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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222843/association-of-california-mastitis-test-scores-with-intramammary-infection-status-in-lactating-dairy-cows-admitted-to-a-veterinary-teaching-hospital
#1
S A Kandeel, D E Morin, C D Calloway, P D Constable
BACKGROUND: Subclinical mastitis is of concern in veterinary hospitals because contagious mastitis pathogens might be unknowingly transmitted to susceptible cows and then back to their farm of origin. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the California mastitis test (CMT) as an indicator of intramammary infection (IMI) in lactating dairy cows admitted to a veterinary hospital. ANIMALS: A total of 139 admissions of 128 lactating dairy cows admitted to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital over a 2-year period...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222815/evaluation-and-comparison-of-2-on-farm-tests-for-estimating-somatic-cell-count-in-quarter-milk-samples-from-lactating-dairy-cattle
#2
S A Kandeel, A A Megahed, F K Arnaout, P D Constable
BACKGROUND: The somatic cell count (SCC) is commonly used to monitor udder health and diagnose subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cattle. HYPOTHESIS: The Somaticell test (ST) and California mastitis test (CMT) are clinically useful cow-side tests for diagnosing subclinical IMI. ANIMALS: One hundred and eleven dairy cows at dry-off and 92 cows within 4-7 days postcalving. METHODS: Quarter foremilk samples were obtained and analyzed with a DeLaval cell counter (DCC, reference method), ST, and CMT...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222100/diversity-of-lactococcus-lactis-in-undefined-mixed-dairy-starter-cultures-revealed-by-comparative-genome-analyses-and-targeted-amplicon-sequencing-of-epsd
#3
Cyril A Frantzen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Helge Holo
Undefined mesophilic mixed (DL) starter cultures are used in the production of continental cheeses and contain unknown strain mixtures of Lactococcus lactis and leuconostocs. The choice of starter culture affects the taste, aroma and quality of the final product. To gain insight into the diversity of Lactococcus lactis strains in starter cultures, we whole-genome sequenced 95 isolates from three different starter cultures. Pan-genomic analyses, which included 30 publically available complete genomes, grouped the strains into 21 subsp...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222098/longitudinal-study-of-the-occurrence-persistence-and-contamination-routes-of-listeria-monocytogenes-genotypes-on-three-finnish-dairy-cattle-farms
#4
Hanna Castro, Anniina Jaakkonen, Marjaana Hakkinen, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
The molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in a longitudinal study of three Finnish dairy farms during 2013 -- 2016. Totals of 186 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, 224 milk filter socks (MFS), and 1702 samples of the barn environment were analyzed and isolates of L. monocytogenes were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. L. monocytogenes occurred throughout the year in all sample types, and the prevalence in MFS increased significantly during the indoor season. L. monocytogenes was more prevalent in MFS (29%) than in BTM samples (13%)...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221591/eradicating-bvd-reviewing-irish-programme-data-and-model-predictions-to-support-prospective-decision-making
#5
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
November 23, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221567/iodine-in-dairy-milk-sources-concentrations-and-importance-to-human-health
#6
REVIEW
Olivia L van der Reijden, Michael B Zimmermann, Valeria Galetti
Milk and dairy products are major iodine sources in industrialized countries. However, consumption of milk and dairy, as well as their iodine concentrations, vary widely, making them an unpredictable iodine source. Milk iodine concentrations in industrialized countries range from 33 to 534 μg/L and are influenced by the iodine intake of dairy cows, goitrogen intake, milk yield, season, teat dipping with iodine-containing disinfectants, type of farming and processing. We estimate milk and dairy contribute ≈13-64% of the recommended daily iodine intake based on country-specific food intake data...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221114/interferon-%C3%AF-increases-bola-i-for-implantation-during-early-pregnancy-in-dairy-cows
#7
Zhe Zhu, Binbin Li, Yue Wu, Xiao Wang, GanZhen Deng
Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219785/higher-absorption-of-vitamin-c-from-food-than-from-supplements-by-breastfeeding-mothers-at-early-stages-of-lactation
#8
Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska, Maciej Zagierski, Ewa Woś-Wasilewska, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin C supply in the diet of lactating women on vitamin C concentrations in human milk (n = 97) sampled at different stages of lactation. Vitamin C levels were measured by liquid chromatography. Dietary intake of vitamin C was determined based on 3-day food dairies kept by breastfeeding mothers. Maternal dietary intakes of vitamin C from natural sources on lactation day 90 (n = 18) were significantly higher than on lactation days 15 (n = 42) and 30 (n = 37)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219783/diet-and-other-lifestyle-factors-associated-with-prostate-cancer-differ-between-the-german-and-italian-region-of-switzerland
#9
Aline Richard, David Faeh, Matthias Bopp, Sabine Rohrmann
PURPOSE: In Switzerland, prostate cancer mortality is higher in the German than in the Italian-speaking region. We aimed at exploring the association of living in one of the two regions with lifestyle factors presumably lowering the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We pooled data from the Swiss Health Survey, conducted every 5 years 1992 - 2012. Information on diet (meat, fish, dairy, fruits and vegetables), alcohol, smoking, physical activity and body mass index were dichotomized into "risky" and "risk-reducing" lifestyle behaviour with respect to prostate cancer...
December 8, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218772/signals-for-identifying-cows-at-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-veterinary-practice
#10
REVIEW
E Humer, J R Aschenbach, V Neubauer, I Kröger, R Khiaosa-Ard, W Baumgartner, Q Zebeli
Controlling rumen disorders is critical to ensure successful dairy herd health management. Lactation diets of dairy cows are commonly rich in concentrates and low in physically effective fibre. Feeding of these diets increases the risk of rumen disorders with far-reaching consequences for cattle health, welfare and sustainability of dairy production. The term subacute ruminal acidosis or SARA is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. Being subclinical, SARA lacks of clear symptoms and is therefore difficult to diagnose and to control in the practice...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218304/from-invention-to-innovation-risk-analysis-to-integrate-one-health-technology-in-the-dairy-farm
#11
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218032/surface-proteins-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacterial-resources-for-muco-adhesion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
REVIEW
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217872/an-integrated-bioprocess-to-recover-bovine-milk-oligosaccharides-from-colostrum-whey-permeate
#13
Juliana M L N de Moura Bell, Joshua L Cohen, Leticia F M C de Aquino, Hyeyoung Lee, Vitor L de Melo Silva, Yan Liu, Paola Domizio, Daniela Barile
A major challenge in isolating oligosaccharides from dairy streams is to enrich oligosaccharides while simultaneously reducing the content of simple sugars (mono- and disaccharides) that do not possess the desired prebiotic functions. An integrated approach based on optimized conditions that favor maximum lactose hydrolysis, monosaccharide fermentation and oligosaccharides recovery by nanofiltration was developed. Upon complete lactose hydrolysis and fermentation of the monosaccharides by yeast, nanofiltration of fermented whey permeate from colostrum enabled the recovery of 95% of the oligosaccharides at high purity...
January 2018: Journal of Food Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217829/genome-wide-genotyping-uncovers-genetic-profiles-and-history-of-the-russian-cattle-breeds
#14
Andrey Yurchenko, Nikolay Yudin, Ruslan Aitnazarov, Alexandra Plyusnina, Vladimir Brukhin, Vladimir Soloshenko, Bulat Lhasaranov, Ruslan Popov, Ivan A Paronyan, Kirill V Plemyashov, Denis M Larkin
One of the most economically important areas within the Russian agricultural sector is dairy and beef cattle farming contributing about $11 billion to the Russian economy annually. Trade connections, selection and breeding have resulted in the establishment of a number of breeds that are presumably adapted to local climatic conditions. Little however is known about the ancestry and history of Russian native cattle. To address this question, we genotyped 274 individuals from 18 breeds bred in Russia and compared them to 135 additional breeds from around the world that had been genotyped previously...
December 8, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217378/serological-evidence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-and-schmallenberg-virus-infections-in-relation-to-reproductive-disorders-in-dairy-cattle-in-ethiopia
#15
Kassahun Asmare, Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Kassaye Aragaw Lidete, Eystien Skjerve
Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle have been noted to be common in urban and peri-urban dairy production system in Ethiopia. The available reports on the causes of these disorders however, are not conclusive. A case-control study was designed to investigate the possible association of major reproductive disorders in dairy cattle with exposure status to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Cows with history of abortion/stillbirth were considered as cases (n=204) while, those cows with no such history were taken as control (n=359)...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216574/methane-production-and-characteristics-of-the-microbial-community-in-the-co-digestion-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-with-dairy-manure
#16
Xiaosha Luo, Xufeng Yuan, Shiyu Wang, Fanrong Sun, Zhanshan Hou, Qingxiu Hu, Limei Zhai, Zongjun Cui, Yajie Zou
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a potential biomass material generated during mushroom cultivation. In this study, the methane yield and microbial community resulting from co-digestion of SMS and dairy manure (DM) at different mixing ratios (0:4, 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3), were evaluated. Co-digestion analysis showed that the methane yield from the mixtures was 6%-61% higher than the yield from SMS or DM alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-digestion of SMS with DM. For the SMS of F.velutipes (SFv) and P...
November 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216438/antiulcerative-activity-of-milk-proteins-hydrolysates
#17
Wilman Carrillo, Karin Maia Monteiro, Daniel Martínez-Maqueda, Mercedes Ramos, Isidra Recio, João Ernesto de Carvalho
Several studies have shown the protective effect of dairy products, especially α-lactalbumin and derived hydrolysates, against induced gastric ulcerative lesions. The mucus strengthening represents an important mechanism in the defense of gastrointestinal mucosa. Previously, a hydrolysate from casein (CNH) and a hydrolysate from whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin (WPH) demonstrated a stimulatory activity on mucus production in intestinal goblet cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible antiulcerative activity of these two hydrolysates in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214357/investigation-and-analysis-of-osteoporosis-falls-and-fragility-fractures-in-elderly-people-in-the-beijing-area-a-study-on-the-bone-health-status-of-elderly-people-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-80%C3%A2-years-old-with-life-self-care
#18
Jian Zhou, Ming-Zhao Qin, Qian Liu, Jin-Ping Liu
Among ≥ 80 years old and under life self-care in the Beijing area, the prevalences of osteoporosis, falls, and fragility fracture were high; and these prevalences were even higher in women. The treatment rate of osteoporosis is very low. Therefore, comprehensive and standardized prevention and treatment should be promoted. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate prevalence of osteoporosis, falls, and fragility fractures in this population, and analyze related factors, in order to provide a basis for standardized prevention and treatment...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214018/transcriptional-changes-in-mesenteric-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-holstein-cows-in-response-to-plane-of-dietary-energy
#19
S J Moisá, P Ji, J K Drackley, S L Rodriguez-Zas, J J Loor
Background: Dairy cows can readily overconsume dietary energy during most of the prepartum period, often leading to higher prepartal concentrations of insulin and glucose and excessive body fat deposition. The end result of these physiologic changes is greater adipose tissue lipolysis post-partum coupled with excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and compromised health. Although transcriptional regulation of the adipose response to energy availability is well established in non-ruminants, such regulation in cow adipose tissue depots remains poorly characterized...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212529/bacteriological-study-of-calf-colisepticemia-in-alage-dairy-farm-southern-ethiopia
#20
Mebrahtu Tedla, Kebede Degefa
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of E. coli which is the main cause of colisepticemia and the potential risk factors associated with the disease. A total of 74 calves less than 6 months age were selected for this study. For isolation and identification of E. coli, bacterial culture and biochemical tests were used. RESULT: Out of 74 calves selected for this study, 6 (8.11%) were positive for septicemic E. coli. Higher prevalence of 5 (8...
December 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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