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seedling dynamic

Lindsay D Leverett, George F Schieder Iv, Kathleen Donohue
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenology, the seasonal timing of development, can alter biotic interactions. Emergence from dormant or quiescent stages often occurs earlier when neighbors are present, which may reduce the neighbors' competitive effects. Delayed emergence in response to neighbors also has been observed, but the potential benefits of such delays are unclear. Further, emergence time may respond to neighbors experienced by parents, which may predict future competition in offspring...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Victoria Moriconi, Melanie Binkert, María Cecilia Costigliolo Rojas, Romina Sellaro, Roman Ulm, Jorge Jose Casal
Sunflecks, transient patches of light that penetrate through gaps in the canopy and transiently interrupt shade, are eco-physiologically and agriculturally important sources of energy for carbon gain, but our molecular understanding of how plant organs perceive and respond to sunflecks remains limited. The UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a recent addition to the list of plant photo-sensory receptors and, we have made considerable advances in our understanding of the physiology and molecular mechanisms of action of UVR8 and its signalling pathway...
March 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Yanan Wan, Aboubacar Younoussa Camara, Qingqing Huang, Yao Yu, Qi Wang, Huafen Li
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice grain is a potential threat to human health. Our study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenite fertilization on As uptake and accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different water management regimes (aerobic or flooded) in a pot experiment. Soil solutions were also extracted during the growing season to monitor As dynamics. Results showed that As contents in the soil solutions, seedlings, and mature rice were higher under flooded than under aerobic water management...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Viktor Tokan, Janka Puterova, Matej Lexa, Eduard Kejnovsky
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that guanine-rich DNA sequences form quadruplex structures (G4) in vitro but there is scarce evidence of guanine quadruplexes in vivo. The majority of potential quadruplex-forming sequences (PQS) are located in transposable elements (TEs), especially close to promoters within long terminal repeats of plant LTR retrotransposons. RESULTS: In order to test the potential effect of G4s on retrotransposon expression, we cloned the long terminal repeats of selected maize LTR retrotransposons upstream of the lacZ reporter gene and measured its transcription and translation in yeast...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fang Hui, Jinyu Zhu, Pengcheng Hu, Lei Meng, Binglin Zhu, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Yuntao Ma
Background and Aims: Global agriculture is facing the challenge of a phenotyping bottleneck due to large-scale screening/breeding experiments with improved breeds. Phenotypic analysis with high-throughput, high-accuracy and low-cost technologies has therefore become urgent. Recent advances in image-based 3D reconstruction offer the opportunity of high-throughput phenotyping. The main aim of this study was to quantify and evaluate the canopy structure of plant populations in two and three dimensions based on the multi-view stereo (MVS) approach, and to monitor plant growth and development from seedling stage to fruiting stage...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
E S Yando, M J Osland, M W Hester
Ecotone dynamics and shifting range limits can be used to advance our understanding of the ecological implications of future range expansions in response to climate change. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, the salt marsh-mangrove ecotone is an area where range limits and ecotone dynamics can be studied in tandem as recent decreases in winter temperature extremes have allowed for mangrove expansion at the expense of salt marsh. In this study, we assessed aboveground and belowground plant-soil dynamics across the salt marsh-mangrove ecotone quantifying micro-spatial patterns in horizontal extent...
March 1, 2018: Oecologia
Jette Reeg, Simon Heine, Christine Mihan, Thomas G Preuss, Sean McGee, Florian Jeltsch
Current herbicide risk assessment guidelines for non-target terrestrial plants require testing effects on young vulnerable life stages (i.e., seedling emergence (and subsequent growth) and vegetative vigor (growth and dry weight)) but not directly on the reproduction of plants. However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recently brought into attention that effects on reproduction might be considered when evaluating the potential effects on plants. We adapted the plant community model IBC-grass to give insights in the current debate on the sensitivity of reproductive vs...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Raquel Azevedo, Eleazar Rodriguez, Rafael José Mendes, Nuno Mariz-Ponte, Sara Sario, José Carlos Lopes, José Miguel P Ferreira de Oliveira, Conceição Santos
Inorganic Mercury (Hg) contamination persists an environmental problem, but its cyto- and genotoxicity in plants remains yet unquantified. To determine the extent of Hg-induced cyto- and genotoxicity, and assess most sensitive endpoints in plants, Pisum sativum L. seedlings were exposed for 14 days to different HgCl2 concentrations up to 100 μM. Shoots and roots from hydroponic exposure presented growth impairment and/or morphological disorders for doses >1 μM, being the roots more sensitive. Plant growth, ploidy changes, clastogenicity (HPCV), cell cycle dynamics (G1 -S-G2 ), Comet-tail moment (TM), Comet-TD, Mitotic-index (MI) and cell proliferation index (CPI) were used to evaluate Hg-induced cyto/genotoxicity...
February 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Krystal A Nunes, Peter M Kotanen
Most research examining how herbivores and pathogens affect performance of invasive plants focuses on aboveground interactions. Although important, the role of belowground communities remains poorly understood, and the relative impact of aboveground and belowground interactions is still debated. As well, most studies of belowground interactions have been carried out in controlled environments, so little is known about the role of these interactions under natural conditions or how these relationships may change across a plant's range...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Natalia V Zhukovskaya, Elena I Bystrova, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Victor B Ivanov
Background and Aims: Information on cell cycle duration (T) in the root apical meristem (RAM) provides insight into root growth, development and evolution. We have previously proposed a simple method for evaluating T based on the dynamics of root growth (V), the number of cells in the RAM (Nm) and the length of fully elongated cells (l), which we named the rate-of-cell-production (RCP) method. Here, a global analysis was performed to confirm the reliability of this method in a range of angiosperm species and to assess the advantages of this approach...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Raphael Weber, Andrea Schwendener, Sandra Schmid, Savoyane Lambert, Erin Wiley, Simon M Landhäusser, Henrik Hartmann, Günter Hoch
The usage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) to indicate carbon (C) limitation in trees requires knowledge of the minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal C starvation, and the NSC dynamics during and after severe C limitation. We completely darkened and subsequently released seedlings of two deciduous and two evergreen temperate tree species for varying periods. NSCs were measured in all major organs, allowing assessment of whole-seedling NSC balances. NSCs decreased fast in darkness, but seedlings survived species-specific whole-seedling starch concentrations as low as 0...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
Andrea Pitzschke
Aims: The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods: MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach...
January 2018: Plant and Soil
Hongtao Xie, Mukui Yu, Xiangrong Cheng
Light availability greatly affects plant growth and development. In shaded environments, plants must respond to reduced light intensity to ensure a regular rate of photosynthesis to maintain the dynamic balance of nutrients, such as leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To improve our understanding of the nutrient utilization strategies of understory shade-tolerant plants, we compared the variations in leaf NSCs, C, N and P in response to heterogeneous controlled light conditions between two subtropical evergreen broadleaf shade-tolerant species, Elaeocarpus sylvestris (E...
January 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Samantha Ann Setterfield, Alan Neil Andersen
Seed predation can cause substantial seed losses and influence plant population dynamics, but the impact depends on the extent to which populations are limited by seed availability or favorable microsites for recruitment. Harvester ants are the dominant post-dispersal seed predators in Australia's tropical savannas, and their abundance and foraging efficiency, as well as the availability of seed and microsites, are affected by fire history. We undertook a predator-exclusion experiment to examine the interactive effects of fire history (no fire compared with annual burning over 5 years) and seed predation by ants on seedling establishment of the dominant savanna tree, Eucalyptus miniata, in northern Australia...
January 22, 2018: Oecologia
Masoomeh Modarres, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Mohammad Ehsan Taghavizadeh Yazdi
Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant with hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Many of the beneficial effects of Salvia spp. are attributed to the phenolic compounds. In the present study, an efficient procedure has been developed for establishment of cell suspension culture of S. leriifolia as a strategy to obtain an in vitro phenolic acids producing cell line for the first time. The effect of growth regulators and various concentrations of sucrose have been analyzed, to optimize biomass growth and phenolic acids production...
January 18, 2018: Cytotechnology
Addisie Geremew, Iris Stiers, Tim Sierens, Alemayehu Kefalew, Ludwig Triest
Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers...
2018: PloS One
Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Orou G Gaoue
Climate projections forecast more extreme interannual climate variability over time, with an increase in the severity and duration of extreme drought and rainfall events. Based on bioclimatic envelope models, it is projected that changing precipitation patterns will drastically alter the spatial distributions and density of plants and be a primary driver of biodiversity loss. However, many other underlying mechanisms can impact plant vital rates (i.e., survival, growth, and reproduction) and population dynamics...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Youshi Wang, Shujun Wen, M D Farnon Ellwood, Adam D Miller, Chengjin Chu
In an era of global environmental change, understanding how disturbance affects the dynamics of ecological communities is crucial. However, few studies have theoretically explored the potential influence of disturbance including both intensity and frequency on compositional change over time in communities with stage structure. A spatially explicit, individual-based model was constructed incorporating the various demographic responses to disturbance of plants at two different growth stages: seedlings and adults...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Bachelot Benedicte, María Uriarte, Robert Muscarella, Jimena Forero-Montaña, Jill Thompson, Krista McGuire, Jess Zimmerman, Nathan G Swenson, James S Clark
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil may influence tropical tree dynamics and forest succession. The mechanisms are poorly understood, because the functional characteristics and abundances of tree species and AM fungi are likely to be codependent. We used generalized joint attribute modeling to evaluate if AM fungi are associated with three forest community metrics for a sub-tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. The metrics chosen to reflect changes during forest succession are: the abundance of seedlings of different successional status, the amount of foliar damage on seedlings of different successional status, and community-weighted mean functional trait values (adult specific leaf area (SLA), adult wood density, and seed mass)...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
Hilda van Mourik, Aalt D J van Dijk, Niek Stortenbeker, Gerco C Angenent, Marian Bemer
BACKGROUND: Small Auxin-Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes encode growth regulators that induce cell elongation. Arabidopsis contains more than 70 SAUR genes, of which the growth-promoting function has been unveiled in seedlings, while their role in other tissues remained largely unknown. Here, we focus on the regulatory regions of Arabidopsis SAUR genes, to predict the processes in which they play a role, and understand the dynamics of plant growth. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized in detail the entire SAUR10-clade: SAUR8, SAUR9, SAUR10, SAUR12, SAUR16, SAUR50, SAUR51 and SAUR54...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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