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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102913/autumn-photosynthetic-decline-and-growth-cessation-in-seedlings-of-white-spruce-are-decoupled-under-warming-and-photoperiod-manipulations
#1
Joseph R Stinziano, Danielle A Way
Climate warming is expected to increase the seasonal duration of photosynthetic carbon fixation and tree growth in high latitude forests. However photoperiod, a crucial cue for seasonality, will remain constant, which may constrain tree responses to warming. We investigated the effects of temperature and photoperiod on weekly changes in photosynthetic capacity, leaf biochemistry and growth in seedlings of a boreal evergreen conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Warming delayed autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity, extending the period when seedlings had high carbon uptake...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102497/regulated-partitioning-of-fixed-carbon-14-c-sodium-na-potassium-k-and-glycine-betaine-determined-salinity-stress-tolerance-of-gamma-irradiated-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp
#2
Pankaj Kumar, Vasundhara Sharma, Chobhe Kapil Atmaram, Bhupinder Singh
Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. Pigeonpea is a salt sensitive crop. Seed gamma irradiation at a very low dose (2.5 Gy) is known to enhance seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of cereals and other crops. The present study conducted using two genetically diverse varieties of pigeonpea viz., Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 aimed at establishing the role of pre-sowing seed gamma irradiation at 0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality under salt stress at 0, 80 and 100 mM NaCl (soil solution EC equivalent 1...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102339/effects-of-increased-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-on-offspring-performance-of-two-dominant-species-in-a-temperate-steppe-ecosystem
#3
Yang Li, Longyu Hou, Bing Song, Liuyi Yang, Linghao Li
Plants adapt to environment by plastic growth which will be transferred to offspring through transgenerational effect. Performance and response of maternal and offspring plant will affect population dynamics and community composition. However, it is scarcely understood how maternal nutrient environment affect the performance and response of offspring through transgenerational effect. Here we studied the impacts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment on maternal and offspring performances and responses of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094046/spatiotemporal-variation-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-colonization-in-olive-olea-europaea-l-roots-across-a-broad-mesic-xeric-climatic-gradient-in-north-africa
#4
Amel Meddad-Hamza, Nabila Hamza, Souad Neffar, Arifa Beddiar, Silvio Gianinazzi, Haroun Chenchouni
This study aims to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of root colonization and spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere of olive trees (Olea europaea) with different plantation ages and under different climatic areas in Algeria. Soil and root samples were seasonally collected from three olive plantations of different ages. Other samples were carried out in productive olive orchards cultivated under a climatic gradient (desertic, semi-arid, subhumid, and humid). The olive varieties analysed in this study were Blanquette, Rougette, Chemlel and the wild-olive...
January 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088026/current-ambient-concentrations-of-ozone-in-panama-modulate-the-leaf-chemistry-of-the-tropical-tree-ficus-insipida
#5
Gerald F Schneider, Alexander W Cheesman, Klaus Winter, Benjamin L Turner, Stephen Sitch, Thomas A Kursar
Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a major air pollutant and greenhouse gas, affecting carbon dynamics, ecological interactions, and agricultural productivity across continents and biomes. Elevated [O3] has been documented in tropical evergreen forests, the epicenters of terrestrial primary productivity and plant-consumer interactions. However, the effects of O3 on vegetation have not previously been studied in these forests. In this study, we quantified ambient O3 in a region shared by forests and urban/commercial zones in Panama and found levels two to three times greater than in remote tropical sites...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062752/arabidopsis-seed-mitochondria-are-bioenergetically-active-immediately-upon-imbibition-and-specialize-via-biogenesis-in-preparation-for-autotrophic-growth
#6
Gael Paszkiewicz, Jose Manuel Gualberto, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, David C Logan
Seed germination is a vital developmental transition for production of progeny by sexual reproduction in spermatophytes. Quiescent cells in non-dormant dry embryos are reawakened first by imbibition and then by perception of germination triggers. Reanimated tissues enter into a germination program requiring energy for expansion growth. However, germination requires that embryonic tissues develop to support the more energy-demanding processes of cell division and organogenesis of the new seedling. Reactivation of mitochondria to supply the required energy is thus a key process underpinning germination and seedling survival...
January 6, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054942/a-comprehensive-proteomic-survey-of-aba-induced-protein-phosphorylation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#7
Jiehua Qiu, Yuxuan Hou, Yifeng Wang, Zhiyong Li, Juan Zhao, Xiaohong Tong, Haiyan Lin, Xiangjin Wei, Hejun Ao, Jian Zhang
abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone regulating plant development and stress response. The signal transduction of ABA largely relies on protein phosphorylation. However; little is known about the phosphorylation events occurring during ABA signaling in rice thus far. By employing a label-free; MS (Mass Spectrometry)-based phosphoproteomic approach; we identified 2271 phosphosites of young rice seedlings and their intensity dynamics in response to ABA; during which 1060 proteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052495/life-and-death-of-picea-abies-after-bark-beetle-outbreak-ecological-processes-driving-seedling-recruitment
#8
Martin Macek, Jan Wild, Martin Kopecký, Jaroslav Červenka, Miroslav Svoboda, Jitka Zenáhlíková, Josef Brůna, Reinhard Mosandl, Anton Fischer
The severity and spatial extent of bark-beetle outbreaks substantially increased in recent decades worldwide. The ongoing controversy about natural forest recovery after these outbreaks highlights the need for individual-based long-term studies, which disentangle processes driving forest regeneration. However, such studies have been lacking. To fill this gap, we followed the fates of 2,552 individual seedlings for 12 years after a large-scale bark-beetle outbreak that caused complete canopy dieback in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southeast Germany...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008701/entire-nucleotide-sequences-of-gossypium-raimondii-and-g-arboreum-mitochondrial-genomes-revealed-a-genome-species-as-cytoplasmic-donor-of-the-allotetraploid-species
#9
Zhiwen Chen, Hushuai Nie, Corrinne E Grover, Yumei Wang, Pengbo Li, Meiyan Wang, Haili Pei, Yanpeng Zhao, Shuangshuang Li, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and an allotetraploid genomic group, AD. Gossypium raimondii (D5 ) and Gossypium arboreum (A2 ) are the putative contributors to the progenitor of G. hirsutum (AD1 ), the economically important fiber-producing cotton species. Mitochondrial DNA from week-old etiolated seedlings was extracted from isolated organelles using discontinuous sucrose density gradient method. Mitochondrial genomes were sequenced, assembled, annotated and analyzed orderly...
December 23, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974653/effects-of-prolonged-drought-stress-on-scots-pine-seedling-carbon-allocation
#10
Heidi Aaltonen, Aki Lindén, Jussi Heinonsalo, Christina Biasi, Jukka Pumpanen
As the number of drought occurrences has been predicted to increase with increasing temperatures, it is believed that boreal forests will become particularly vulnerable to decreased growth and increased tree mortality caused by the hydraulic failure, carbon starvation and vulnerability to pests following these. Although drought-affected trees are known to have stunted growth, as well as increased allocation of carbon to roots, still not enough is known about the ways in which trees can acclimate to drought...
December 14, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968989/the-cell-wall-duf642-at2g41800-teb-protein-is-involved-in-hypocotyl-cell-elongation
#11
Alexis Salazar-Iribe, Lourdes Teresa Agredano-Moreno, Esther Zúñiga-Sánchez, Luis Felipe Jiménez-Garcia, Alicia Gamboa-deBuen
In plants, the cell wall is a complex and dynamic structure comprising high molecular weight carbohydrates and proteins. The cell wall plays an important role in several stages of the plant life cycle, including cell division, elongation and differentiation. The DUF642 family of cell wall proteins is highly conserved in spermatophytes and might be involved in pectin structural modifications. Particularly, At2g41800 is one of the most highly induced genes during the M/G1 phases of the cell cycle, and the protein encodes by this gene has been detected in cell wall proteomes of cell suspension cultures...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930677/de-novo-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-schima-superba-seedlings-to-explore-the-response-to-drought-stress
#12
Bao-Cai Han, Wei Wei, Xiang-Cheng Mi, Ke-Ping Ma
Schima superba is an important dominant species in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests of China, and plays a vital role in community structure and dynamics. However, the survival rate of its seedlings in the field is low, and water shortage could be a factor that limits its regeneration. In order to better understand the response of its seedlings to drought stress on a functional genomics scale, RNA-seq technology was utilized in this study to perform a large-scale transcriptome sequencing of the S. superba seedlings under drought stress...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923349/assessing-the-effects-of-hybridization-and-precipitation-on-invasive-weed-demography-using-strength-of-selection-on-vital-rates
#13
Zachary Teitel, Agnieszka Klimowski, Lesley G Campbell
BACKGROUND: As global climate change transforms average temperature and rainfall, species distributions may meet, increasing the potential for hybridization and altering individual fitness and population growth. Altered rainfall specifically may shift the strength and direction of selection, also manipulating population trajectories. Here, we investigated the role of interspecific hybridization and selection imposed by rainfall on the evolution of weedy life-history in non-hybrid (Raphanus raphanistrum) and hybrid (R...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912016/soil-microbial-communities-influence-seedling-growth-of-a-rare-conifer-independent-of-plant-soil-feedback
#14
Jessica L Rigg, Cathy A Offord, Brajesh K Singh, Ian Anderson, Steve Clarke, Jeff R Powell
Plant-soil feedback, the reciprocal relationship between a plant and its associated microbial communities, has been proposed to be an important driver of plant populations and community dynamics. While rarely considered, understanding how plant-soil feedback contributes to plant rarity may have implications for conservation and management of rare species. Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) is a critically endangered species, of which fewer than 100 trees are known to exist in the wild. Seedling survival within the first year after germination and subsequent recruitment of Wollemi pine is limited in the wild...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885443/roles-of-the-haustorium-and-endosperm-during-the-development-of-seedlings-of-acrocomia-aculeata-arecaceae-dynamics-of-reserve-mobilization-and-accumulation
#15
Hellen Cássia Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Denise Maria Trombert Oliveira
The mobilization of palm seed reserves is a complex process because of the abundance and diversity of stored compounds and results from the development of a highly specialized haustorium. This work focused on the important Neotropical oleaginous palm Acrocomia aculeata, with the aim of defining phases of seedling development associated with mobilization of reserves and elucidating the role of haustorium and endosperm in this process. Standard methods were performed, including biometric, anatomical, and histochemical analyses, as well as the evaluation of the activities of the enzymes endo-β-mannanase and lipase, throughout the reserve mobilization in seeds during germination and in seedlings...
November 24, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870897/a-forest-tent-caterpillar-outbreak-increased-resource-levels-and-seedling-growth-in-a-northern-hardwood-forest
#16
Danaë M A Rozendaal, Richard K Kobe
In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864964/no-evidence-that-boron-influences-tree-species-distributions-in-lowland-tropical-forests-of-panama
#17
Benjamin L Turner, Paul-Camilo Zalamea, Richard Condit, Klaus Winter, S Joseph Wright, James W Dalling
It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils...
November 16, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864752/real-time-analysis-of-the-apical-hook-development
#18
Qiang Zhu, Petra Žádníková, Dajo Smet, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Eva Benková
Mechanisms for cell protection are essential for survival of multicellular organisms. In plants, the apical hook, which is transiently formed in darkness when the germinating seedling penetrates towards the soil surface, plays such protective role and shields the vitally important shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage. The apical hook is formed by bending of the upper hypocotyl soon after germination, and it is maintained in a closed stage while the hypocotyl continues to penetrate through the soil and rapidly opens when exposed to light in proximity of the soil surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859855/dynamic-and-rapid-changes-in-the-transcriptome-and-epigenome-during-germination-and-in-developing-rice-oryza-sativa-coleoptiles-under-anoxia-and-re-oxygenation
#19
Reena Narsai, David Secco, Matthew D Schultz, Joseph R Ecker, Ryan Lister, James Whelan
Detailed molecular profiling of Oryza sativa (rice) was carried out to uncover the features that are essential to germination and early seedling growth under anoxic conditions. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome and methylome from germination to young seedlings under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 82% similarity in the transcriptome and no differences in the epigenome up to 24-h. Following germination, significant transcriptomic and DNA methylation changes were observed between 4-d aerobic and anaerobic grown coleoptiles...
November 12, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859202/higher-%C3%AE-diversity-observed-for-herbs-over-woody-plants-is-driven-by-stronger-habitat-filtering-in-a-tropical-understory
#20
Stephen J Murphy, Kara Salpeter, Liza S Comita
Herbaceous plants are a key component of tropical forests. Previous work indicates that herbs contribute substantially to the species richness of tropical plant communities. However, the processes structuring tropical herb diversity, and how they contrast with woody communities, have been underexplored. Within the understory of a 50-ha forest dynamics plot in central Panama, we compared the diversity, distribution, and abundance of vascular herbaceous plants with woody seedlings (i.e., tree and lianas <1 cm DBH and ≥20 cm tall)...
August 2016: Ecology
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