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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797222/genetic-architecture-and-temporal-patterns-of-biomass-accumulation-in-spring-barley-revealed-by-image-analysis
#1
Kerstin Neumann, Yusheng Zhao, Jianting Chu, Jens Keilwagen, Jochen C Reif, Benjamin Kilian, Andreas Graner
BACKGROUND: Genetic mapping of phenotypic traits generally focuses on a single time point, but biomass accumulates continuously during plant development. Resolution of the temporal dynamics that affect biomass recently became feasible using non-destructive imaging. RESULTS: With the aim to identify key genetic factors for vegetative biomass formation from the seedling stage to flowering, we explored growth over time in a diverse collection of two-rowed spring barley accessions...
August 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794796/a-high-throughput-phenotyping-procedure-for-evaluation-of-antixenosis-against-common-cutworm-at-early-seedling-stage-in-soybean
#2
Guangnan Xing, Kai Liu, Junyi Gai
BACKGROUND: Common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a major leaf-feeding pest of soybean in Asia. The previous methods of measuring antixenosis against CCW using adult plant under field or net-room conditions were time-consuming, labor-intensive and precision-inferior. To solve the problems, this study aimed at (i) establishing a high-throughput phenotyping method for evaluating antixenosis against CCW at early seedling stage, (ii) using the procedure to evaluate the antixenosis of an insect-resistant versus -susceptible germplasm population (IRSGP), (iii) validating the proposed method through comparing the results with the historical phenotypic data and phenotyping-genotyping consistency data using PAV (presence/absence variation) markers linked with the identified loci CCW-1 and CCW-2, (iv) and evaluating the efficiency of the novel method through comparisons to the previous methods...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792104/expression-analysis-of-cellulose-synthase-and-main-cytoskeletal-protein-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l
#3
Dmitry Galinousky, Tsimafei Padvitski, Galina Bayer, Yaroslav Pirko, Nikolay Pydiura, Natallia Anisimova, Tatyana Nikitinskaya, Liubov Khotyleva, Alla Yemets, Aleksandr Kilchevsky, Yaroslav Blume
Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans)...
August 9, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791210/biosynthesis-of-mgo-nanoparticles-using-mushroom-extract-effect-on-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-seed-germination
#4
K Jhansi, N Jayarambabu, K Paul Reddy, N Manohar Reddy, R Padma Suvarna, K Venkateswara Rao, V Ramesh Kumar, V Rajendar
Current study describes the green, environmental friendly, and cost-effectiveness technique for the preparation of MgO nanoparticles (NPs) via white button mushroom aqueous extract. The synthesized MgO NPs were characterized using equipments such as X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for average crystalline size, particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and weight loss of the materials, respectively...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782806/pervasive-interactions-between-foliar-microbes-and-soil-nutrients-mediate-leaf-production-and-herbivore-damage-in-a-tropical-forest
#5
Eric A Griffin, S Joseph Wright, Peter J Morin, Walter P Carson
Producing and retaining leaves underlie the performance and survivorship of seedlings in deeply shaded tropical forests. These habitats are characterized by conditions ideal for foliar bacteria, which can be potent plant pathogens. Leaf production, retention and susceptibility to enemies may ultimately depend upon interactions among soil nutrients and foliar microbes, yet this has never been tested. We experimentally evaluated the degree that foliar bacteria and soil resource supply mediate leaf dynamics for five common tree species (five different families) in a Panamanian forest...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780450/inhibitory-effects-of-rice-residues-amendment-on-cd-phytoavailability-a-matter-of-cd-organic-matter-interactions
#6
Wenli Tang, Huan Zhong, Lin Xiao, Qiaoguo Tan, Qilong Zeng, Zhongbo Wei
Incorporating crop residues into soils, a most common way of organic input into farmland soils, is being encouraged in many parts of the world, while its potential impacts on Cd phytoavailability are not well understood. Here, a Cd-contaminated soil was amended with rice residues (RR, i.e., straw + root mixture) or not (Control) and incubated for 81 days under laboratory-controlled conditions. During the incubation, key soil parameters (e.g., dissolved organic carbon and pH), Cd geochemical fractionation (by BCR sequential extraction), and CaCl2 extracted Cd in soils (by 0...
July 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770059/conspecific-density-dependence-and-community-structure-insights-from-11%C3%A2-years-of-monitoring-in-an-old-growth-temperate-forest-in-northeast-china
#7
Xu Kuang, Kai Zhu, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Xugao Wang, Yunyun Wang, Zhanqing Hao
Forest community structure may be influenced by seedling density dependence, however, the effect is loosely coupled with population dynamics and diversity in the short term. In the long term the strength of conspecific density dependence may fluctuate over time because of seedling abundance, yet few long-term studies exist. Based on 11 years of seedling census data and tree census data from a 25-ha temperate forest plot in Northeast China, we used generalized linear mixed models to test the relative effects of local neighborhood density and abiotic factors on seedling density and seedling survival...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750031/dissecting-the-proteome-dynamics-of-the-salt-stress-induced-changes-in-the-leaf-of-diploid-and-autotetraploid-paulownia-fortunei
#8
Minjie Deng, Yanpeng Dong, Zhenli Zhao, Yongsheng Li, Guoqiang Fan
Exposure to high salinity can trigger acclimation in many plants. Such an adaptative response is greatly advantageous for plants and involves extensive reprogramming at the molecular level. Acclimation allows plants to survive in environments that are prone to increasing salinity. In this study, diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia fortunei seedlings were used to detect alterations in leaf proteins in plants under salt stress. Up to 152 differentially abundant proteins were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746399/coordination-of-matrix-attachment-and-atp-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-regulate-auxin-biosynthesis-and-arabidopsis-hypocotyl-elongation
#9
Kyounghee Lee, Pil Joon Seo
Hypocotyl elongation is extensively controlled by hormone signaling networks. In particular, auxin metabolism and signaling play key roles in light-dependent hypocotyl growth. The nuclear matrix facilitates organization of DNA within the nucleus, and dynamic interactions between nuclear matrix and DNA are related to gene regulation. Conserved scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) are anchored to the nuclear matrix by the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED (AHL) proteins in Arabidopsis. Here, we found that ESCAROLA (ESC)/AHL27 and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B-4 #3 (SOB3)/AHL29 redundantly regulate auxin biosynthesis in the control of hypocotyl elongation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732267/understanding-the-holobiont-the-interdependence-of-plants-and-their-microbiome
#10
REVIEW
Carmen Sánchez-Cañizares, Beatriz Jorrín, Philip S Poole, Andrzej Tkacz
The holobiont is composed by the plant and its microbiome. In a similar way to ecological systems of higher organisms, the holobiont shows interdependent and complex dynamics [1,2]. While plants originate from seeds, the microbiome has a multitude of sources. The assemblage of these communities depends on the interaction between the emerging seedling and its surrounding environment, with soil being the main source. These microbial communities are controlled by the plant through different strategies, such as the specific profile of root exudates and its immune system...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722158/gravitropism-interferes-with-hydrotropism-via-counteracting-auxin-dynamics-in-cucumber-roots-clinorotation-and-spaceflight-experiments
#11
Keita Morohashi, Miki Okamoto, Chiaki Yamazaki, Nobuharu Fujii, Yutaka Miyazawa, Motoshi Kamada, Haruo Kasahara, Ikuko Osada, Toru Shimazu, Yasuo Fusejima, Akira Higashibata, Takashi Yamazaki, Noriaki Ishioka, Akie Kobayashi, Hideyuki Takahashi
Roots of land plants show gravitropism and hydrotropism in response to gravity and moisture gradients, respectively, for controlling their growth orientation. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, although the mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. Here, we differentiated hydrotropism from gravitropism in cucumber roots by conducting clinorotation and spaceflight experiments. We also compared mechanisms regulating hydrotropism and auxin-regulated gravitropism. Clinorotated or microgravity (μG)-grown cucumber seedling roots hydrotropically bent toward wet substrate in the presence of moisture gradients, but they grew straight in the direction of normal gravitational force at the Earth's surface (1G) on the ground or centrifuge-generated 1G in space...
September 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716182/atp-sensing-in-living-plant-cells-reveals-tissue-gradients-and-stress-dynamics-of-energy-physiology
#12
Valentina De Col, Philippe Fuchs, Thomas Nietzel, Marlene Elsässer, Chia Pao Voon, Alessia Candeo, Ingo Seeliger, Mark D Fricker, Christopher Grefen, Ian Max Møller, Andrea Bassi, Boon Leong Lim, Marco Zancani, Andreas J Meyer, Alex Costa, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer
Growth and development of plants is ultimately driven by light energy captured through photosynthesis. ATP acts as universal cellular energy cofactor fuelling all life processes, including gene expression, metabolism, and transport. Despite a mechanistic understanding of ATP biochemistry, ATP dynamics in the living plant have been largely elusive. Here, we establish MgATP(2-) measurement in living plants using the fluorescent protein biosensor ATeam1.03-nD/nA. We generate Arabidopsis sensor lines and investigate the sensor in vitro under conditions appropriate for the plant cytosol...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700694/a-robust-and-efficient%C3%A2-method-for-the-extraction-of-plant-extracellular-surface-lipids-as-applied-to-the-analysis-of-silks-and-seedling-leaves-of-maize
#13
Derek M Loneman, Layton Peddicord, Amani Al-Rashid, Basil J Nikolau, Nick Lauter, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson
Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily of saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons, as well as fatty acids, and aldehydes. To efficiently extract lipids of differing polarities from maize silks, five solvent systems (hexanes; hexanes:diethyl ether (95:5); hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10); chloroform:hexanes (1:1) and chloroform) were tested by immersing fresh silks in solvent for different extraction times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690788/effects-of-local-biotic-neighbors-and-habitat-heterogeneity-on-seedling-survival-in-a-spruce-fir-valley-forest-northeastern-china
#14
Xucai Pu, Yu Zhu, Guangze Jin
Seedlings are vulnerable to many biotic and abiotic agents, and studying seedling dynamics helps understand mechanisms of species coexistence. In this study, the relative importance of biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity to seedling survival was examined by generalized linear mixed models for 33 species in a spruce-fir valley forest in northeastern China. The results showed that the relative importance of these factors varied with species and functional groups. Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) was important to the survival of Abies nephrolepis and Picea koraiensis seedling, whereas phylogenetic negative density dependence (PNDD) was critical to Pinus koraiensis and Betula platyphylla, as well as functional groups of tree, deciduous, and shade-intolerant seedlings...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681320/vegetation-dynamics-in-bishrampur-collieries-of-northern-chhattisgarh-india-eco-restoration-and-management-perspectives
#15
A Kumar, M K Jhariya, D K Yadav, A Banerjee
Phytosociological study in and around reclaimed coal mine site is an essential requirement for judging restoration impact on a disturbed site. Various studies have been aimed towards assessing the impact of different restoration practices on coal mine wastelands. Plantation scheme in a scientific way is the most suitable approach in this context. During the present investigation, an effort have been made to assess the vegetation dynamics through structure, composition, diversity, and forest floor biomass analysis in and around Bishrampur collieries, Sarguja division, northern Chhattisgarh, India...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667337/contrasting-dynamics-of-leaf-potential-and-gas-exchange-during-progressive-drought-cycles-and-recovery-in-amorpha-fruticosa-and-robinia-pseudoacacia
#16
Weiming Yan, Shuxia Zheng, Yangquanwei Zhong, Zhouping Shangguan
Leaf gas exchange is closely associated with water relations; however, less attention has been given to this relationship over successive drought events. Dynamic changes in gas exchange and water potential in the seedlings of two woody species, Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudoacacia, were monitored during recurrent drought. The pre-dawn leaf water potential declined in parallel with gas exchange in both species, and sharp declines in gas exchange occurred with decreasing water potential. A significant correlation between pre-dawn water potential and gas exchange was observed in both species and showed a right shift in R...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666670/proteomic-analysis-of-soybean-seedling-leaf-under-waterlogging-stress-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#17
Bita Kazemi Oskuei, Xiaojian Yin, Akiko Hashiguchi, Ali Bandehagh, Setsuko Komatsu
Leaf is sensitive to environmental changes and exhibits specific responses to abiotic stress. To identify the response mechanism in soybean leaf under waterlogging stress, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique combined with polyethylene glycol fractionation was used. Attenuated photosynthesis by waterlogging stress in the leaf of soybean seedlings was indicated from proteomic results. Defensive mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging was also recognized. Cluster analysis revealed that proteins that exhibit characteristic dynamics in response to waterlogging were mainly related to photosynthesis...
June 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644561/the-redox-sensitive-module-of-cyclophilin-20-3-2-cysteine-peroxiredoxin-and-cysteine-synthase-integrates-sulfur-metabolism-and-oxylipin-signaling-in-the-high-light-acclimation-response
#18
Sara M Müller, Shanshan Wang, Wilena Telman, Michael Liebthal, Helena Schnitzer, Andrea Viehhauser, Carsten Sticht, Carolina Delatorre, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Karl-Josef Dietz
The integration of redox- and reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling and metabolic activities is fundamental to plant acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previous data suggest the existence of a dynamically interacting module in the chloroplast stroma consisting of cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase B (OASTL-B), 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins A/B (2-CysPrx) and serine acetyltransferase 2;1 (SERAT2;1). The functionality of this COPS module is influenced by redox stimuli and oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which is the precursor for jasmonic acid...
June 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637931/comparative-miromics-of-salt-tolerant-and-salt-sensitive-rice
#19
Kavita Goswami, Anita Tripathi, Neeti Sanan-Mishra
Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617451/biological-and-chemical-strategies-for-exploring-inter-and-intra-kingdom-communication-mediated-via-bacterial-volatile-signals
#20
Mohamed A Farag, Geun Cheol Song, Yong-Soon Park, Bianca Audrain, Soohyun Lee, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Joseph W Kloepper, Choong-Min Ryu
Airborne chemical signals emitted by bacteria influence the behavior of other bacteria and plants. We present an overview of in vitro methods for evaluating bacterial and plant responses to bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs). Three types of equipment have been used to physically separate the bacterial test strains from either other bacterial strains or plants (in our laboratory we use either Arabidopsis or tobacco plant seedlings): a Petri dish containing two compartments (BI Petri dish); two Petri dishes connected with tubing; and a microtiter-based assay...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
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