schelde, Charlotte Toft, Hans N Pedersen, Maj Ulrichsen, Frédéric H Login, Manuel R Amieva, Lene N Nejsum
Foodborne Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections of the small intestine cause diarrhea especially in children and are a major cause of childhood death in developing countries. EPEC infects the apical membrane of the epithelium of the small intestine by attaching, effacing the microvilli under the bacteria and then forming microcolonies on the cell surface. We first asked the question where on epithelial cells EPEC attaches and grows. Using models of polarized epithelial monolayers, we evaluated the sites of initial EPEC attachment to the apical membrane and found that EPEC preferentially attached over the cell-cell junctions and formed microcolonies preferentially where three cells come together at tricellular tight junctions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626097/-visceral-sensitivity-gut-barrier-function-and-autonomic-nerve-function-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Xiaojuan Xu, Liang Liu, Shukun Yao, Yanli Zhang
To evaluate visceral sensitivity, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore their roles in IBS-D pathophysiology.
 Methods: A total of 46 IBS-D patients (IBS-D group) were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from October 2015 to March 2016, and 20 healthy volunteer were served as a control group (HC group). Clinical and psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire, and visceral sensitivity to rectal balloon distention, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) were examined...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#3
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622210/serotonin-syndrome-following-combined-administration-of-dopaminergic-and-noradrenergic-agents-in-a-patient-with-akinetic-mutism-after-frontal-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#4
Dae Geun Jeon, Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Jung Hyun Park
BACKGROUND: Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by use of proserotonergic drugs. Several studies have reported that combined administration of various medications may induce SS. We report a case of SS in a patient who was being treated with dopaminergic and noradrenergic drugs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old man with a right frontal intracerebral hemorrhage extending to the left cerebral hemisphere presented with clinical features of akinetic mutism...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617146/diospyros-rhodocalyx-tako-na-a-thai-folk-medicine-associated-with-hypokalemia-and-generalized-muscle-weakness-a-case-series
#5
Rittirak Othong, Satariya Trakulsrichai, Winai Wananukul
INTRODUCTION: Diospyros rhodocalyx (Tako-Na) is a Thai folk medicine purported to promote longevity, treat impotence, etc. We present patients with hypokalemia, weakness and hypertension after consuming Tako-Na tea. CASE SERIES: Case 1: A 61-year-old man was brought in nine hours after drinking 400-500 mL of Tako-Na tea. One handful of Tako-Na bark was boiled in water to make tea. He had vomiting and watery diarrhea six hours after drinking it. He took no medications and had no history of hypertension...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#6
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615528/genistein-improves-inflammatory-response-and-colonic-function-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-in-dss-induced-colonic-injury
#7
Rui Zhang, Jian Xu, Jian Zhao, Yuzhe Chen
This study aimed to investigate the protective potential of genistein in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury in vitro and in vivo models. The results showed that DSS exposure caused growth suppression, colonic injury, inflammation, and barrier dysfunction in mice. Dietary genistein alleviated DSS-caused colonic injury via reducing colonic weight, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea ratio. Meanwhile, genistein reduced colonic inflammatory response via downregulating cytokines expression and improved colonic permeability and barrier in DSS-challenged mice...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608151/quality-of-life-among-survivors-of-early-stage-cervical-cancer-in-taiwan-an-exploration-of-treatment-modality-differences
#8
Chia-Chun Li, Ting-Chang Chang, Yun-Fang Tsai, Lynn Chen
PURPOSE: Women with early-stage cervical cancer may experience changes in their quality of life (QoL) due to treatment or to the effects of the cancer. In this study, we examined differences in QoL by treatment modality between women who underwent surgery only and those treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). METHODS: The sample of 290 women had been diagnosed with stage I-II cervical cancer. Data were collected on these women's demographic and disease characteristics, general QoL, and cancer-specific QoL using an author-designed demographic-disease survey, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL questionnaire, and the Taiwanese-version Cervical Cancer Module 24 questionnaire, respectively...
June 12, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606713/rhabdomyolysis-and-coeliac-disease-a-causal-or-casual-association-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Claudia Mandato, Alessandro Rossi, Mariano Caldore, Marta Lamba, Michele Rocco, Renata Auricchio, Pietro Vajro, Paolo Siani
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition, caused by multiple disorders. The association with Coeliac Disease (CD) has been rarely reported and in these cases muscular damage was imputed to hypokalemia. Herein we describe a new case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a child subsequently diagnosed as affected by CD, and review previous reports. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old boy was referred for diarrhea, brown urine, muscular pain/weakness, and no history of muscular trauma...
June 9, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601482/impaired-intestinal-permeability-contributes-to-ongoing-bowel-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-mucosal-healing
#10
Jeff Chang, Rupert W Leong, Valerie Wasinger, Matthew Ip, Michael Yang, Tri Giang Phan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have ongoing bowel symptoms of diarrhea or abdominal pain despite mucosal healing. We investigated whether impaired intestinal permeability contributes to these symptoms. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of intestinal permeability, measured by endoscopic confocal laser endomicroscopy in 110 consecutive subjects (31 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 57 with Crohn's disease [CD], and 22 healthy individuals [controls]) in Sydney Australia from May 2009 and September 2015...
June 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599662/a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-an-enteral-formulation-designed-to-improve-gastrointestinal-tolerance-in-the-critically-ill-patient-the-spirit-trial
#11
Stephan M Jakob, Lukas Bütikofer, David Berger, Michael Coslovsky, Jukka Takala
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is frequent in patients in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with discomfort and complications and may increase the length of stay and nursing workload. METHODS: This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled single-center pilot study to assess the incidence and frequency of diarrhea and the respective effects of a modified enteral diet (intervention: Peptamen® AF, rich in proteins, medium chain triglycerides and fish oil) compared to a standard diet (control: Isosource® Energy) in 90 randomized adult patients (intervention, n = 46; control, n = 44) with an ICU stay ≥5 days and tube feeding ≥3 days...
June 10, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599619/a-devastating-case-of-diarrhea-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-associated-with-extensive-cerebral-infarction-why-we-need-to-do-better
#12
Werner Keenswijk, Evelyn Dhont, Ann Raes, An Bael, Johan Vande Walle
A 4-year-old girl with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) was transferred to the PICU of our center due to deteriorating renal function and neurological involvement. On admission, a comatous child was seen with hypoventilation and she was placed on mechanical ventilation. Hemodialysis was commenced but plasma exchange was discontinued due to repeated hypersensitivity reactions. A trial of eculizumab was given in light of the worsening of her neurologic condition with development of a pyramidal syndrome and deepening of the coma...
June 9, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597812/microbial-impact-on-host-metabolism-opportunities-for-novel-treatments-of-nutritional-disorders
#13
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Malnutrition is the cause of major public health concerns worldwide. On the one hand, obesity and associated pathologies (also known as the metabolic syndrome) affect more than 10% of the world population. Such pathologies might arise from an elevated inflammatory tone. We have discovered that the inflammatory properties of high-fat diets were linked to the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We proposed a mechanism associating the gut microbiota with the onset of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, a phenomenon that we called "metabolic endotoxemia...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597685/a-gain-of-function-mutation-of-stat1-a-novel-genetic-factor-contributing-to-chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis
#14
Narges Eslami, Marzieh Tavakol, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mohammad Gharegozlou, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel, Satoshi Okada, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Morteza Fallahpour, Rasool Molatefi, Farhad Seif, Samaneh Zoghi, Nima Rezaei, Mohammad Nabavi
Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have increasingly been identified as a genetic cause of autosomal-dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In this article, we describe a 33-year-old man who experienced chronic refractory candidiasis, recurrent otitis media, and pneumonia resulting in bronchiectasis, severe oral and esophageal candidiases with strictures associated with hypothyroidism and immune hemolytic anemia. His son also suffered from persistent candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, poor weight gain, and pneumonia that resulted in his demise because of sepsis...
June 9, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591694/the-nucleocapsid-proteins-of-mouse-hepatitis-virus-and-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-share-the-same-ifn-%C3%AE-antagonizing-mechanism-attenuation-of-pact-mediated-rig-i-mda5-activation
#15
Zhen Ding, Liurong Fang, Shuangling Yuan, Ling Zhao, Xunlei Wang, Siwen Long, Mohan Wang, Dang Wang, Mohamed Frahat Foda, Shaobo Xiao
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5)...
May 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590950/systematic-review-the-impact-of-cancer-treatment-on-the-gut-and-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-a-gynecological-malignancy
#16
Ann Muls, Jervoise Andreyev, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Christine Norton, Ailsa Hart
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Worldwide, 1,470,900 women are diagnosed yearly with a gynecological malignancy (21,000 in the UK). Some patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy develop chronic changes in their bowel function. This systematic review summarizes current research on the impact of cancer treatment on the gut and vaginal microbiome in women with a gynecological malignancy. METHODS: The Preferred reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines for systematic reviews were used to ensure transparent and complete reporting...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588628/the-effect-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-on-bovine-monocyte-phenotype
#17
K S Choi
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is classified into cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp), depending on its effects on cultured cells. BVDV is known to alter the host's immune response. Of this, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a central role in the development and function of the immune system, and are comprised of two types, DR and DQ, in cattle. In this study, we investigated the expression of MHC class II on monocytes infected with ncp BVDV1 or ncp BVDV2...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580808/regorafenib-for-the-treatment-of-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Lorenza Rimassa, Tiziana Pressiani, Nicola Personeni, Armando Santoro
Sorafenib is the standard of care for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and well preserved liver function. However, until recent approval of regorafenib by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), no effective therapeutic options were available for patients resistant to sorafenib. Areas covered: The present article reviews the preclinical and clinical data of regorafenib, putting them into the context of current and future landscape of treatment options for patients with HCC. Recently, the randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III RESORCE trial, demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant increase in overall survival from 7...
June 9, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579981/assessing-the-risk-of-probiotic-dietary-supplements-in-the-context-of-antibiotic-resistance
#19
Min Zheng, Ruijia Zhang, Xuechen Tian, Xuan Zhou, Xutong Pan, Aloysius Wong
Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577159/biventricular-thrombosis-in-biventricular-stress-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#20
Luisa De Gennaro, Massimo Ruggiero, Sergio Musci, Francesco Tota, Domenica De Laura, Manuela Resta, Nicola Locuratolo, Francesco Santoro, Natale Daniele Brunetti, Pasquale Caldarola
Endo-ventricular thrombosis represents a possible clinical complication of stress(takotsubo)-cardiomyopathy (SC). Depressed ventricular systolic ventricular function, localized left ventricular (LV) dyskinesis, but also an increased pro-thrombotic state induced by catecholamine surge may facilitate the occurrence of endovascular thrombosis in SC. SC, however, may also present as right ventricular (RV) dysfunction or even as biventricular ballooning. Ventricular thrombosis may therefore theoretically occur in either ventricles or both...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
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