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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916803/genome-analysis-of-methicillin-resistance-in-macrococcus-caseolyticus-from-dairy-cattle-in-england-and-wales
#1
Alison C MacFadyen, Elizabeth A Fisher, Ben Costa, Cassie Cullen, Gavin K Paterson
Species of the genus Macrococcus are widespread commensals of animals but are becoming increasingly recognised as veterinary pathogens. They can encode methicillin resistance and are implicated in its spread to the closely-related, but more pathogenic, staphylococci. In this study we have identified 33 isolates of methicillin-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus from bovine bulk tank milk from England and Wales. These isolates were characterised to provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of M. caseolyticus and to discern the genetic basis for their methicillin resistance...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916731/evaluation-of-an-environmental-monitoring-program-for-the-microbial-safety-of-air-and-surfaces-in-a-dairy-plant-environment
#2
Krzysztof A Zacharski, Mark Southern, Alan Ryan, Catherine C Adley
Microbiological hazards can occur when foodstuffs come into contact with contaminated surfaces or infectious agents dispersed by air currents in the manufacturing environment. An environmental monitoring program (EMP) is a critical aspect of sustainable and safe food manufacturing used to evaluate the effectiveness of the microbial controls in place. An effective EMP should be based on risk analysis, taking into account previous sampling history to determine the selection of the sampling points, the scope of the test, and the frequency of analysis...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916034/differences-in-carbohydrates-utilization-and-antibiotic-resistance-between-streptococcus-macedonicus-and-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-isolated-from-dairy-products-in-italy
#3
Armin Tarrah, Laura Treu, Sabrina Giaretta, Vinicius Duarte, Viviana Corich, Alessio Giacomini
Streptococcus thermophilus and S. macedonicus are the only two species of the genus related to food productions so far known. In the present study, eight S. thermophilus and seven S. macedonicus strains isolated from dairy environments in Italy were compared in order to evidence possible species-specific technological characteristics. Their capability to use lactose, galactose, fructose, and glucose, sugars commonly present in foods and two carbohydrates considered as prebiotics, xylose and inulin, along with the respective growth kinetics were studied...
June 18, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915567/two-new-secreted-proteases-generate-a-casein-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-in-bacillus-cereus-food-born-isolate-leading-to-bacterial-competition-in-milk
#4
Awatef Ouertani, Ines Chaabouni, Amor Mosbah, Justine Long, Mohamed Barakat, Pascal Mansuelle, Olfa Mghirbi, Afef Najjari, Hadda-Imene Ouzari, Ahmed S Masmoudi, Marc Maresca, Philippe Ortet, Didier Gigmes, Kamel Mabrouk, Ameur Cherif
Milk and dairy products harbor a wide variety of bacterial species that compete for both limited resources and space. Under these competitive conditions, bacteria develop specialized mechanisms to protect themselves during niche colonization and nutrient acquisition processes. The bacterial antagonism mechanisms include the production of antimicrobial agents or molecules that facilitate competitor dispersal. In the present work, a bacterial strain designated RC6 was isolated from Ricotta and identified as Bacillus cereus ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915503/exploring-factors-associated-with-bulk-tank-milk-urea-nitrogen-in-central-thailand
#5
Suppada Kananub, Wassana Jawjaroensri, John VanLeeuwen, Henrik Stryhn, Pipat Arunvipas
Aim: The study was to determine seasonal fluctuations and non-nutritional factors associated with bulk tank milk urea nitrogen(BTMUN). Materials and Methods: A total of 58,364 BTM testing records were collected from 2364 farms in Central Thailand during September 2014-August 2015. Using square root BTMUN as the outcome, other milk components, farm effect, and sampling time were analyzed by univariable repeated measures linear regression, and significant variables were included in multivariable repeated measures linear regression...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915493/milk-somatic-cells-factors-influencing-their-release-future-prospects-and-practical-utility-in-dairy-animals-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Mohanned Naif Alhussien, Ajay Kumar Dang
Milk somatic cells (SCs) are a mixture of milk-producing cells and immune cells. These cells are secreted in milk during the normal course of milking and are used as an index for estimating mammary health and milk quality of dairy animals worldwide. Milk SC is influenced by cow productivity, health, parity, lactation stage, and breed of an animal. Any change in environmental conditions, poor management practices, and also stressful conditions significantly increases the amount of SC coming in milk. Better hygiene and proper nutrition help in reducing milk SC...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914687/fatty-and-hydroxycarboxylic-acid-receptors-the-missing-link-of-immune-response-and-metabolism-in-cattle
#7
REVIEW
P Alarcon, C Manosalva, M D Carretta, A I Hidalgo, C D Figueroa, A Taubert, C Hermosilla, M A Hidalgo, R A Burgos
Fatty and hydroxycarboxylic acids are one of the main intermediates of energy metabolism in ruminants and critical in the milk production of cattle. High production demands on a dairy farm can induce nutritional imbalances and metabolism disorders, which have been widely associated with the onset of sterile inflammatory processes and increased susceptibility to infections. The literature suggests that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and hydroxycarboxylic acids are relevant modulators of the host innate inflammatory response...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914588/differential-effects-of-oilseed-supplements-on-methane-production-and-milk-fatty-acid-concentrations-in-dairy-cows
#8
K E Kliem, D J Humphries, P Kirton, D I Givens, C K Reynolds
It is known that supplementing dairy cow diets with full-fat oilseeds can be used as a strategy to mitigate methane emissions, through their action on rumen fermentation. However, direct comparisons of the effect of different oil sources are very few, as are studies implementing supplementation levels that reflect what is commonly fed on commercial farms. The objective was to investigate the effect of feeding different forms of supplemental plant oils on both methane emissions and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
June 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914547/farm-characteristics-and-management-routines-related-to-cow-longevity-a-survey-among-swedish-dairy-farmers
#9
Karin Alvåsen, Ian Dohoo, Anki Roth, Ulf Emanuelson
BACKGROUND: Longevity is an important trait for increasing the profitability of dairy production. Long cow longevity is also essential to reduce the environmental impact of milk production, and to maintain positive consumer attitude. Genetic selection for increased longevity has been effective, but the phenotypic trend of longevity in Swedish dairy cows has not been improved. The objective of this study was to identify herd characteristics and management routines that are associated with the average cow longevity in a herd...
June 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914197/-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bovine-mastitis-in-eight-countries-genotypes-detection-of-genes-encoding-different-toxins-and-other-virulence-genes
#10
Valentina Monistero, Hans Ulrich Graber, Claudia Pollera, Paola Cremonesi, Bianca Castiglioni, Enriqueta Bottini, Alejandro Ceballos-Marquez, Laura Lasso-Rojas, Volker Kroemker, Nicole Wente, Inge-Marie Petzer, Carlos Santisteban, Jeff Runyan, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos, Bruna Gomes Alves, Renata Piccinini, Valerio Bronzo, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Meriam Ben Said, Paolo Moroni
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected...
June 17, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913267/serum-metabolome-profiling-revealed-potential-biomarkers-for-milk-protein-yield-in-dairy-cows
#11
Xuehui Wu, Huizeng Sun, Mingyuan Xue, Diming Wang, Le Luo Guan, Jianxin Liu
Milk yield (MY) and milk protein (MP) content are crucial milk performance traits of dairy cows that directly affect the dairy profits. This study first proposed milk protein yield (MPY) by considering MY and MP content together. Forty multiparous cows were selected from the 348 Holstein dairy cows, which fed the same diet under the same management condition, to investigate the serum metabolome profiles and to identify key metabolites associated with MPY. Among them, 20 cows with a higher MPY (MY > 34...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912753/comparison-of-lactase-variant-mcm6-13910-c-t-testing-and-self-report-of-dairy-sensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Ann E Almazar, Joseph Y Chang, Joseph J Larson, Elizabeth J Atkinson, G Richard Locke, Nicholas J Talley, Yuri A Saito
GOALS: To evaluate agreement of MCM6-13910 with self-report of dairy sensitivity (DS) and lactose hydrogen methane breath test (LHMBT) results in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). BACKGROUND: IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms including abdominal pain, variable bowel habits, and bloating. Adult patients with lactose malabsorption may present with similar symptoms. Patients with lactose malabsorption have a lactase nonpersistent (LNP) phenotype...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912375/distribution-of-staphylococcus-species-in-dairy-cows-workers-and-shared-farm-environments
#13
Marilyn C Roberts, Gemina Garland-Lewis, Sally Trufan, J Scott Meschke, Heather Fowler, Ryan C Shean, Alexander L Greninger, Peter M Rabinowitz
Dairy farming involves frequent contact among animals, workers and farm environments. To explore the Staphylococcus spp. diversity that occurs on dairy farms, a pilot study sampled dairy workers, cows, and the farm environments from five farms, two organic and three conventional farms, in Washington State. Samples were taken from the nares and hands of consenting workers (n = 24), udders and nares of selected cows (n = 25) and representative environmental surfaces (n = 96) from each farm. To increase diversity of the Staphylococcus spp...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911159/abortions-in-an-organized-dairy-farm-from-north-india-reveal-the-possibility-of-breed-susceptibility-to-bovine-brucellosis
#14
Mitesh Mittal, Vikas Sharma, Kapil Nehra, Soumendu Chakravarti, Krishnendu Kundu, V K Bansal, C P Churamani, Anil Kumar
The present study was undertaken over a three year period (2012-2014) in an organized dairy farm located in North India to ascertain Brucella abortus as the putative cause of abortion. The dairy farm maintained cattle of Frieswal, Crossbred and Sahiwal breeds and followed calf-hood vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain 19 live vaccine in all the heifers. Even with the recommended vaccination schedule and good managemental practices in place, 88 cases of abortions clinically suspected of bovine brucellosis (40 from Frieswal breed, 17 from Crossbred cattle and 31 from Sahiwal breed) were reported from this farm...
June 2018: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909814/lack-of-evidence-of-ige-allergic-sensitisation-from-working-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-the-dairy-foods-industry
#15
Coralie Barrera, Gabriel Reboux, Audrey Laboissière, Laurence Millon, Anne Oppliger
This research communication aimed to evaluate the level of immunoglobulin E from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are used in dairy industries. Previous studies have demonstrated that workers report symptoms of irritation and are frequently IgG-sensitised to LAB. Workers (n = 44) from a probiotic production unity and the control lab were seen by a medical practitioner and responded to an occupational questionnaire. Specific IgE by the DELFIA® technique against 6 strains of LAB were measured on 44 exposed workers and 31 controls sera...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909793/early-weaning-and-high-feeding-level-in-post-weaning-period-did-not-impact-milk-production-in-alpine-dairy-goats
#16
Clémence Panzuti, Gaëlle Mandrile, Christine Duvaux-Ponter, Frédéric Dessauge
The experiment reported in this Research Communication aimed to determine the combined effects of early weaning and post-weaning feeding level on growth, reproductive parameters and milk yield in Alpine goats. Sixty-four Alpine goat kids were weaned abruptly at either 12·2 (±1·40) kg (40 d of age, E) or 17·7 (±2·30) kg (60 d of age, No). After weaning, E and No goats were subjected to 2 feeding strategies (n = 16): ad libitum concentrate until 130 d of age and then 620 g DM/d/goat until 200 d of age (EC and NoC) or ad libitum concentrate until 200 d of age (EAL and NoAL)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909459/electrochemical-nonenzymatic-sensor-for-cholesterol-determination-in-food
#17
Ksenia Derina, Elena Korotkova, Yekaterina Taishibekova, Lyazat Salkeeva, Bohumil Kratochvil, Jiri Barek
The treatment of some inborn metabolism errors requires cholesterol substitution therapy. Cholesterol plays a vital role in the human body. Therefore, the majority of cholesterol determination techniques are targeted to blood and blood serum. Nevertheless, cholesterol determination in food is important as well. In this paper, cholesterol determination using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in dairy products (e.g., milk, clotted cream, yogurt, butter, etc.) is reported with a novel nonenzymatic sensor based on diphosphonic acid of 1,4-diacetylglycoluril (DPADGU) as an electrode surface modifier...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908815/preweaned-heifer-management-on-us-dairy-operations-part-i-descriptive-characteristics-of-preweaned-heifer-raising-practices
#18
N J Urie, J E Lombard, C B Shivley, C A Kopral, A E Adams, T J Earleywine, J D Olson, F B Garry
The objective of this study was to describe preweaned dairy heifer calf management practices on dairy operations across the United States that were used to analyze factors associated with colostrum quality and passive transfer, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, morbidity and mortality, and average daily gain. This study included 104 dairy operations in 13 states that participated in the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 calf component study. This 18-mo longitudinal study focused on dairy heifer calves from birth to weaning, and data were collected on 2,545 heifer calves...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908814/maternal-supply-of-methionine-during-late-pregnancy-is-associated-with-changes-in-immune-function-and-abundance-of-microrna-and-mrna-in-holstein-calf-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes
#19
C B Jacometo, A S Alharthi, Z Zhou, D Luchini, J J Loor
Pregnancy and early life are critical periods during which environmental factors such as nutrition can affect development. Rumen-protected methionine (Met; RPM) supplementation during the prepartum period improves not only performance but immune responses in dairy cows. We investigated the effects of enhanced maternal supply of Met via feeding RPM on whole-blood in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0, 0.01, or 5 μg/mL of blood) challenge and targeted microRNA and mRNA abundance in calf blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908813/the-influence-of-fat-and-hemicellulose-on-methane-production-and-energy-utilization-in-lactating-jersey-cattle
#20
O R Drehmel, T M Brown-Brandl, J V Judy, S C Fernando, P S Miller, K E Hales, P J Kononoff
Feeding fat to lactating dairy cows may reduce methane production. Relative to cellulose, fermentation of hemicellulose is believed to result in less methane; however, these factors have not been studied simultaneously. Eight multiparous, lactating Jersey cows averaging (±SD) 98 ± 30.8 d in milk and body weight of 439.3 ± 56.7 kg were used in a twice-replicated 4 × 4 Latin square to determine the effects of fat and hemicellulose on energy utilization and methane production using a headbox-type indirect calorimetry method...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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