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seedling dynamic

Margarita Ros, Iulia Raut, Ana Belén Santisima-Trinidad, Jose Antonio Pascual
The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae...
2017: PloS One
Nathan P Lemoine, Deron E Burkepile, John D Parker
Insect herbivores help maintain forest diversity through selective predation on seedlings of vulnerable tree species. Although the role of natural enemies has been well-studied in tropical systems, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated insect abundance in temperate forests and tracked impacts over multiple years. We conducted a three-year experiment (2012-2014) deterring insect herbivores from seedlings in new treefall gaps in deciduous hardwood forests in Maryland. During this study, we tracked recruitment of all tree seedlings, as well as survivorship and growth of 889 individual seedlings from five tree species: Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus spp...
2017: PeerJ
Christina M Smith-Martin, Maria G Gei, Ellie Bergstrom, Kristen K Becklund, Justin M Becknell, Bonnie G Waring, Leland K Werden, Jennifer S Powers
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Anthony J McMechan, Gary L Hein
The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) is the only known vector of three viruses in wheat-Wheat streak mosaic virus, Wheat mosaic virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. The economic impact of this disease complex is linked to the presence of suitable hosts prior to winter wheat maturing in early summer and the movement of wheat curl mite from wheat to oversummering hosts prior to wheat harvest. Previous research has documented the prevalence and density of mite populations on maturing wheat heads; however, these studies were limited to a few late stages of wheat...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Cuiping Zhang, Bei Wang, Xiaoyan Dai, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Yuanqing Zhou
Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) are considered to be effective for treating organic pollutants. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites sp., Typha sp. serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic pollutants. However, it is still not clear how soil bacterial communities respond to macrophytes and pollutants during the process. For this purpose, the seedlings of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia were planted respectively in the VF CWs added with HCB at a dose of 2 mg/kg...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Brad M Binder
Ethylene is well known to inhibit the growth of dark-grown eudicot seedlings. Most studies examine this inhibition after several days of exposure to ethylene. However, such end-point analysis misses transient responses and the dynamic nature of growth regulation. Here, high-resolution, time-lapse imaging is described as a method to gather data about ethylene growth kinetics and movement responses of the hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods allow for the characterization of short-term kinetic responses and can be modified for the analysis of roots and seedlings from other species...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gustavo M Souza, Arlan S Ferreira, Gustavo F R Saraiva, Gabriel R A Toledo
In the present study, we have investigated how the low-voltage electrical signals of soybean seedlings change their temporal dynamic under different environmental conditions (cold, low light, and low osmotic potential). We have used electrophytografic technique (EPG) with sub-dermal electrodes inserted in 15-days-old seedlings located between root and shoot, accounting for a significant part of the individual seedlings. Herein, to work on a specific framework to settle this type of the study, we are adopting the term "electrome" as a reference to the totality of electrical activity measured...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ben Niu, Joseph Nathaniel Paulson, Xiaoqi Zheng, Roberto Kolter
Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains (Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum, and Chryseobacterium indologenes) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots...
March 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tiffany Victor, Natalie Delpratt, Sarah Beth Cseke, Lisa M Miller, Leland James Cseke
Symbiotic associations in the rhizosphere between plants and microorganisms lead to efficient changes in the distribution of nutrients that promote growth and development for each organism involved. Understanding these nutrient fluxes provides insight into the molecular dynamics involved in nutrient transport from one organism to the other. To study such nutrient flow, a new application of Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) was developed that entailed growing Populus tremulodes seedlings on a thin, nutrient-enriched Phytagel matrix that allows pixel to pixel measurement of the distribution of nutrients - in particular nitrate - in the rhizosphere...
March 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
María Luz Zapiola, Carol Ann Mallory-Smith
The planting of 162 ha of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) near Madras, OR, USA, allowed a unique opportunity to study gene flow over time from a perennial outcrossing species at the landscape level. While conducting a four year in situ survey, we collected panicles and leaf tissue samples from creeping bentgrass and its sexually compatible species. Seeds from the panicles were planted, and seedlings were tested in the greenhouse for expression of the transgene. Gene flow via pollen was found in all four years, at frequencies of 0...
2017: PloS One
Mina Ghahremani, Kyla A Stigter, William Plaxton
Proteins secreted by plant cells into the extracellular space, consisting of the cell wall, apoplastic fluid, and rhizosphere, play crucial roles during development, nutrient acquisition, and stress acclimation. However, isolating the full range of secreted proteins has proven difficult, and new strategies are constantly evolving to increase the number of proteins that can be detected and identified. In addition, the dynamic nature of the extracellular proteome presents the further challenge of identifying and characterizing the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of secreted proteins, particularly glycosylation and phosphorylation...
September 1, 2016: Proteomes
Micaela Peppino Margutti, Matias Reyna, María Verónica Meringer, Graciela E Racagni, Ana Laura Villasuso
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in responses to a variety of environmental stresses, including chilling and freezing stress. Barley responses to chilling stress (induced by incubating seedlings at 4 °C) are dynamic and the duration of stress, either short (0-180 min) or long-term (24-36 h) had a significant impact on the response. We investigated the roles of PLD/PA in responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings to short and long-term chilling stress, based on regulation of proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sangsub Cha, Hee-Myung Chae, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Kuk Shim
The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions...
2017: PloS One
Yong-Ming Huang, Ying-Ning Zou, Qiang-Sheng Wu
The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2(·-)), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhenxin Ren, Ruiyuan Liu, Wenting Gu, Xicun Dong
ARF2 as apleiotropic developmental regulator has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The present study showed SlARF2 transcripts in all tomato plant tissues but with higher accumulation in flowers. During bud-anthesis stages, SlARF2 transcripts showed a dynamic expression pattern in sepal, stamen, ovary and petal. Hormone treatment analysis suggested that SlARF2 transcript accumulation was positively regulated by auxin and gibberellic acid, and negatively regulated by ethylene in tomato seedlings...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Agnieszka Woźniak, Magda Formela, Piotr Bilman, Katarzyna Grześkiewicz, Waldemar Bednarski, Łukasz Marczak, Dorota Narożna, Katarzyna Dancewicz, Van Chung Mai, Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek, Beata Gabryś, Iwona Morkunas
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO), i.e., S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on the metabolic status of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski leaves infested by Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, population demographic parameters and A. pisum feeding activity. A reduction in the level of semiquinone radicals in pea seedling leaves pretreated with exogenous NO occurred 24 h after A. pisum infestation, which was earlier than in non-pretreated leaves. A decrease in the level of O₂(•-) was observed in leaves pretreated with GSNO and infested by aphids at 48 and 72 h post-infestation (hpi)...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ailene Ettinger, Janneke HilleRisLambers
Forecasts of widespread range shifts with climate change stem from assumptions that climate drives species distributions. However, local adaption and biotic interactions also influence range limits, and thus, may impact range shifts. Despite the potential importance of these factors, few studies have directly tested their effects on performance at range limits. We address how population-level variation and biotic interactions may affect range shifts by transplanting seeds and seedlings of western North American conifers of different origin populations into different competitive neighborhoods within and beyond their elevational ranges and monitoring their performance...
February 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
Kang Zhang, Wenying Xu, Chunchao Wang, Xin Yi, Zhen Su
Chromatin structure has an important role in modulating gene expression. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome leads to important changes in the chromatin structure. The histone variant H2A.Z is highly conserved between different species of fungi, animals, and plants. However, dynamic changes to H2A.Z in rice have not been reported during the day-night cycle. In this study, we generated genome wide maps of H2A.Z for day and night time in harvested seedling tissues by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Hana Habrova, Jindrich Pavlis
Woody vegetation dynamics and Dracaena cinnabari regeneration have been studied for five years in the conditions of Socotra Island. Woody plants were measured regularly inside and outside the exclosure area, and the growth and survival of D. cinnabari seedlings were observed. In the exclosure of about 1000 m(2) a total of 49 species were identified, including 23 endemics, growing in the average density of 3.82 specimens per m(2). The fenced area was overgrown relatively rapidly by dense grass cover - reaching approx...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Line Johansen, Sølvi Wehn, Knut Anders Hovstad
Grazing is an important management action to conserve biodiversity in semi-natural grasslands but it is important to understand how grazing influences the life-history components and population dynamics of plant species. In this study, we analysed effects of grazing intensity and abandonment on population dynamics of the semi-natural grassland species Knautia arvensis which is an important nectar source for pollinating species and an indicator of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. We recorded life-history stage, survival, establishment of seedlings and ramets, number of inflorescences and grazing marks on permanently marked individuals in eight populations in mid-Norway for three consecutive years...
August 2016: Flora
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