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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#1
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420793/regulating-plant-physiology-with-organic-electronics
#2
David J Poxson, Michal Karady, Roger Gabrielsson, Aziz Y Alkattan, Anna Gustavsson, Siamsa M Doyle, Stéphanie Robert, Karin Ljung, Markus Grebe, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412057/chemical-characterization-of-biochar-and-assessment-of-the-nutrient-dynamics-by-means-of-preliminary-plant-growth-tests
#3
Munoo Prasad, Nikos Tzortzakis, Nicola McDaniel
Biochar can be produced from several organic sources with varying nutrients and metal concentrations. Four commercial grade biochars were evaluated as peat substitute. Biochars were characterised for plant nutrients and for biological stability. The results showed that there were negligible quantities of N and P and generally high levels of K and high biological stability. When these materials were mixed with peat at 10, 25 and 50% and nutrients were added to bring them to the same level of nutrients as in fertilized peat, it was found that biochar mixtures considerably reduced the levels of calcium chloride/DTPA (CAT) extractable N (including nitrate), P, and electrical conductivity- greater extent with higher rates of biochar addition except for K...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409201/spontaneous-polyploidization-in-cucumber
#4
Axel O Ramírez-Madera, Nathan D Miller, Edgar P Spalding, Yiqun Weng, Michael J Havey
This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber...
April 13, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398545/evolutionary-dynamics-of-mixed-ploidy-populations-in-an-annual-herb-dispersal-local-persistence-and-recurrent-origins-of-polyploids
#5
Martin Certner, Eliška Fenclová, Pavel Kúr, Filip Kolár, Petr Koutecký, Anna Krahulcová, Jan Suda
Background and Aims: Despite the recent wealth of studies targeted at contact zones of cytotypes in various species, some aspects of polyploid evolution are still poorly understood. This is especially the case for the frequency and success rate of spontaneous neopolyploidization or the temporal dynamics of ploidy coexistence, requiring massive ploidy screening and repeated observations, respectively. To fill this gap, an extensive study of spatio-temporal patterns of ploidy coexistence was initiated in the widespread annual weed Tripleurospermum inodorum (Asteraceae)...
April 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386899/long-term-simulated-nitrogen-deposition-alters-the-plant-cover-dynamics-of-a-mediterranean-rosemary-shrubland-in-central-spain-through-defoliation
#6
Ciro Cabal, Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, María Esther Pérez-Corona, Esteban Manrique
Nitrogen (N) deposition due to anthropogenic pollution is a major driver of the global biodiversity loss. We studied the effect of experimental N and phosphorus (P) fertilization (0, 10, 20, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 14 kg P ha(-1) year(-1) over the background deposition levels) on plant cover dynamics of a rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) shrubland after 8 years of nutrient addition in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem from Central Spain. We specifically aimed at testing whether N deposition has the potential to influence the observed expanding trend of woody vegetation into areas dominated by grassland, biological soil crusts, and bare soil...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384386/lineages-of-silene-nutans-developed-rapid-strong-asymmetric-postzygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-allopatry
#7
Hélène Martin, Pascal Touzet, Mathilde Dufay, Cécile Godé, Eric Schmitt, Emna Lahiani, Lynda F Delph, Fabienne Van Rossum
Reproductive isolation can rise either as a consequence of genomic divergence in allopatry or as a byproduct of divergent selection in parapatry. To determine whether reproductive isolation in gynodioecious Silene nutans results from allopatric divergence or from ecological adaptation following secondary contact, we investigated the pattern of postzygotic reproductive isolation and hybridization in natural populations using two phylogeographic lineages, western (W1) and eastern (E1). Experimental crosses between the lineages identified strong, asymmetric postzygotic isolation between the W1 and the E1 lineages, independent of geographic overlap...
April 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381077/the-effect-of-silver-and-copper-nanoparticles-on-the-wheat-pseudocercosporella-herpotrichoides-pathosystem
#8
V N Belava, O O Panyuta, G M Yakovleva, Y M Pysmenna, M V Volkogon
The paper covers the study of the effects of silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles on wheat-Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides pathosystem in general and, separately, on their interaction both with the plant and with the pathogen. Plants, treated with nonionic colloidal solutions of biogenic metal nanoparticles of Ag and Cu, have taken seed treatment as stress and have demonstrated the same changes in the dynamic patterns of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content as a seedling infection or in its combination with a nanoparticle treatment...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377775/modeling-allometric-relationships-in-leaves-of-young-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l-grown-at-different-temperature-treatments
#9
Tian Tian, Lingtong Wu, Michael Henke, Basharat Ali, Weijun Zhou, Gerhard Buck-Sorlin
Functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a fast and dynamic method to predict plant growth under varying environmental conditions. Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. In the present study, we used three different temperature treatments (10/14°C, 18/22°C, and 26/30°C) to test the effect of temperature on growth and development of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Plants were sampled at regular intervals (every 3 days) to obtain growth data during the length of the experiment (1 month in total)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376255/do-understory-or-overstory-traits-drive-tree-encroachment-on-a-drained-raised-bog
#10
Andrzej M Jagodziński, Paweł Horodecki, Katarzyna Rawlik, Marcin K Dyderski
One of the most important threats to peatland ecosystems is drainage, resulting in encroachment of woody species. The main aim of this study was to check which features -NDASH- overstory or understory vegetation -NDASH- are more important for shaping the seedling bank of pioneer trees colonizing peatlands (Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens). We hypothesized that tree stand parameters will be more important predictors of natural regeneration density than understory vegetation parameters, and the former will be negatively correlated with species diversity and richness and also with functional richness and functional dispersion, which indicate a high level of habitat filtering...
April 4, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370001/arabidopsis-map65-4-plays-a-role-in-phragmoplast-microtubule-organization-and-marks-the-cortical-cell-division-site
#11
Haoge Li, Baojuan Sun, Michiko Sasabe, Xingguang Deng, Yasunori Machida, Honghui Lin, Y-R Julie Lee, Bo Liu
The evolutionarily conserved MAP65 family proteins bundle anti-parallel microtubules (MTs). In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in the MAP65-3 gene lead to serious defects in MT organization in the phragmoplast and cause failures in cytokinesis. However, the functions of other ArabidopsisMAP65 isoforms are largely unknown. MAP65 functions were analyzed based on genetic interactions among different map65 mutations. Live-cell imaging and immunolocalization experiments revealed dynamic activities of two closely related MAP65 proteins in dividing cells...
March 28, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346470/relationship-of-microbial-communities-and-suppressiveness-of-trichoderma-fortified-composts-for-pepper-seedlings-infected-by-phytophthora-nicotianae
#12
Margarita Ros, Iulia Raut, Ana Belén Santisima-Trinidad, Jose Antonio Pascual
The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344904/insect-herbivores-increase-mortality-and-reduce-tree-seedling-growth-of-some-species-in-temperate-forest-canopy-gaps
#13
Nathan P Lemoine, Deron E Burkepile, John D Parker
Insect herbivores help maintain forest diversity through selective predation on seedlings of vulnerable tree species. Although the role of natural enemies has been well-studied in tropical systems, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated insect abundance in temperate forests and tracked impacts over multiple years. We conducted a three-year experiment (2012-2014) deterring insect herbivores from seedlings in new treefall gaps in deciduous hardwood forests in Maryland. During this study, we tracked recruitment of all tree seedlings, as well as survivorship and growth of 889 individual seedlings from five tree species: Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus spp...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341631/effects-of-soil-type-and-light-on-height-growth-biomass-partitioning-and-nitrogen-dynamics-on-22-species-of-tropical-dry-forest-tree-seedlings-comparisons-between-legumes-and-nonlegumes
#14
Christina M Smith-Martin, Maria G Gei, Ellie Bergstrom, Kristen K Becklund, Justin M Becknell, Bonnie G Waring, Leland K Werden, Jennifer S Powers
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests...
March 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334133/population-dynamics-of-the-wheat-curl-mite-acari-eriophyidae-during-the-heading-stages-of-winter-wheat
#15
Anthony J McMechan, Gary L Hein
The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) is the only known vector of three viruses in wheat-Wheat streak mosaic virus, Wheat mosaic virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. The economic impact of this disease complex is linked to the presence of suitable hosts prior to winter wheat maturing in early summer and the movement of wheat curl mite from wheat to oversummering hosts prior to wheat harvest. Previous research has documented the prevalence and density of mite populations on maturing wheat heads; however, these studies were limited to a few late stages of wheat...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316049/structure-and-function-of-the-bacterial-communities-during-rhizoremediation-of-hexachlorobenzene-in-constructed-wetlands
#16
Cuiping Zhang, Bei Wang, Xiaoyan Dai, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Yuanqing Zhou
Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) are considered to be effective for treating organic pollutants. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites sp., Typha sp. serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic pollutants. However, it is still not clear how soil bacterial communities respond to macrophytes and pollutants during the process. For this purpose, the seedlings of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia were planted respectively in the VF CWs added with HCB at a dose of 2 mg/kg...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293848/time-lapse-imaging-to-examine-the-growth-kinetics-of-arabidopsis-seedlings-in-response-to-ethylene
#17
Brad M Binder
Ethylene is well known to inhibit the growth of dark-grown eudicot seedlings. Most studies examine this inhibition after several days of exposure to ethylene. However, such end-point analysis misses transient responses and the dynamic nature of growth regulation. Here, high-resolution, time-lapse imaging is described as a method to gather data about ethylene growth kinetics and movement responses of the hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods allow for the characterization of short-term kinetic responses and can be modified for the analysis of roots and seedlings from other species...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277967/plant-electrome-can-be-pushed-toward-a-self-organized-critical-state-by-external-cues-evidences-from-a-study-with-soybean-seedlings-subject-to-different-environmental-conditions
#18
Gustavo M Souza, Arlan S Ferreira, Gustavo F R Saraiva, Gabriel R A Toledo
In the present study, we have investigated how the low-voltage electrical signals of soybean seedlings change their temporal dynamic under different environmental conditions (cold, low light, and low osmotic potential). We have used electrophytografic technique (EPG) with sub-dermal electrodes inserted in 15-days-old seedlings located between root and shoot, accounting for a significant part of the individual seedlings. Herein, to work on a specific framework to settle this type of the study, we are adopting the term "electrome" as a reference to the totality of electrical activity measured...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275097/simplified-and-representative-bacterial-community-of-maize-roots
#19
Ben Niu, Joseph Nathaniel Paulson, Xiaoqi Zheng, Roberto Kolter
Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains (Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum, and Chryseobacterium indologenes) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263570/imaging-nutrient-distribution-in-the-rhizosphere-using-ftir-imaging
#20
Tiffany Victor, Natalie Delpratt, Sarah Beth Cseke, Lisa M Miller, Leland James Cseke
Symbiotic associations in the rhizosphere between plants and microorganisms lead to efficient changes in the distribution of nutrients that promote growth and development for each organism involved. Understanding these nutrient fluxes provides insight into the molecular dynamics involved in nutrient transport from one organism to the other. To study such nutrient flow, a new application of Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) was developed that entailed growing Populus tremulodes seedlings on a thin, nutrient-enriched Phytagel matrix that allows pixel to pixel measurement of the distribution of nutrients - in particular nitrate - in the rhizosphere...
March 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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