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seedling dynamic

Zachary Teitel, Agnieszka Klimowski, Lesley G Campbell
BACKGROUND: As global climate change transforms average temperature and rainfall, species distributions may meet, increasing the potential for hybridization and altering individual fitness and population growth. Altered rainfall specifically may shift the strength and direction of selection, also manipulating population trajectories. Here, we investigated the role of interspecific hybridization and selection imposed by rainfall on the evolution of weedy life-history in non-hybrid (Raphanus raphanistrum) and hybrid (R...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jessica L Rigg, Cathy A Offord, Brajesh K Singh, Ian Anderson, Steve Clarke, Jeff R Powell
Plant-soil feedback, the reciprocal relationship between a plant and its associated microbial communities, has been proposed to be an important driver of plant populations and community dynamics. While rarely considered, understanding how plant-soil feedback contributes to plant rarity may have implications for conservation and management of rare species. Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) is a critically endangered species, of which fewer than 100 trees are known to exist in the wild. Seedling survival within the first year after germination and subsequent recruitment of Wollemi pine is limited in the wild...
December 2016: Ecology
Hellen Cássia Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Denise Maria Trombert Oliveira
The mobilization of palm seed reserves is a complex process because of the abundance and diversity of stored compounds and results from the development of a highly specialized haustorium. This work focused on the important Neotropical oleaginous palm Acrocomia aculeata, with the aim of defining phases of seedling development associated with mobilization of reserves and elucidating the role of haustorium and endosperm in this process. Standard methods were performed, including biometric, anatomical, and histochemical analyses, as well as the evaluation of the activities of the enzymes endo-β-mannanase and lipase, throughout the reserve mobilization in seeds during germination and in seedlings...
November 24, 2016: Protoplasma
Danaë M A Rozendaal, Richard K Kobe
In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012)...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin L Turner, Paul-Camilo Zalamea, Richard Condit, Klaus Winter, S Joseph Wright, James W Dalling
It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils...
November 16, 2016: New Phytologist
Qiang Zhu, Petra Žádníková, Dajo Smet, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Eva Benková
Mechanisms for cell protection are essential for survival of multicellular organisms. In plants, the apical hook, which is transiently formed in darkness when the germinating seedling penetrates towards the soil surface, plays such protective role and shields the vitally important shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage. The apical hook is formed by bending of the upper hypocotyl soon after germination, and it is maintained in a closed stage while the hypocotyl continues to penetrate through the soil and rapidly opens when exposed to light in proximity of the soil surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Reena Narsai, David Secco, Matthew D Schultz, Joseph R Ecker, Ryan Lister, James Whelan
Detailed molecular profiling of Oryza sativa (rice) was carried out to uncover the features that are essential to germination and early seedling growth under anoxic conditions. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome and methylome from germination to young seedlings under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 82% similarity in the transcriptome and no differences in the epigenome up to 24-h. Following germination, significant transcriptomic and DNA methylation changes were observed between 4-d aerobic and anaerobic grown coleoptiles...
November 12, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Stephen J Murphy, Kara Salpeter, Liza S Comita
Herbaceous plants are a key component of tropical forests. Previous work indicates that herbs contribute substantially to the species richness of tropical plant communities. However, the processes structuring tropical herb diversity, and how they contrast with woody communities, have been underexplored. Within the understory of a 50-ha forest dynamics plot in central Panama, we compared the diversity, distribution, and abundance of vascular herbaceous plants with woody seedlings (i.e., tree and lianas <1 cm DBH and ≥20 cm tall)...
August 2016: Ecology
Samuel B St Clair, Rory O'Connor, Richard Gill, Brock McMillan
Biotic resistance and disturbance are fundamental processes influencing plant invasion outcomes; however, the role of consumers in regulating the establishment and spread of plant invaders and how disturbance modifies biotic resistance by consumers is unclear. We document that fire in combination with experimental exclusion of rodent consumers shifted a native desert shrubland to a low-diversity, invasive annual grassland dominated by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass). In contrast, burned plots with rodents present suppressed invasion by cheatgrass and developed into a more diverse forb community...
July 2016: Ecology
Alexandro B Leverkus, José María Rey Benayas, Jorge Castro
Seed dispersal effectiveness, which measures the number of adult plant individuals produced by seed dispersal, is the product of the number of seeds dispersed and the probability a seed produces an adult. Directed dispersal to certain habitat types may enhance some stages of recruitment but disfavor others, generating demographic conflicts in plant ontogeny. We asked whether temporal changes in habitat features may affect the distribution of seedlings recruited from dispersed acorns, and whether this could induce shifts in the life-stage conflicts experienced by successive cohorts of naturally recruited plants...
October 2016: Ecology
Daniel S W Katz, Inés Ibáñez
Plant distributions are expected to shift in response to climate change, and range expansion dynamics will be shaped by the performance of individuals at the colonizing front. These plants will encounter new biotic communities beyond their range edges, and the net outcome of these encounters could profoundly affect colonization success. However, little is known about how biotic interactions vary across range edges and this has hindered efforts to predict changes in species distributions in response to climate change...
September 2016: Ecology
Mariano Moreno-de Las Heras, Laura Turnbull, John Wainwright
Large areas of desert grasslands in the southwestern United States have shifted to sparse shrublands dominated by drought-tolerant woody species over the last 150 yr, accompanied by accelerated soil erosion. An important step toward the understanding of patterns in species dominance and vegetation change at desert grassland-shrubland transitions is the study of environmental limitations imposed by the shrub-encroachment phenomenon on plant establishment. Here, we analyze the structure of soil seed banks, environmental limitations for seed germination (i...
September 2016: Ecology
Kurt McLaren, Setu Monroe, Byron Wilson
We assessed the influence of the Arctic oscillation (AO) on local climate (using data from 2004 to 2009), their influence and the effects of heterospecific density on seedling dynamics (from January 2006 to August 2009), using data from 120 25-m(2) subplots established in a moist tropical forest over limestone in Jamaica. The AO index (AOI) had a positive nonlinear relationship with mean monthly rainfall and the number of days with rain. Also, there was a significant increase in mean monthly atmospheric temperature in 2006, which coincided with a global temperature increase...
September 2016: Ecology
Huiyuan Peng, Yahan Chen, Zhengbing Yan, Wenxuan Han
Stoichiometric homeostasis is the ability of plants remaining their element composition relatively stable regardless of changes in nutrient availability, via various physiological mechanisms. Nutrient resorption is one of such key mechanisms, but whether and how nitrogen and phosphorus homeostasis and resorption in plants would change with growth-stages under variable nutrient supply was unclear. A nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer addition experiment was conducted to evaluate the dynamics of N and P homeostasis and resorption efficiency during different growth-stages of Amaranthus mangostanus in a greenhouse...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xuezhu Zhu, Li Jin, Kai Sun, Shuang Li, Xuelin Li, Wanting Ling
This study provides new insights into the dynamics of bacterial community structure during phytoremediation. The communities of cultivable autochthonous endophytic bacteria in ryegrass exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with regard to their potential to biodegrade PAHs. Bacterial counts and 16S rRNA gene sequence were used in the microbiological evaluation. A total of 33 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from ryegrass plants, which represented 15 different genera and eight different classes, respectively...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiaoyang Song, Jieqiong Li, Wenfu Zhang, Yong Tang, Zhenhua Sun, Min Cao
Seasonal drought is a common phenomenon in many forests predominated by monsoon climate. The impact of seasonal drought, however, may vary with elevations, and tree species of forests hence may differ in their response to elevations. In this study, we monitored the seasonal variation of seedling species composition, and their relative growth rate (RGR) along an elevational transect in tropical forests of southwest China for two years. We found tree seedling species richness declined with rising elevation. Seedling abundance and species richness increased significantly from dry season to rainy season...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ashley Ann Alvarez, Sang Won Han, Masatsugu Toyota, Carla Brillada, Jiameng Zheng, Simon Gilroy, Marcela Rojas-Pierce
Gravitropism in Arabidopsis shoots depends on the sedimentation of amyloplasts in the endodermis, and a complex interplay between the vacuole and F-actin. Gravity response is inhibited in zigzag-1 (zig-1), a mutant allele of VTI11, which encodes a SNARE protein involved in vacuole fusion. zig-1 seedlings have fragmented vacuoles that fuse after treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and underscore a role of phosphoinositides in vacuole fusion. Using live-cell imaging with a vertical stage microscope, we determined that young endodermal cells below the apical hook that are smaller than 70 μm in length are the graviperceptive cells in dark-grown hypocotyls...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gustav Waschatko, Nils Billecke, Sascha Schwendy, Henriette Jaurich, Mischa Bonn, Thomas A Vilgis, Sapun H Parekh
Plant oleosomes are uniquely emulsified lipid reservoirs that serve as the primary energy source during seed germination. These oil bodies undergo significant changes regarding their size, composition and structure during normal seedling development; however, a detailed characterization of these oil body dynamics, which critically affect oil body extractability and nutritional value, has remained challenging because of a limited ability to monitor oil body location and composition during germination in situ Here, we demonstrate via in situ, label-free imaging that oil bodies are highly dynamic intracellular organelles that are morphologically and biochemically remodelled extensively during germination...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Ying Zhang, Qinqin Yu, Nan Jiang, Xu Yan, Chao Wang, Qingmei Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Muyuan Zhu, Sebastian Y Bednarek, Jian Xu, Jianwei Pan
Phototropism is the process by which plants grow towards light in order to maximize the capture of light for photosynthesis, which is particularly important for germinating seedlings. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl phototropism is predominantly triggered by blue light (BL), which has a profound effect on the establishment of asymmetric auxin distribution, essential for hypocotyl phototropism. Two auxin efflux transporters ATP-BINDING CASSETTE B19 (ABCB19) and PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3), are known to mediate the effect of BL on auxin distribution in the hypocotyl, but the details for how BL triggers PIN3 lateralization remain poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Travis L Goron, Manish N Raizada
BACKGROUND: The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is a primary transport form of nitrogen in vasculature following root uptake, critical for the location/timing of growth in maize and other cereals. Analytical chemistry methods do not permit in situ analysis of Gln, including visualization within the vascular network. Their cost and tissue requirement are barriers to exploring the complexity of Gln dynamics. We previously reported a biosensor, GlnLux, which can measure relative Gln levels inexpensively with tiny amounts of tissue...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
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