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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349583/enhanced-production-of-phenolic-acids-in-cell-suspension-culture-of-salvia-leriifolia-benth-using-growth-regulators-and-sucrose
#1
Masoomeh Modarres, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Mohammad Ehsan Taghavizadeh Yazdi
Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant with hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Many of the beneficial effects of Salvia spp. are attributed to the phenolic compounds. In the present study, an efficient procedure has been developed for establishment of cell suspension culture of S. leriifolia as a strategy to obtain an in vitro phenolic acids producing cell line for the first time. The effect of growth regulators and various concentrations of sucrose have been analyzed, to optimize biomass growth and phenolic acids production...
January 18, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338034/clonal-growth-strategy-diversity-and-structure-a-spatiotemporal-response-to-sedimentation-in-tropical-cyperus-papyrus-swamps
#2
Addisie Geremew, Iris Stiers, Tim Sierens, Alemayehu Kefalew, Ludwig Triest
Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321861/low-interannual-precipitation-has-a-greater-negative-effect-than-seedling-herbivory-on-the-population-dynamics-of-a-short-lived-shrub-schiedea-obovata
#3
Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Orou G Gaoue
Climate projections forecast more extreme interannual climate variability over time, with an increase in the severity and duration of extreme drought and rainfall events. Based on bioclimatic envelope models, it is projected that changing precipitation patterns will drastically alter the spatial distributions and density of plants and be a primary driver of biodiversity loss. However, many other underlying mechanisms can impact plant vital rates (i.e., survival, growth, and reproduction) and population dynamics...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321856/temporal-effects-of-disturbance-on-community-composition-in-simulated-stage-structured-plant-communities
#4
Youshi Wang, Shujun Wen, M D Farnon Ellwood, Adam D Miller, Chengjin Chu
In an era of global environmental change, understanding how disturbance affects the dynamics of ecological communities is crucial. However, few studies have theoretically explored the potential influence of disturbance including both intensity and frequency on compositional change over time in communities with stage structure. A spatially explicit, individual-based model was constructed incorporating the various demographic responses to disturbance of plants at two different growth stages: seedlings and adults...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281752/associations-among-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-seedlings-are-predicted-to-change-with-tree-successional-status
#5
Bachelot Benedicte, María Uriarte, Robert Muscarella, Jimena Forero-Montaña, Jill Thompson, Krista McGuire, Jess Zimmerman, Nathan G Swenson, James S Clark
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil may influence tropical tree dynamics and forest succession. The mechanisms are poorly understood, because the functional characteristics and abundances of tree species and AM fungi are likely to be codependent. We used generalized joint attribute modeling to evaluate if AM fungi are associated with three forest community metrics for a sub-tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. The metrics chosen to reflect changes during forest succession are: the abundance of seedlings of different successional status, the amount of foliar damage on seedlings of different successional status, and community-weighted mean functional trait values (adult specific leaf area (SLA), adult wood density, and seed mass)...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258424/divergent-regulation-of-arabidopsis-saur-genes-a-focus-on-the-saur10-clade
#6
Hilda van Mourik, Aalt D J van Dijk, Niek Stortenbeker, Gerco C Angenent, Marian Bemer
BACKGROUND: Small Auxin-Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes encode growth regulators that induce cell elongation. Arabidopsis contains more than 70 SAUR genes, of which the growth-promoting function has been unveiled in seedlings, while their role in other tissues remained largely unknown. Here, we focus on the regulatory regions of Arabidopsis SAUR genes, to predict the processes in which they play a role, and understand the dynamics of plant growth. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized in detail the entire SAUR10-clade: SAUR8, SAUR9, SAUR10, SAUR12, SAUR16, SAUR50, SAUR51 and SAUR54...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240842/analysis-of-ecological-thresholds-in-a-temperate-forest-undergoing-dieback
#7
Philip Martin, Adrian C Newton, Elena Cantarello, Paul M Evans
Positive feedbacks in drivers of degradation can cause threshold responses in natural ecosystems. Though threshold responses have received much attention in studies of aquatic ecosystems, they have been neglected in terrestrial systems, such as forests, where the long time-scales required for monitoring have impeded research. In this study we explored the role of positive feedbacks in a temperate forest that has been monitored for 50 years and is undergoing dieback, largely as a result of death of the canopy dominant species (Fagus sylvatica, beech)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194879/environmental-heterogeneity-and-biotic-interactions-mediate-climate-impacts-on-tropical-forest-regeneration
#8
María Uriarte, R Muscarella, Jess K Zimmerman
Predicting the fate of tropical forests under a changing climate requires understanding species responses to climatic variability and extremes. Seedlings may be particularly vulnerable to climatic stress given low stored resources and undeveloped roots; they also portend the potential effects of climate change on future forest composition. Here we use data for ca. 50,000 tropical seedlings representing 25 woody species to assess (a) the effects of interannual variation in rainfall and solar radiation between 2007 and 2016 on seedling survival over 9 years in a subtropical forest; and (b) how spatial heterogeneity in three environmental factors-soil moisture, understory light, and conspecific neighborhood density- modulate these responses...
November 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187566/stage-specific-gene-profiling-of-germinal-cells-helps-delineate-the-mitosis-meiosis-transition
#9
Tinglu Yuan, Wei-Jie Huang, Juan He, Dong Zhang, Weihua Tang
In flowering plants, germ lines are induced from somatic meristems within reproductive organs. Within anthers, germinal cell initials first undergo several rounds of mitotic proliferation before synchronously entering meiosis. Our understanding of the progression and the molecular basis of this mitosis to meiosis transition is still limited. Taking advantage of the correlation between anther length and pre-meiotic germinal cell development in maize, we studied the transcriptome dynamics of germinal cells at three sequential stages, i...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167156/rapid-root-responses-of-seedlings-exposed-to-a-postdrought-water-pulse
#10
Monica A Nguyen, Julie E Larson, Megan D Blair, Darcy D Hardwick, Nilsha Khurana, Joanne S Kim, Marc V Rosenfield, Jennifer L Funk
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mediterranean-type climate ecosystems experience significant variability in precipitation within and across years and may be characterized by periods of extreme drought followed by a brief, high-intensity precipitation pulse. Rapid root growth could be a key factor in effective utilization of precipitation pulses, leading to higher rates of seedling establishment. Changes in root growth rate are rarely studied, however, and patterns in seedling root traits are not well explored...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164108/salicylic-acid-alleviates-aluminum-toxicity-in-soybean-roots-through-modulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-metabolism
#11
Ning Liu, Fengbin Song, Xiancan Zhu, Jiangfeng You, Zhenming Yang, Xiangnan Li
As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145069/the-sultr-gene-family-in-maize-zea-mays-l-gene-cloning-and-expression-analyses-under-sulfate-starvation-and-abiotic-stress
#12
Qin Huang, Meiping Wang, Zongliang Xia
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099307/what-makes-ribosomes-tick
#13
Sarah Catherine Mills, Ramya Enganti, Albrecht G von Arnim
In most organisms gene expression over the course of the day is under the control of the circadian clock. The canonical clock operates as a gene expression circuit that is controlled at the level of transcription, and transcriptional control is also a major clock output. However, rhythmic transcription cannot explain all the observed rhythms in protein accumulation. Although it is clear that rhythmic gene expression also involves RNA processing and protein turnover, until two years ago little was known in any eukaryote about diel dynamics of mRNA translation into protein...
November 3, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098816/-dynamics-of-plant-biomass-and-nutrients-accumulation-of-notopterygium-incisum-in-artificial-cultivation
#14
Shun-Yuan Jiang, Ji-Hong Qin, Hui Sun, Hong-Lan Wang, Ling-Yun Wan, Yi Zhou, Min Wang
In this study,field cultivation experiments of Notopterygium incisum had been carried out for three years, and samples had been collected monthly during growth seasons, and biomass and nutrient elements of aerial and underground part of sampled plants had been determined to assess their seasonal and interannual dynamics respectively. The results showed that biomass of underground part (dry weight) increased mainly in the second year after seedling transplanting, i.e., biomass increased about 32 times in the second year whilst less than 6 times and 2 times in the first year and in the third year, respectively...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096177/wheat-chronic-exposure-to-tio2-nanoparticles-cyto-and-genotoxic-approach
#15
Sónia Silva, Sandra C Craveiro, Helena Oliveira, António J Calado, Ricardo J B Pinto, Artur M S Silva, Conceição Santos
This study investigates the phytotoxicity of chronic exposure (up to 20 d) of different TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) concentrations (5, 50, 150 mg L(-1)) in Triticum aestivum. Germination was not affected by TiO2-NP exposure and seedling shoot length (3 d) was enhanced. Contrarily, plants' shoot growth (20 d) was impaired. Effects on membrane permeability and total antioxidant capacity in TiO2-NP chronic exposure were organ dependent: increased in leaves and decreased in roots. Roots also showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053740/gene-flow-of-common-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#16
Devrim Semizer-Cuming, Erik Dahl Kjær, Reiner Finkeldey
Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052388/-comparison-of-development-condition-of-different-liriope-spicata-seedlings
#17
Yue Wang, He Su, Yan-Ting Zhan, Yang Yang, Xue-Hui Dong
The study identified the main morphological index of the seedlings classification including seedling age,the root width and number of newborn buds and coarse roots, according to the local agricultural production techniques and assessment of Liriope spicata's growth and development condition. After carrying on K cluster analysis of the morphological, we separated the seedlings into two levels. The first level (Ⅰ): the new talent with the root width exceeding two point five millimeters, the new born buds exceeding three, and with the coarse root exceeding one...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036658/dying-piece-by-piece-carbohydrate-dynamics-in-aspen-populus-tremuloides-seedlings-under-severe-carbon-stress
#18
Erin Wiley, Günter Hoch, Simon M Landhäusser
Carbon starvation as a mechanism of tree mortality is poorly understood. We exposed seedlings of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to complete darkness at 20 or 28 °C to identify minimum non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations at which trees die and to see if these levels vary between organs or with environmental conditions. We also first grew seedlings under different shade levels to determine if size affects survival time under darkness due to changes in initial NSC concentration and pool size and/or respiration rates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034987/global-scale-impacts-of-nitrogen-deposition-on-tree-carbon-sequestration-in-tropical-temperate-and-boreal-forests-a-meta-analysis
#19
Lena Schulte-Uebbing, Wim de Vries
Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may increase net primary productivity in N-limited terrestrial ecosystems and thus enhance the terrestrial carbon (C) sink. To assess the magnitude of this N-induced C sink, we performed a meta-analysis on data from forest fertilization experiments to estimate N-induced C sequestration in aboveground tree woody biomass, a stable C pool with long turnover times. Our results show that boreal and temperate forests responded strongly to N addition and sequestered on average an additional 14 and 13 kg C per kg N in aboveground woody biomass, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026513/quantification-of-monoterpene-emission-sources-of-a-conifer-species-in-response-to-experimental-drought
#20
Marvin Lüpke, Michael Leuchner, Rainer Steinbrecher, Annette Menzel
Monoterpene (MT) emissions of conifer tree species, emitted from de novo synthesis and storage pools, play an important role in plant ecology and physiology. During drought stress both emission sources are affected differently and with conventional measuring techniques they are difficult to separate. We investigated (13)C labelled MT emission of eight 3-year-old Scots pine seedlings in a drought stress experiment using a dynamic gas exchange chamber system (Tree DEMON). Monoterpene, water vapour and CO2 gas exchange were measured for a 2-day normal watering, a 11-day treatment and a 3-day re-watering period...
September 2017: AoB Plants
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