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obese overweight type 2 diabetes children

Seonho Kim, Wi-Young So
In both adults and children, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been attributed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This descriptive study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS and diagnostic components according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2330 Korean adolescents (10-18 years), using data from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V...
October 1, 2016: Nutrients
T Lobstein, R Jackson-Leach
BACKGROUND: Member states of the World Health Organization have adopted resolutions aiming to achieve 'no increase on obesity levels' by 2025 (based on 2010 levels) for infants, adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the scale of the problem facing health planners and service providers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data prepared by the Global Burden of Disease collaborative for 2000 and 2013, we have estimated that by 2025 some 268 million children aged 5-17 years may be overweight, including 91 million obese, assuming no policy interventions have proven effective at changing current trends...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Yvonne C Anderson, Lisa E Wynter, Katharine F Treves, Cameron C Grant, Joanna M Stewart, Tami L Cave, Cervantee Ek Wild, José Gb Derraik, Wayne S Cutfield, Paul L Hofman
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics at enrolment of children and adolescents referred to an obesity programme and to determine how the prevalence of comorbidities differed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children. METHODS: Participants were residents of a semi-rural region of New Zealand (NZ). Eligibility was defined by a body mass index (BMI) of ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities. Fasting blood, medical and physical assessments were obtained...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Namratha R Kandula, Swapna Dave, Peter John De Chavez, David X Marquez, Himali Bharucha, Shinu Mammen, Andrea Dunaif, Ronald T Ackermann, Santosh Kumar, Juned Siddique
PURPOSE: South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalis, and Bhutanese) in the United States have a very high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-tailored exercise intervention among South Asian immigrant mothers with DM risk factors. METHODS: Through an academic-community partnership, South Asian women with risk factors for DM and who had at least one child between 6-14 years were enrolled into this single-arm study...
June 15, 2016: Transl J Am Coll Sports Med
Jenny Peplies, Claudia Börnhorst, Kathrin Günther, Arno Fraterman, Paola Russo, Toomas Veidebaum, Michael Tornaritis, Stefaan De Henauw, Staffan Marild, Dénes Molnar, Luis A Moreno, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: This study investigates prospective associations of anthropometrical and lifestyle indices with insulin resistance (IR) in European children from the IDEFICS cohort. Insulin resistance (IR) is a growing concern in childhood obesity and a central aspect of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It most likely represents the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 3348 preadolescent children aged 3 to 10.9 years from 8 European countries who were observed from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Erin Dean
Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Standard
Moritz Schreier, Julian Tristan Schwartze, Kathrin Landgraf, Kathrin Scheuermann, Sandra Erbs, Gunda Herberth, J Andrew Pospisilik, Jürgen Kratzsch, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
CONTEXT: Osteopontin (OPN) has been proposed to predict adverse cardiac events in adult type 2 diabetes patients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated potential associations of circulating OPN and OPN expression in adipose tissue (AT) with obesity and early metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction in children. Furthermore, we assessed the functional relevance of OPN on primary human endothelial cells. DESIGN: Serum OPN was determined in healthy lean (n=65) and obese (n=100) children by ELISA...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
August 26, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Muriel Bauermann Gubert, Ana Maria Spaniol, Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Household food insecurity (HFI) has been associated with both obesity among mothers and undernutrition among children. However, this association has not been well investigated in mother/child pairs living in the same household. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of coexistence of maternal overweight and child stunting with HFI in Brazil. We conducted secondary data analyses of the 2006 Brazilian National Demographic and Health Survey. We analyzed the nutritional status of 4299 pairs of 15-49-year-olds mothers and their children under 5 years of age...
August 9, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Floor van Meer, Lisette Charbonnier, Paul A M Smeets
Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed...
September 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Mark S Nash, Jochen Kressler
Problems posed by obesity-related endocrine diseases embody a national health crisis. Caloric excess and sedentary lifestyle from which they develop also pose significant challenges for rehabilitation providers. Almost two thirds of the U.S. population are currently overweight or obese, a number that has increased by >10% within the last decade and is expected to grow. An overweight body habitus is strongly associated with clinical hazards, including cardiometabolic syndrome, diabetes hypertension, and coronary artery disease...
September 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
F J Paul Hackett, Sylvia Abonyi, Roland F Dyck
BACKGROUND: First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. OBJECTIVE: To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI), height for age (HA) and weight for age (WA) of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Paula Krakowiak, Cheryl K Walker, Daniel Tancredi, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Judy Van de Water
Approximately 23% of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) produce specific patterns of autoantibodies to fetal brain proteins that have been detected in only 1% of mothers of typically developing children. The biological mechanisms underlying the development of ASD-specific maternal autoantibodies are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether ASD-specific maternal autoantibodies identified postnatally were associated with metabolic conditions (MCs) during gestation. Participants were 227 mothers of 2-5 year old children with confirmed ASD, enrolled in CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) between January 2003 and April 2008, and from whom blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-fetal brain autoantibodies (Ab+)...
June 17, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Nichole R Kelly, Lauren B Shomaker, Rachel M Radin, Katherine A Thompson, Omni L Cassidy, Sheila Brady, Rim Mehari, Amber B Courville, Kong Y Chen, Ovidiu A Galescu, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVES: Short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness have been associated with an increased risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults. There has been far less attention to the characterization of sleep in adolescents at-risk for diabetes or to the possible behavioral mechanisms, such as disinhibited eating, through which sleep may affect metabolic functioning. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with a multi-modal assessment of disinhibited eating in 119 adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes based upon being overweight/obese and having a family history of diabetes...
August 2016: Eating Behaviors
Lynae J Hanks, James Heath Pelham, Shalini Vaid, Krista Casazza, Ambika P Ashraf
AIM: Diabetes-associated glucoregulatory derangements may precipitate atherogenesis in childhood and CVD risk, particularly with obesity. We aimed to delineate lipoprotein profile differences between children with type 1 and 2 diabetes who are overweight/obese. METHODS: Data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients ≥85th BMI percentile with type 1 (n=159) and type 2 (n=77) diabetes, ages 12-19y. Group differences were evaluated by correlations and general linear modeling analysis, adjusting for BMI, HbA1c, and diabetes duration...
May 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Larine Sluggett, Shannon L Wagner, Cindy Hardy, R Luke Harris
BACKGROUND: Indicators of cardiometabolic disease-including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia-are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Canadian children and adolescents have increased rapidly in recent years; research exploring modifiable risk factors is critical. Experimental and epidemiological research demonstrates that partial sleep loss is linked with deteriorations in indicators of cardiometabolic health...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
M Serino, S Nicolas, M-S Trabelsi, R Burcelin, V Blasco-Baque
Gut microbes are active participants of host metabolism. At birth, child physiology is committed towards healthiness or sickness depending, in part, on maternal condition (i.e. lean vs obesity) and delivery. Finally, changes from breastfeeding to solid food also account to define gut microbiota ecology in adulthood. Nowadays, alterations of gut microbiota, named dysbiosis, are acquired risk factors for multiple diseases, especially type 2 diabetes and obesity. Despite important evidence linking nutrition to dysbiosis to energetic dysmetabolism, molecular mechanisms for causality are still missing...
May 2, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Carolina Stryjecki, Jesus Peralta-Romero, Akram Alyass, Roberto Karam-Araujo, Fernando Suarez, Jaime Gomez-Zamudio, Ana Burguete-Garcia, Miguel Cruz, David Meyre
The Pro12Ala (rs1801282) polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) has been convincingly associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Europeans, in interaction with a high-fat diet. Mexico is disproportionally affected by obesity and T2D however, whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with early metabolic complications in this population is unknown. We assessed the association of PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala with metabolic traits in 1457 Mexican children using linear regression models...
2016: Scientific Reports
F Sentinelli, L Bertoccini, I Barchetta, D Capoccia, M Incani, M G Pani, S Loche, F Angelico, M Arca, S Morini, E Manconi, A Lenzi, E Cossu, F Leonetti, M G Baroni, M G Cavallo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3, the biologically active vitamin D, plays a central role in several metabolic pathways through the binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR has been shown to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, autoimmunity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several polymorphisms in the VDR gene have been described. Among these, the rs11568820 G-to-A nucleotide substitution was found to be functional, modulating the transcription of the VDR gene...
May 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Julie Tonsgaard Kloppenborg, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Jesper Johannesen, Poul Jannik Bjerrum, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Jens-Christian Holm
Urinary excretion of the RNA and DNA oxidation markers, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in newly diagnosed adult type 2 diabetics are reported to be long-term predictors of mortality independent of conventional risk factors. In the current study, we investigated the relationships between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation concentrations and the degree of obesity and glucose metabolism in overweight compared to lean children. Forty-two (24 girls) overweight and 35 lean (19 girls) children and adolescents were recruited from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank...
July 2016: Free Radical Research
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