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obese overweight type 2 diabetes children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255821/one-hour-post-load-plasma-glucose-levels-associated-with-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-and-early-makers-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#1
M L Marcovecchio, M Bagordo, E Marisi, T de Giorgis, V Chiavaroli, F Chiarelli, A Mohn
PURPOSE: Obese adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) but with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose (1hPG) ≥ 155 mg/dl are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiometabolic complications. Little information is available for the pediatric population, where recently, a lower cutoff, 132.5 mg/dl, has been suggested as being more sensitive to identify subjects at risk of T2D. Our aim was to assess whether obese Caucasian youth with 1hPG ≥ 132.5 mg/dl have worse insulin sensitivity and secretion and a worse cardiometabolic profile compared to obese youth with 1hPG < 132...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137791/longitudinal-associations-between-ambient-air-pollution-with-insulin-sensitivity-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-adiposity-in-los-angeles-latino-children
#2
Tanya L Alderete, Rima Habre, Claudia M Toledo-Corral, Kiros Berhane, Zhanghua Chen, Frederick W Lurmann, Marc J Weigensberg, Michael I Goran, Frank D Gilliland
Evidence suggests that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) had adverse effects on longitudinal measures of insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and obesity in children at high risk for developing diabetes. Overweight and obese Latino children (8-15 years; n=314) were enrolled between 2001-2012 from Los Angeles, California and followed for an average of 3...
January 30, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101933/associations-of-common-variants-in-the-slc16a11-tcf7l2-and-abca1-genes-with-pediatric-onset-type-2-diabetes-and-related-glycemic-traits-in-families-a-case-control-and-case-parent-trio-study
#3
América L Miranda-Lora, Miguel Cruz, Mario Molina-Díaz, Jorge Gutiérrez, Samuel Flores-Huerta, Miguel Klünder-Klünder
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits in adults, but there is a little information about such associations in youths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of SNPs in the TCF7L2, SLC16A11, and ABCA1 genes with T2D and related glycemic traits in Mexican children and adolescents. SUBJECTS: A total of 99 families with children with T2D (n = 327) and 83 families with children without the disease (n = 212)...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087553/prevalence-of-obesity-and-overweight-in-african-learners-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and overweight are an emerging problem in Africa. Obese children are at increased risk of developing hypertension, high cholesterol, orthopaedic problems and type 2 diabetes as well as increased risk of adult obesity. Prevention of childhood overweight and obesity therefore needs high priority. The review approach is particularly useful in establishing whether research findings are consistent and can be generalised across populations and settings. This systematic review aims to assess the magnitude and distribution of overweight and obesity among primary school learners within populations in Africa...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065514/review-of-childhood-obesity-from-epidemiology-etiology-and-comorbidities-to-clinical-assessment-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Seema Kumar, Aaron S Kelly
Childhood obesity has emerged as an important public health problem in the United States and other countries in the world. Currently 1 in 3 children in the United States is afflicted with overweight or obesity. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is associated with emergence of comorbidities previously considered to be "adult" diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. The most common cause of obesity in children is a positive energy balance due to caloric intake in excess of caloric expenditure combined with a genetic predisposition for weight gain...
February 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046205/dietary-advice-interventions-in-pregnancy-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Emily Shepherd, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy which can result in short- and long-term adverse outcomes for women and babies. With an increasing prevalence worldwide, there is a need to assess strategies, including dietary advice interventions, that might prevent GDM. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary advice interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health outcomes for women and their babies...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992493/clinical-and-metabolic-characteristics-among-mexican-children-with-different-types-of-diabetes-mellitus
#7
María Lola Evia-Viscarra, Rodolfo Guardado-Mendoza, Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero
BACKGROUND: Current classification of diabetes mellitus (DM) is based on etiology and includes type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), gestational, and other. Clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of T1DM and T2DM in the same patient have been designated as type 1.5 DM (T1.5DM). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to classify pediatric patients with DM based on pancreatic autoimmunity and the presence or absence of overweight/obesity, and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between children in the different classes of DM...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923100/effects-of-air-pollution-exposure-on-glucose-metabolism-in-los-angeles-minority-children
#8
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888412/diabetes-screening-in-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents-choosing-the-right-test
#10
Stefan Ehehalt, Susanna Wiegand, Antje Körner, Roland Schweizer, Klaus-Peter Liesenkötter, Carl-Joachim Partsch, Gunnar Blumenstock, Ulrike Spielau, Christian Denzer, Michael B Ranke, Andreas Neu, Gerhard Binder, Martin Wabitsch, Wieland Kiess, Thomas Reinehr
Type 2 diabetes can occur without any symptoms, and health problems associated with the disease are serious. Screening tests allowing an early diagnosis are desirable. However, optimal screening tests for diabetes in obese youth are discussed controversially. We performed an observational multicenter analysis including 4848 (2668 female) overweight and obese children aged 7 to 17 years without previously known diabetes. Using HbA1c and OGTT as diagnostic criteria, 2.4% (n = 115, 55 female) could be classified as having diabetes...
January 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870424/sex-dependent-differences-in-voluntary-physical-activity
#11
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773709/effects-of-aerobic-resistance-and-combined-exercise-training-on-insulin-resistance-markers-in-overweight-or-obese-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Elisa Corrêa Marson, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Nathalie Netto, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise with changes in insulin resistance, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin in children and adolescents who are overweight or obese. DATA SEARCHES: MEDLINE via Pubmed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus, and LILACS. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized clinical trials of at least six weeks of duration that evaluated the ability of exercise training to lower at least one of the following outcomes: insulin resistance-HOMA, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin in children and/or adolescents classified as obese or overweight...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706073/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-korean-adolescents-according-to-the-national-cholesterol-education-program-adult-treatment-panel-iii-and-international-diabetes-federation
#13
Seonho Kim, Wi-Young So
In both adults and children, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been attributed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This descriptive study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS and diagnostic components according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2330 Korean adolescents (10-18 years), using data from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V...
October 1, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684716/planning-for-the-worst-estimates-of-obesity-and-comorbidities-in-school-age-children-in-2025
#14
T Lobstein, R Jackson-Leach
BACKGROUND: Member states of the World Health Organization have adopted resolutions aiming to achieve 'no increase on obesity levels' by 2025 (based on 2010 levels) for infants, adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the scale of the problem facing health planners and service providers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data prepared by the Global Burden of Disease collaborative for 2000 and 2013, we have estimated that by 2025 some 268 million children aged 5-17 years may be overweight, including 91 million obese, assuming no policy interventions have proven effective at changing current trends...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634284/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-obese-new-zealand-children-and-adolescents-at-enrolment-in-a-community-based-obesity-programme
#15
Yvonne C Anderson, Lisa E Wynter, Katharine F Treves, Cameron C Grant, Joanna M Stewart, Tami L Cave, Cervantee Ek Wild, José Gb Derraik, Wayne S Cutfield, Paul L Hofman
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics at enrolment of children and adolescents referred to an obesity programme and to determine how the prevalence of comorbidities differed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children. METHODS: Participants were residents of a semi-rural region of New Zealand (NZ). Eligibility was defined by a body mass index (BMI) of ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities. Fasting blood, medical and physical assessments were obtained...
December 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617303/an-exercise-intervention-for-south-asian-mothers-with-risk-factors-for-diabetes
#16
Namratha R Kandula, Swapna Dave, Peter John De Chavez, David X Marquez, Himali Bharucha, Shinu Mammen, Andrea Dunaif, Ronald T Ackermann, Santosh Kumar, Juned Siddique
PURPOSE: South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalis, and Bhutanese) in the United States have a very high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-tailored exercise intervention among South Asian immigrant mothers with DM risk factors. METHODS: Through an academic-community partnership, South Asian women with risk factors for DM and who had at least one child between 6-14 years were enrolled into this single-arm study...
June 15, 2016: Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590045/longitudinal-associations-of-lifestyle-factors-and-weight-status-with-insulin-resistance-homa-ir-in-preadolescent-children-the-large-prospective-cohort-study-idefics
#17
Jenny Peplies, Claudia Börnhorst, Kathrin Günther, Arno Fraterman, Paola Russo, Toomas Veidebaum, Michael Tornaritis, Stefaan De Henauw, Staffan Marild, Dénes Molnar, Luis A Moreno, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: This study investigates prospective associations of anthropometrical and lifestyle indices with insulin resistance (IR) in European children from the IDEFICS cohort. Insulin resistance (IR) is a growing concern in childhood obesity and a central aspect of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It most likely represents the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 3348 preadolescent children aged 3 to 10.9 years from 8 European countries who were observed from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577286/childhood-obesity
#18
Erin Dean
Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571184/osteopontin-is-bmi-independently-related-to-early-endothelial-dysfunction-in-children
#19
Moritz Schreier, Julian Tristan Schwartze, Kathrin Landgraf, Kathrin Scheuermann, Sandra Erbs, Gunda Herberth, J Andrew Pospisilik, Jürgen Kratzsch, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
CONTEXT: Osteopontin (OPN) has been proposed to predict adverse cardiac events in adult type 2 diabetes patients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated potential associations of circulating OPN and OPN expression in adipose tissue (AT) with obesity and early metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction in children. Furthermore, we assessed the functional relevance of OPN on primary human endothelial cells. DESIGN: Serum OPN was determined in healthy lean (n=65) and obese (n=100) children by ELISA...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565159/beverage-consumption-and-paediatric-nafld
#20
REVIEW
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
December 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
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