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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722158/gravitropism-interferes-with-hydrotropism-via-counteracting-auxin-dynamics-in-cucumber-roots-clinorotation-and-spaceflight-experiments
#1
Keita Morohashi, Miki Okamoto, Chiaki Yamazaki, Nobuharu Fujii, Yutaka Miyazawa, Motoshi Kamada, Haruo Kasahara, Ikuko Osada, Toru Shimazu, Yasuo Fusejima, Akira Higashibata, Takashi Yamazaki, Noriaki Ishioka, Akie Kobayashi, Hideyuki Takahashi
Roots of land plants show gravitropism and hydrotropism in response to gravity and moisture gradients, respectively, for controlling their growth orientation. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, although the mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. Here, we differentiated hydrotropism from gravitropism in cucumber roots by conducting clinorotation and spaceflight experiments. We also compared mechanisms regulating hydrotropism and auxin-regulated gravitropism. Clinorotated or microgravity (μG)-grown cucumber seedling roots hydrotropically bent toward wet substrate in the presence of moisture gradients, but they grew straight in the direction of normal gravitational force at the Earth's surface (1G) on the ground or centrifuge-generated 1G in space...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716182/atp-sensing-in-living-plant-cells-reveals-tissue-gradients-and-stress-dynamics-of-energy-physiology
#2
Valentina De Col, Philippe Fuchs, Thomas Nietzel, Marlene Elsässer, Chia Pao Voon, Alessia Candeo, Ingo Seeliger, Mark D Fricker, Christopher Grefen, Ian Max Møller, Andrea Bassi, Boon Leong Lim, Marco Zancani, Andreas J Meyer, Alex Costa, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer
Growth and development of plants is ultimately driven by light energy captured through photosynthesis. ATP acts as universal cellular energy cofactor fuelling all life processes, including gene expression, metabolism, and transport. Despite a mechanistic understanding of ATP biochemistry, ATP dynamics in the living plant have been largely elusive. Here, we establish MgATP(2-) measurement in living plants using the fluorescent protein biosensor ATeam1.03-nD/nA. We generate Arabidopsis sensor lines and investigate the sensor in vitro under conditions appropriate for the plant cytosol...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700694/a-robust-and-efficient%C3%A2-method-for-the-extraction-of-plant-extracellular-surface-lipids-as-applied-to-the-analysis-of-silks-and-seedling-leaves-of-maize
#3
Derek M Loneman, Layton Peddicord, Amani Al-Rashid, Basil J Nikolau, Nick Lauter, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson
Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily of saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons, as well as fatty acids, and aldehydes. To efficiently extract lipids of differing polarities from maize silks, five solvent systems (hexanes; hexanes:diethyl ether (95:5); hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10); chloroform:hexanes (1:1) and chloroform) were tested by immersing fresh silks in solvent for different extraction times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690788/effects-of-local-biotic-neighbors-and-habitat-heterogeneity-on-seedling-survival-in-a-spruce-fir-valley-forest-northeastern-china
#4
Xucai Pu, Yu Zhu, Guangze Jin
Seedlings are vulnerable to many biotic and abiotic agents, and studying seedling dynamics helps understand mechanisms of species coexistence. In this study, the relative importance of biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity to seedling survival was examined by generalized linear mixed models for 33 species in a spruce-fir valley forest in northeastern China. The results showed that the relative importance of these factors varied with species and functional groups. Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) was important to the survival of Abies nephrolepis and Picea koraiensis seedling, whereas phylogenetic negative density dependence (PNDD) was critical to Pinus koraiensis and Betula platyphylla, as well as functional groups of tree, deciduous, and shade-intolerant seedlings...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681320/vegetation-dynamics-in-bishrampur-collieries-of-northern-chhattisgarh-india-eco-restoration-and-management-perspectives
#5
A Kumar, M K Jhariya, D K Yadav, A Banerjee
Phytosociological study in and around reclaimed coal mine site is an essential requirement for judging restoration impact on a disturbed site. Various studies have been aimed towards assessing the impact of different restoration practices on coal mine wastelands. Plantation scheme in a scientific way is the most suitable approach in this context. During the present investigation, an effort have been made to assess the vegetation dynamics through structure, composition, diversity, and forest floor biomass analysis in and around Bishrampur collieries, Sarguja division, northern Chhattisgarh, India...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667337/contrasting-dynamics-of-leaf-potential-and-gas-exchange-during-progressive-drought-cycles-and-recovery-in-amorpha-fruticosa-and-robinia-pseudoacacia
#6
Weiming Yan, Shuxia Zheng, Yangquanwei Zhong, Zhouping Shangguan
Leaf gas exchange is closely associated with water relations; however, less attention has been given to this relationship over successive drought events. Dynamic changes in gas exchange and water potential in the seedlings of two woody species, Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudoacacia, were monitored during recurrent drought. The pre-dawn leaf water potential declined in parallel with gas exchange in both species, and sharp declines in gas exchange occurred with decreasing water potential. A significant correlation between pre-dawn water potential and gas exchange was observed in both species and showed a right shift in R...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666670/proteomic-analysis-of-soybean-seedling-leaf-under-waterlogging-stress-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#7
Bita Kazemi Oskuei, Xiaojian Yin, Akiko Hashiguchi, Ali Bandehagh, Setsuko Komatsu
Leaf is sensitive to environmental changes and exhibits specific responses to abiotic stress. To identify the response mechanism in soybean leaf under waterlogging stress, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique combined with polyethylene glycol fractionation was used. Attenuated photosynthesis by waterlogging stress in the leaf of soybean seedlings was indicated from proteomic results. Defensive mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging was also recognized. Cluster analysis revealed that proteins that exhibit characteristic dynamics in response to waterlogging were mainly related to photosynthesis...
June 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644561/the-redox-sensitive-module-of-cyclophilin-20-3-2-cysteine-peroxiredoxin-and-cysteine-synthase-integrates-sulfur-metabolism-and-oxylipin-signaling-in-the-high-light-acclimation-response
#8
Sara M Müller, Shanshan Wang, Wilena Telman, Michael Liebthal, Helena Schnitzer, Andrea Viehhauser, Carsten Sticht, Carolina Delatorre, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Karl-Josef Dietz
The integration of redox- and reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling and metabolic activities are fundamental to plant acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previous data suggest the existence of a dynamically interacting module in the chloroplast stroma consisting of cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase B (OASTL-B), 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins A/B (2-CysPrx) and serine acetyltransferase 2;1 (SERAT2;1). The functionality of this COPS module is influenced by redox stimuli and oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) which is the precursor for jasmonic acid...
June 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637931/comparative-miromics-of-salt-tolerant-and-salt-sensitive-rice
#9
Kavita Goswami, Anita Tripathi, Neeti Sanan-Mishra
Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617451/biological-and-chemical-strategies-for-exploring-inter-and-intra-kingdom-communication-mediated-via-bacterial-volatile-signals
#10
Mohamed A Farag, Geun Cheol Song, Yong-Soon Park, Bianca Audrain, Soohyun Lee, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Joseph W Kloepper, Choong-Min Ryu
Airborne chemical signals emitted by bacteria influence the behavior of other bacteria and plants. We present an overview of in vitro methods for evaluating bacterial and plant responses to bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs). Three types of equipment have been used to physically separate the bacterial test strains from either other bacterial strains or plants (in our laboratory we use either Arabidopsis or tobacco plant seedlings): a Petri dish containing two compartments (BI Petri dish); two Petri dishes connected with tubing; and a microtiter-based assay...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582732/the-dynamics-and-endocytosis-of-flot1-protein-in-response-to-flg22-in-arabidopsis
#11
Meng Yu, Haijiao Liu, Ziyi Dong, Jianwei Xiao, Bodan Su, Lusheng Fan, George Komis, Jozef Šamaj, Jinxing Lin, Ruili Li
Membrane microdomains play vital roles in the process of bacterial infection. The membrane microdomain-associated protein Flot1 acts in an endocytic pathway and is required for seedling development, however, whether Flot1 is a part of host defense mechanisms remains unknown. During an analysis of callose deposition, we found that Flot1 amiRNAi mutants exhibited defects in response to flg22. Using variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (VA-TIRFM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and fluorescence cross spectroscopy (FCS), we determined that the dynamic behavior of GFP-Flot1 in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon epidermal cells changed significantly in plants treated with the elicitor flg22...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573380/the-contrasting-effects-of-short-term-climate-change-on-the-early-recruitment-of-tree-species
#12
Inés Ibáñez, Daniel S W Katz, Benjamin R Lee
Predictions of plant responses to climate change are frequently based on organisms' presence in warmer locations, which are then assumed to reflect future performance in cooler areas. However, as plant life stages may be affected differently by environmental changes, there is little empirical evidence that this approach provides reliable estimates of short-term responses to global warming. Under this premise, we analyzed 8 years of early recruitment data, seed production and seedling establishment and survival, collected for two tree species at two latitudes...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555146/lack-of-impacts-during-early-establishment-highlights-a-short-term-management-window-for-minimizing-invasions-from-perennial-biomass-crops
#13
Natalie M West, David P Matlaga, Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Greg Spyreas, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester, Adam S Davis
Managing intentional species introductions requires evaluating potential ecological risks. However, it is difficult to weigh costs and benefits when data about interactions between novel species and the communities they are introduced to are scarce. In anticipation of expanded cultivation of perennial biomass crops, we experimentally introduced Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus × giganteus (two non-native candidate biomass crops) into two different non-crop habitats (old field and flood-plain forest) to evaluate their establishment success and impact on ambient local communities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554479/rice-pcg-gene-osemf2b-controls-seed-dormancy-and-seedling-growth-by-regulating-the-expression-of-osvp1
#14
Min Chen, Shiyong Xie, Yidan Ouyang, Jialing Yao
The induction and release of seed dormancy are a precisely regulated process that influences seed germination. ABA promotes seed dormancy but suppresses seed germination and seedling growth. However, how chromatin and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the expression of ABA related genes during these processes remains unclear. Polycomb gene OsEMF2b was required for regulation of seed dormancy and seedling growth by dynamically activating and repressing ABA signal response genes. Downregulation of OsEMF2b led to vivipary and decreased expression level of OsVP1, which was involved in ABA signal pathway in seed dormancy...
July 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531251/ca2-dependent-phosphoregulation-of-the-plasma-membrane-ca2-atpase-aca8-modulates-stimulus-induced-calcium-signatures
#15
Alex Costa, Laura Luoni, Claudia Adriana Marrano, Kenji Hashimoto, Philipp Köster, Sonia Giacometti, Maria Ida De Michelis, Jörg Kudla, Maria Cristina Bonza
Ca2+ signals are transient, hence, upon a stimulus-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, cells have to re-establish resting Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ extrusion is operated by a wealth of transporters, such as Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+/H+ antiporters, which often require a rise in Ca2+ concentration to be activated. Here, we report a regulatory fine-tuning mechanism of the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane-localized Ca2+-ATPase isoform ACA8 that is mediated by calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) complexes...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520800/transcriptome-profiling-revealed-novel-transcriptional-regulators-in-maize-responses-to-ostrinia-furnacalis-and-jasmonic-acid
#16
Hai Wang, Shengyan Li, Shouzhen Teng, Haisheng Liang, Hongjia Xin, Hongjiang Gao, Dafang Huang, Zhihong Lang
Chewing insects cause severe yield losses in crop production worldwide. Crop plants counteract chewing insects by transcriptionally promoting a repertoire of defense gene products that are either toxic to, or attractive to the natural enemies of, pest insects. However, the complexity of the transcriptional reprogramming in plant defense response against chewing insects is still not well understood. In this study, the genome-wide early responses in maize seedlings to Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis) and also to jasmonic acid(JA), the pivotal phytohormone controlling plant defense response against herbivory, were transcriptionally profiled by RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513600/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-and-histone-marks-at-the-arabidopsis-shoot-meristem-during-flowering
#17
Yuan You, Aneta Sawikowska, Manuela Neumann, David Posé, Giovanna Capovilla, Tobias Langenecker, Richard A Neher, Paweł Krajewski, Markus Schmid
Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510257/strategy-for-selection-of-soybean-genotypes-tolerant-to-drought-during-germination
#18
S A G Dantas, F C S Silva, L J Silva, F L Silva
Water deficit is the main reason for instability in the context of soybean culture. The development of strategies for the selection of more tolerant genotypes is necessary. These strategies include the use of polyethylene glycol 6000 solutions (PEG-6000) for conducting the germination test under conditions of water restriction. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the osmotic potential and the main characteristics that promote the discrimination of soybean genotypes with regard to water stress tolerance during germination and the vigor test...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489029/comparative-analysis-of-the-major-chemical-constituents-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza-roots-stems-leaves-and-flowers-during-different-growth-periods-by-uplc-tq-ms-ms-and-hplc-elsd-methods
#19
Huiting Zeng, Shulan Su, Xiang Xiang, Xiuxiu Sha, Zhenhua Zhu, Yanyan Wang, Sheng Guo, Hui Yan, Dawei Qian, Jinao Duan
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine containing multiple components that contribute to its notable bioactivities. This article investigated the distribution and dynamic changes of chemical constituents in various parts of S. miltiorrhiza from different growth periods. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) methods were developed for accurate determination of 24 compounds (including phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and saccharides) in S...
May 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475718/within-plant-distribution-and-dynamics-of-thrips-species-thysanoptera-thripidae-in-cotton
#20
Francis P F Reay-Jones, Jeremy K Greene, D Ames Herbert, Alana L Jacobson, George G Kennedy, Dominic D Reisig, Phillip M Roberts
A 2-yr study in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted to determine the abundance and species composition of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different plant parts throughout the season in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Plant parts sampled included seedlings, terminals with two expanded leaves, leaves from the upper, middle, and lower sections of the canopy, white flowers, and medium-sized bolls. Adult thrips were significantly more abundant on seedlings and flowers in 2014, and on flowers followed by seedlings and leaves from the middle canopy in 2015...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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