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seedling dynamic

Qin Huang, Meiping Wang, Zongliang Xia
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Sarah Catherine Mills, Ramya Enganti, Albrecht G von Arnim
In most organisms gene expression over the course of the day is under the control of the circadian clock. The canonical clock operates as a gene expression circuit that is controlled at the level of transcription, and transcriptional control is also a major clock output. However, rhythmic transcription cannot explain all the observed rhythms in protein accumulation. Although it is clear that rhythmic gene expression also involves RNA processing and protein turnover, until two years ago little was known in any eukaryote about diel dynamics of mRNA translation into protein...
November 3, 2017: RNA Biology
Shun-Yuan Jiang, Ji-Hong Qin, Hui Sun, Hong-Lan Wang, Ling-Yun Wan, Yi Zhou, Min Wang
In this study,field cultivation experiments of Notopterygium incisum had been carried out for three years, and samples had been collected monthly during growth seasons, and biomass and nutrient elements of aerial and underground part of sampled plants had been determined to assess their seasonal and interannual dynamics respectively. The results showed that biomass of underground part (dry weight) increased mainly in the second year after seedling transplanting, i.e., biomass increased about 32 times in the second year whilst less than 6 times and 2 times in the first year and in the third year, respectively...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sónia Silva, Sandra C Craveiro, Helena Oliveira, António J Calado, Ricardo J B Pinto, Artur M S Silva, Conceição Santos
This study investigates the phytotoxicity of chronic exposure (up to 20 d) of different TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) concentrations (5, 50, 150 mg L(-1)) in Triticum aestivum. Germination was not affected by TiO2-NP exposure and seedling shoot length (3 d) was enhanced. Contrarily, plants' shoot growth (20 d) was impaired. Effects on membrane permeability and total antioxidant capacity in TiO2-NP chronic exposure were organ dependent: increased in leaves and decreased in roots. Roots also showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Devrim Semizer-Cuming, Erik Dahl Kjær, Reiner Finkeldey
Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations...
2017: PloS One
Yue Wang, He Su, Yan-Ting Zhan, Yang Yang, Xue-Hui Dong
The study identified the main morphological index of the seedlings classification including seedling age,the root width and number of newborn buds and coarse roots, according to the local agricultural production techniques and assessment of Liriope spicata's growth and development condition. After carrying on K cluster analysis of the morphological, we separated the seedlings into two levels. The first level (Ⅰ): the new talent with the root width exceeding two point five millimeters, the new born buds exceeding three, and with the coarse root exceeding one...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Erin Wiley, Günter Hoch, Simon M Landhäusser
Carbon starvation as a mechanism of tree mortality is poorly understood. We exposed seedlings of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to complete darkness at 20 or 28 °C to identify minimum non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations at which trees die and to see if these levels vary between organs or with environmental conditions. We also first grew seedlings under different shade levels to determine if size affects survival time under darkness due to changes in initial NSC concentration and pool size and/or respiration rates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lena Schulte-Uebbing, Wim de Vries
Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may increase net primary productivity in N-limited terrestrial ecosystems and thus enhance the terrestrial carbon (C) sink. To assess the magnitude of this N-induced C sink, we performed a meta-analysis on data from forest fertilization experiments to estimate N-induced C sequestration in aboveground tree woody biomass, a stable C pool with long turnover times. Our results show that boreal and temperate forests responded strongly to N addition and sequestered on average an additional 14 and 13 kg C per kg N in aboveground woody biomass, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
Marvin Lüpke, Michael Leuchner, Rainer Steinbrecher, Annette Menzel
Monoterpene (MT) emissions of conifer tree species, emitted from de novo synthesis and storage pools, play an important role in plant ecology and physiology. During drought stress both emission sources are affected differently and with conventional measuring techniques they are difficult to separate. We investigated (13)C labelled MT emission of eight 3-year-old Scots pine seedlings in a drought stress experiment using a dynamic gas exchange chamber system (Tree DEMON). Monoterpene, water vapour and CO2 gas exchange were measured for a 2-day normal watering, a 11-day treatment and a 3-day re-watering period...
September 2017: AoB Plants
Rafał Zwolak
Seed dispersal by animals is a complex phenomenon, characterized by multiple mechanisms and variable outcomes. Most researchers approach this complexity by analysing context-dependency in seed dispersal and investigating extrinsic factors that might influence interactions between plants and seed dispersers. Intrinsic traits of seed dispersers provide an alternative way of making sense of the enormous variation in seed fates. I review causes of intraspecific variability in frugivorous and granivorous animals, discuss their effects on seed dispersal, and outline likely consequences for plant populations and communities...
October 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Morgane Gillard, Brenda J Grewell, Caryn J Futrell, Carole Deleu, Gabrielle Thiébaut
Aquatic ecosystems are vulnerable to biological invasions, and will also be strongly impacted by climate change, including temperature increase. Understanding the colonization dynamics of aquatic invasive plant species is of high importance for preservation of native biodiversity. Many aquatic invasive plants rely on clonal reproduction to spread, but mixed reproductive modes are common. Under future climate changes, these species may favor a sexual reproductive mode. The aim of this study was to test the germination capacity and the seedling growth of two water primrose species, Ludwigia hexapetala and Ludwigia peploides, both invasive in Europe and in the United States...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Feifei Huang, Jin Luo, Tingting Ning, Wenhan Cao, Xi Jin, Heping Zhao, Yingdian Wang, Shengcheng Han
Calcium acts as a universal second messenger in both developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses. Previous research has shown that a number of stimuli can induce [Ca(2+)] increases in both the cytoplasm and nucleus in plants. However, the relationship between cytosolic and nucleosolic calcium signaling remains obscure. Here, we generated transgenic plants containing a fusion protein, comprising rat parvalbumin (PV) with either a nuclear export sequence (PV-NES) or a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-PV), to selectively buffer the cytosolic or nucleosolic calcium...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peter T Green, Kyle E Harms
The emergent properties of the collection of species in a natural community, such as diversity and the distribution of relative abundances, are influenced by both niche-based and neutral (stochastic) processes. This pluralistic view of the natural world reconciles theory with empirical observations better than does either a strictly niche- or neutrality-based perspective. Even so, rules (or rules of thumb) that govern the relative contributions that niche-based and stochastic processes make as communities assemble remain only vaguely formulated and incompletely tested...
October 4, 2017: Ecology
Yue Rui, Chaowen Xiao, Hojae Yi, Baris Kandemir, James Z Wang, Virendra M Puri, Charles T Anderson
Plant cell separation and expansion require pectin degradation by endogenous pectinases such as polygalacturonases, few of which have been functionally characterized. Stomata are a unique system to study both processes because stomatal maturation involves limited separation between sister guard cells and stomatal responses require reversible guard cell elongation and contraction. However, the molecular mechanisms for how stomatal pores form and how guard cell walls facilitate dynamic stomatal responses remain poorly understood...
October 3, 2017: Plant Cell
Juanjuan Yu, Xin Jin, Xiaomei Sun, Tianxiang Gao, Xiaomei Chen, Yimin She, Tingbo Jiang, Sixue Chen, Shaojun Dai
Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays dual roles as a toxic byproduct of cell metabolism and a regulatory signal molecule in plant development and stress response. Populus simonii × Populus nigra is an important cultivated forest species with resistance to cold, drought, insect and disease, and also a key model plant for forest genetic engineering. In this study, H₂O₂ response in P. simonii × P. nigra leaves was investigated using physiological and proteomics approaches...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carolina Sarmiento, Paul-Camilo Zalamea, James W Dalling, Adam S Davis, Simon M Stump, Jana M U'Ren, A Elizabeth Arnold
The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for explaining the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Its central tenet-that recruits experience high mortality near conspecifics and at high densities-assumes a degree of host specialization in interactions between plants and natural enemies. Studies confirming JC effects have focused primarily on spatial distributions of seedlings and saplings, leaving major knowledge gaps regarding the fate of seeds in soil and the specificity of the soilborne fungi that are their most important antagonists...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sa Zhou, Qiuhong Chen, Xinyue Li, Yingzhang Li
Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamical structures that play crucial roles in plant development and in response to environmental signals and stress conditions. MT-associated proteins (MAPs) play important roles in regulating the organization of MT arrays. MAP65 is a family of plant MT-bundling proteins. Here, we determined the role of MAP65-1 in the response to salt stress. MAP65-1 is involved not only in regulating the depolymerization, but also in the following reorganization of cortical MTs in salt stress responses...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Xuean Cui, Zhe Liang, Lisha Shen, Qian Zhang, Shengjie Bao, Yuke Geng, Bin Zhang, Vonny Leo, Leah A Vardy, Tiegang Lu, Xiaofeng Gu, Hao Yu
5-Methylcytosine (m(5)C) is a well-characterized DNA modification, and is also predominantly reported in abundant non-coding RNAs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, the distribution and biological functions of m(5)C in plant mRNAs remain largely unknown. Here, we report transcriptome-wide profiling of RNA m(5)C in Arabidopsis thaliana by applying m(5)C RNA immunoprecipitation followed by a deep-sequencing approach (m(5)C-RIP-seq). LC-MS/MS and dot blot analyses reveal a dynamic pattern of m(5)C mRNA modification in various tissues and at different developmental stages...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Daniel Bouyer, Amira Kramdi, Mohamed Kassam, Maren Heese, Arp Schnittger, François Roudier, Vincent Colot
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation is crucial for gene regulation and silencing of transposable elements in mammals and plants. While this epigenetic mark is extensively reprogrammed in the germline and early embryos of mammals, the extent to which DNA methylation is reset between generations in plants remains largely unknown. RESULTS: Using Arabidopsis as a model, we uncovered distinct DNA methylation dynamics over transposable element sequences during the early stages of plant development...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology
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