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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073934/the-influence-of-customer-medicine-seller-transactional-dynamics-on-childhood-diarrhoea-management-a-qualitative-study-in-ghana
#1
Lauren Rosapep, Emily Sanders, Kathryn Banke
In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) jointly revised the recommended treatment for acute paediatric diarrhoea to specify supplementing reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) with zinc. In many countries, however, a significant knowledge-practice gap persists in appropriate diarrhoea management among private healthcare providers. For example, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project recently demonstrated that over-the-counter medicine sellers (MS) in Ghana recommended inappropriate diarrhoea treatments, despite their demonstrated knowledge of appropriate treatment protocols...
January 10, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070263/evaluating-the-microshear-bond-strength-and-microleakage-of-flowable-composites-containing-zinc-oxide-nano-particles
#2
Koorosh Teymoornezhad, Homayoun Alaghehmand, Ghazaleh Daryakenari, Soraya Khafri, Mitra Tabari
INTRODUCTION: Preventive resin restorations (PRR) are the conservative choice for the most common carious lesions in children. Thus, new age flowable resin composites with higher filler content are readily used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength and microleakage of two flowable resin composites containing different percentages of nano zinc oxide (NZnO) particles, which have proven to have antimicrobial properties. METHODS: This experimental in-vitro study was carried out in the Dental Material Research Center of Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2015...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058103/zinc-supplementation-in-children-with-asthma-exacerbation
#3
Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana Rerksuppaphol
Zinc deficiency has demonstrated an association with the risk of asthma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing the severity of childhood asthma exacerbation. A number of 42 children with asthma exacerbation admitted to the hospital were randomized to receive either zinc bis-glycinate (30 mg elemental zinc/day) or a placebo in adjuvant to the standard treatment. The pediatric respiratory assessment measure (PRAM) was used to measure the asthma severity. The primary outcome was a change in asthma severity from the baseline to the end of study...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057877/previous-miscarriages-and-gli2-are-associated-with-anorectal-malformations-in-offspring
#4
Romy van de Putte, Charlotte H W Wijers, Ivo de Blaauw, Carlo L M Marcelis, Cornelius E J Sloots, Alice S Brooks, Paul M A Broens, Nel Roeleveld, Loes F M van der Zanden, Iris A L M van Rooij
STUDY QUESTION: Are anorectal malformations (ARMs) associated with previous miscarriages or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) and GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2) genes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The SNP rs3738880 in GLI2 and miscarriages were associated with ARM, especially in patients with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ARM are one of the most common birth defects of the gastrointestinal tract...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056538/sustained-need-for-high-dose-zinc-supplementation-in-children-with-acrodermatitis-enteropathica
#5
Johanna Hammersen, Cristina Has, Matthias Galiano, Martin Lindner, Rainer Rossi, Jürgen Kohlhase, Holm Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056273/-study-on-the-contribution-rate-of-follow-up-formula-to-the-nutrient-intake-of-infants-and-young-children-aged-7-24-months-in-china
#6
H Z Li, H X Jia, D Liang, T T Deng, L T Niu, J H Han
Objective: To determine the contribution of follow-up formula (FUF) to the nutrient intake of 7-24-month-old infants and young children. Methods: The cluster random sampling method and the convenience sampling method were used in combination, and geographic and economic factors were taken into consideration. Four areas of China (Beijing, Hebei, Guangxi, Guangdong) were selected, with 120 infants chosen from each of these areas (half of which were 7-12 months old, and half were 13-24 months old). A dietary survey was completed by a continuous 24-hour weighing method over two days...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049269/nutrient-intake-and-dietary-patterns-in-children-2-5-5-years-of-age-with-picky-eating-behaviours-and-low-weight-for-height
#7
Sheri Volger, Xiaoyang Sheng, Ling M Tong, Dongmei Zhao, Ting Fan, Feng Zhang, John Ge, Wing Man Ho, Nicholas P Hays, Manjiang P Yao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Picky eating behaviours are common in young children and may adversely affect dietary intake. This study examined the adequacy of dietary patterns and nutrient intake in preschool-aged children in China and Hong Kong with picky eating behaviours and weight-for-height in the lowest quartile of the WHO Growth Standards. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Dietary intake was assessed using baseline 3-day food records from a multicenter, randomized trial in Chinese children (N=151) ages 2...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043634/mycobacterial-excretory-secretory-31-protein-with-serine-protease-and-lipase-activities-an-immunogen-and-drug-target-against-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Bhaskar C Harinath
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993 and still remains one of the world's biggest threats. Worldwide, 9.6 million people have been estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014: 5.4 million men, 3.2 million women, and 1.0 million children. To reduce this burden, detection and treatment gaps must be addressed and new tools developed (Global TB report 2015). METHODS: Seroreactivity of the purified excretory secretory (ES) antigens ES-31, ES-43, ES-41, and ES-6 have been assessed in pulmonary TB (fresh, relapse, chronic, and latent), extrapulmonary TB, and in human immunodeficiency virus-TB coinfection...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043020/management-of-childhood-diarrhea-by-healthcare-professionals-in-low-income-countries-an-integrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Ana F Diallo, Xiaomei Cong, Wendy A Henderson, Jacqueline McGrath
BACKGROUND: The significant drop in child mortality due to diarrhea has been primarily attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions, continuous feeding and zinc supplementation. Nevertheless uptake of these interventions have been slow in developing countries and many children suffering from diarrhea are not receiving adequate care according to the World Health Organization recommended guidelines for the clinical management of childhood diarrhea. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this integrative review is to appraise healthcare professionals' management of childhood diarrhea in low-income countries...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011970/zinc-sulphate-for-acute-bronchiolitis-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Negin Khoshbakht Ahmadi, Sara Talebi Pour Nikoo, Samaneh Hamzehloo, Alireza Taremiha, Zohreh Yazdi, Shiva Esmaeily
The use of adjunctive therapies to achieve rapid recovery from clinical symptoms of acute bronchiolitis would appear necessary. This study was performed to determine the effect of zinc sulphate on treating acute bronchiolitis. In this study, 100 children affected with acute bronchiolitis were investigated. Fifty patients received oral zinc sulphate and 50 patients placebo. Signs and symptoms of the disease were compared between two groups at the time of admission and then 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after the beginning of treatment...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008727/nutrient-composition-of-premixed-and-packaged-complementary-foods-for-sale-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lack-of-standards-threatens-infant-growth
#11
William A Masters, Marc D Nene, Winnie Bell
Premixed flours for infant porridge are increasingly produced and sold in developing countries to complement continued breastfeeding. Such complementary food (CF) products have known efficacy against malnutrition in children from 6 to 24 months of age, but ingredient ratios and production processes may vary. This study provides the first systematic measurement of their actual nutrient composition. We purchased samples of 108 premixed CF products in 22 low- and middle-income countries, and commissioned blind laboratory measurement of each product's macronutrients and micronutrients...
December 22, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996088/oral-zinc-for-treating-diarrhoea-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Marzia Lazzerini, Humphrey Wanzira
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992978/-concordance-between-the-zinc-sulphate-flotation-and-centrifugal-sedimentation-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-intestinal-parasites
#13
Elizabete De Jesus Inês, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo Pacheco, Milena Carneiro Pinto, Patrícia Silva de Almeida Mendes, Hugo Da Costa-Ribeiro, Neci Matos Soares, Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques...
December 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991646/materials-for-retrograde-filling-in-root-canal-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Xiangyu Ma, Chunjie Li, Liuhe Jia, Yan Wang, Wenwen Liu, Xuedong Zhou, Trevor M Johnson, Dingming Huang
BACKGROUND: Root canal therapy is a sequence of treatments involving root canal cleaning, shaping, decontamination and obturation. It is conventionally performed through a hole drilled into the crown of the affected tooth, namely orthograde root canal therapy. For teeth that cannot be treated with orthograde root canal therapy, or for which it has failed, retrograde root filling, which seals the root canal from the root apex, is a good alternative. Many materials, such as amalgam, zinc oxide eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), are generally used...
December 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982165/lymphocyte-count-as-a-sign-of-immunoparalysis-and-its-correlation-with-nutritional-status-in-pediatric-intensive-care-patients-with-sepsis-a-pilot-study
#15
Talita Freitas Manzoli, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Eduardo Juan Troster, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Ana Caroline Barreto Antunes, Desirée Mayara Marques, Patrícia Zamberlan
OBJECTIVES: Developing malnutrition during hospitalization is well recognized worldwide, and children are at a relatively higher risk for malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition can lead to immune dysfunction, which is associated with a higher mortality rate due to sepsis, the most frequent cause of death in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether malnourished patients are more likely to have relative or absolute lymphopenia and, consequently, worse prognoses...
November 1, 2016: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968929/nutrition-and-skin-kids-are-not-just-little-people
#16
Meagen McCusker, Robert Sidbury
There has been a surge of new data regarding the pathophysiology of skin diseases. We are appreciating the sophisticated interplay among the skin, the immune system, and the environment. More elegant and highly specific medicines have been designed to target certain immune mediators of the adaptive immune system. In parallel fashion, we are learning more about the elegance of the innate immune system and how nutrition as early as the prenatal period can affect the priming of other immune cells. Concerns about the long-term impact of new immune-modulating medicines-especially in the pediatric population-have patients asking their dermatologists for nutritional alternatives to medical therapies...
November 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942846/concurrent-iron-and-zinc-deficiencies-in-lactating-mothers-and-their-children-6-23%C3%A2-months-of-age-in-two-agro-ecological-zones-of-rural-ethiopia
#17
Kedir Teji Roba, Thomas P O'Connor, Tefera Belachew, Nora M O'Brien
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the co-occurrences of low serum ferritin and zinc and anaemia among mothers and their children in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast fed children aged 6-23 months. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood tests for zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation, Chi-square and multivariable analysis were used to determine the association between nutritional status of mothers and children, and agro-ecological zones...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941722/serum-zinc-copper-magnesium-phosphorus-level-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-sam
#18
B Chowdhury, M A Hoque, M A Hossain, A M Chowdhury, M N Islam, M A Khaleque, M A Ali, M R Khan, R K Bhuiyan, M M Hasan, M Akhtaruzzaman, H Akhter
Malnutrition is widely prevalent among hospitalized children in most developing countries including Bangladesh. Though malnutrition accounts for the high rate of under 5 mortality sometimes it is overlooked. Keeping in this in mind A comparative cross sectional study was done in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from 1st October 2009 to 31st May 2011. Children aged 1-5 years with presence of one or more criteria WHM <70%, WHZ-score <-3SD, Bipedal edema & Mid upper arm circumference <110mm were taken as study group and children aged 1-5 years with normal growth allowable normal range of variation is between 3rd and 97th centile curve or median (50th centile) ±2SD of weight for age growth chart (CDC growth chart, USA, 2000) were taken as reference group...
October 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940963/lipid-peroxidation-and-altered-antioxidant-profiles-with-pediatric-hiv-infection-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#19
Yiglet Mebrat, Wondwossen Amogne, Amha Mekasha, Rudolph L Gleason, Daniel Seifu
HIV- and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated elevations in oxidative stress likely play a role in incomplete immune reconstitution, opportunistic infections and non-AIDS co-morbidities. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children living with HIV exhibit elevated markers of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant profiles and that HAART-therapy will exacerbate these differences. HIV-positive HAART-naïve (n = 50) and HAART-treated (n = 50) and HIV-negative control (n = 50) participants, 3-15 years of age, were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Ethiopia...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940670/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-growth-failure-stunting-in-global-child-health
#20
REVIEW
Victor Owino, Tahmeed Ahmed, Michael Freemark, Paul Kelly, Alexander Loy, Mark Manary, Cornelia Loechl
Approximately 25% of the world's children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions...
December 2016: Pediatrics
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