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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933085/-effects-of-different-concentrations-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-on-growth-and-active-components-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#1
Gui-Hui Xia, Qiu-Ling Wang, Wen-Quan Wang, Jun-Ling Hou, Qing-Yan Song, Lin Luo, Dou-Dou Zhang, Xiang Yang
With annual Salvia miltiorrhiza seedlings as experimental material, using "3414" optimal regression design recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture and regularly watered with nutrient solution, through the dynamic sampling of S. miltiorrhiza in different growing stages, and the growth index, dry weight of plant root and content of active components were measured. The potted experiments were applied to study the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus ratios on the growth, dry matter accumulation and accumulation of active components of S...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932910/a-histone-deacetylase-gene-slhda3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-fruit-ripening-and-carotenoid-accumulation
#2
Jun-E Guo, Zongli Hu, Xiaohui Yu, Anzhou Li, Fenfen Li, Yunshu Wang, Shibing Tian, Guoping Chen
SlHDA3 functions as an inhibitor and regulates tomato fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Post-translational modifications, including histones acetylation, play a pivotal role in the changes of chromatin structure dynamic modulation and gene activity. The regulation of histone acetylation is achieved by the action of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, which play crucial roles in the regulation of transcription activation. There is an increasing research focus on histone deacetylation in crops, but the role of histone deacetylase genes (HDACs) in tomato has not been elucidated...
September 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931938/dynamic-transcriptome-and-phytohormone-profiling-along-the-time-of-light-exposure-in-the-mesocotyl-of-rice-seedling
#3
Fangjun Feng, Hanwei Mei, Peiqing Fan, Yanan Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Haibin Wei, Ming Yan, Lijun Luo
Mesocotyl elongation is an important trait influencing seedling emergence and establishment in rice direct-seeding cultivation and is immediately inhibited after light exposure. Detailed researches on the molecular basis and biological processes underlying light repression of mesocotyl growth could probably provide useful information for key factors controlling this trait. Here we monitored the transcriptome and endogenous phytohormone changes specifically in the elongating mesocotyl in response to light exposure with a time-course...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911330/extensive-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-remodelling-occurs-during-arabidopsis-thaliana-germination
#4
Reena Narsai, Quentin Gouil, David Secco, Akanksha Srivastava, Yuliya V Karpievitch, Lim Chee Liew, Ryan Lister, Mathew G Lewsey, James Whelan
BACKGROUND: Seed germination involves progression from complete metabolic dormancy to a highly active, growing seedling. Many factors regulate germination and these interact extensively, forming a complex network of inputs that control the seed-to-seedling transition. Our understanding of the direct regulation of gene expression and the dynamic changes in the epigenome and small RNAs during germination is limited. The interactions between genome, transcriptome and epigenome must be revealed in order to identify the regulatory mechanisms that control seed germination...
September 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852866/distance-and-density-dependent-leaf-dynamics-of-seedlings-of-a-tropical-rainforest-tree
#5
Shinya Numata, Naoki Kachi, Toshinori Okuda, N Manokaran
Parental distance and plant density dependence of seedling leaf turnover and survival was examined to investigate predictions of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. The focal study species, Shorea macroptera is a canopy tree species in a lowland rain forest in peninsular Malaysia. We found that the peak of the distribution of plants shifted from 3-6 m to 6-9 m during the course of the change from seedling to sapling stage. The leaf demography of the seedlings was influenced by their distance from the adult tree and also by the seedling density...
August 29, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837321/seed-treatment-combined-with-a-spot-application-of-clothianidin-granules-prolongs-the-efficacy-of-controlling-piercing-sucking-insect-pests-in-cotton-fields
#6
Zhengqun Zhang, Yunhe Zhao, Yao Wang, Beixing Li, Jin Lin, Xuefeng Zhang, Wei Mu
Seed treatments can directly protect cotton from early season piercing-sucking insect Aphis gossypii Glover but hardly provide long-term protection against Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür). Therefore, the efficacy of clothianidin seed treatments combined with spot applications of clothianidin granules at the bud stage of cotton was evaluated to control piercing-sucking pests during the entire cotton growing season. Clothianidin seed treatments (at the rate of 4 g ai/kg seed) combined with a clothianidin granular treatment (even at low rate of 0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833172/response-of-the-plant-hormone-network-to-boron-deficiency
#7
Kai Eggert, Nicolaus von Wirén
Plant hormones (PH) adjust plant growth to environmental conditions such as nutrient availability. Although responses of individual PHs to growth-determining nutrient supplies have been reported, little is known about simultaneous dynamics in the metabolism of different PH species. Brassica napus seedlings were grown under increasing supply of B, and LC-MS/MS was used to characterize bioactive forms of different PH species together with several of their precursors, storage and inactivated forms. Increasing shoot B concentrations in response to B supply were accompanied by decreasing concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which appeared to be synthesized under B deficiency mainly via indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN)...
August 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822173/-breakthrough-in-key-science-and-technologies-in-dendrobium-catenatum-industry
#8
Ji-Ping Si, Qi Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Jing-Jing Liu, Yi-Bo Luo
In view of the significant difficulties of propagation, planting and simple product in Dendrobium catenatum(D. officinale)industry development, a series of research were carried out. Genome study showed that D. catenatum is a specie of diploid with 38 chromosomes and 28 910 protein-coding genes. It was identified that specific genes accumulated in different organs at the transcriptome level. We got an insight into the gene regulation mechanism of the loss of the endospermous seed, the wide ecological adaptability and the synthesis of polysaccharides, which provided a theoretical basis for genetic engineering breeding and development and utilization of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816419/tubulin-acetylation-accompanies-autophagy-development-induced-by-different-abiotic-stimuli-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Vira Olenieva, Dmytro Lytvyn, Alla Yemets, Catherine Bergounioux, Yaroslav Blume
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in the regulation of autophagy development in yeast and animal as well as in plant cells. MTs participate in maturation and traffic of autophagosomes through their dynamic state changes and post-translational modifications of tubulin, namely acetylation. We subjected Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to metabolic-, salt-, osmotic stresses as well as irradiation of ultraviolet B and investigated the involvement of plant MTs in the development of stress-induced autophagy via tubulin acetylation...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797222/genetic-architecture-and-temporal-patterns-of-biomass-accumulation-in-spring-barley-revealed-by-image-analysis
#10
Kerstin Neumann, Yusheng Zhao, Jianting Chu, Jens Keilwagen, Jochen C Reif, Benjamin Kilian, Andreas Graner
BACKGROUND: Genetic mapping of phenotypic traits generally focuses on a single time point, but biomass accumulates continuously during plant development. Resolution of the temporal dynamics that affect biomass recently became feasible using non-destructive imaging. RESULTS: With the aim to identify key genetic factors for vegetative biomass formation from the seedling stage to flowering, we explored growth over time in a diverse collection of two-rowed spring barley accessions...
August 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794796/a-high-throughput-phenotyping-procedure-for-evaluation-of-antixenosis-against-common-cutworm-at-early-seedling-stage-in-soybean
#11
Guangnan Xing, Kai Liu, Junyi Gai
BACKGROUND: Common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a major leaf-feeding pest of soybean in Asia. The previous methods of measuring antixenosis against CCW using adult plant under field or net-room conditions were time-consuming, labor-intensive and precision-inferior. To solve the problems, this study aimed at (i) establishing a high-throughput phenotyping method for evaluating antixenosis against CCW at early seedling stage, (ii) using the procedure to evaluate the antixenosis of an insect-resistant versus -susceptible germplasm population (IRSGP), (iii) validating the proposed method through comparing the results with the historical phenotypic data and phenotyping-genotyping consistency data using PAV (presence/absence variation) markers linked with the identified loci CCW-1 and CCW-2, (iv) and evaluating the efficiency of the novel method through comparisons to the previous methods...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792104/expression-analysis-of-cellulose-synthase-and-main-cytoskeletal-protein-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l
#12
Dmitry Galinousky, Tsimafei Padvitski, Galina Bayer, Yaroslav Pirko, Nikolay Pydiura, Natallia Anisimova, Tatyana Nikitinskaya, Liubov Khotyleva, Alla Yemets, Aleksandr Kilchevsky, Yaroslav Blume
Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans)...
August 9, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791210/biosynthesis-of-mgo-nanoparticles-using-mushroom-extract-effect-on-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-seed-germination
#13
K Jhansi, N Jayarambabu, K Paul Reddy, N Manohar Reddy, R Padma Suvarna, K Venkateswara Rao, V Ramesh Kumar, V Rajendar
Current study describes the green, environmental friendly, and cost-effectiveness technique for the preparation of MgO nanoparticles (NPs) via white button mushroom aqueous extract. The synthesized MgO NPs were characterized using equipments such as X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for average crystalline size, particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and weight loss of the materials, respectively...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782806/pervasive-interactions-between-foliar-microbes-and-soil-nutrients-mediate-leaf-production-and-herbivore-damage-in-a-tropical-forest
#14
Eric A Griffin, S Joseph Wright, Peter J Morin, Walter P Carson
Producing and retaining leaves underlie the performance and survivorship of seedlings in deeply shaded tropical forests. These habitats are characterized by conditions ideal for foliar bacteria, which can be potent plant pathogens. Leaf production, retention and susceptibility to enemies may ultimately depend upon interactions among soil nutrients and foliar microbes, yet this has never been tested. We experimentally evaluated the degree that foliar bacteria and soil resource supply mediate leaf dynamics for five common tree species (five different families) in a Panamanian forest...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780450/inhibitory-effects-of-rice-residues-amendment-on-cd-phytoavailability-a-matter-of-cd-organic-matter-interactions
#15
Wenli Tang, Huan Zhong, Lin Xiao, Qiaoguo Tan, Qilong Zeng, Zhongbo Wei
Incorporating crop residues into soils, a most common way of organic input into farmland soils, is being encouraged in many parts of the world, while its potential impacts on Cd phytoavailability are not well understood. Here, a Cd-contaminated soil was amended with rice residues (RR, i.e., straw + root mixture) or not (Control) and incubated for 81 days under laboratory-controlled conditions. During the incubation, key soil parameters (e.g., dissolved organic carbon and pH), Cd geochemical fractionation (by BCR sequential extraction), and CaCl2 extracted Cd in soils (by 0...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770059/conspecific-density-dependence-and-community-structure-insights-from-11%C3%A2-years-of-monitoring-in-an-old-growth-temperate-forest-in-northeast-china
#16
Xu Kuang, Kai Zhu, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Xugao Wang, Yunyun Wang, Zhanqing Hao
Forest community structure may be influenced by seedling density dependence, however, the effect is loosely coupled with population dynamics and diversity in the short term. In the long term the strength of conspecific density dependence may fluctuate over time because of seedling abundance, yet few long-term studies exist. Based on 11 years of seedling census data and tree census data from a 25-ha temperate forest plot in Northeast China, we used generalized linear mixed models to test the relative effects of local neighborhood density and abiotic factors on seedling density and seedling survival...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750031/dissecting-the-proteome-dynamics-of-the-salt-stress-induced-changes-in-the-leaf-of-diploid-and-autotetraploid-paulownia-fortunei
#17
Minjie Deng, Yanpeng Dong, Zhenli Zhao, Yongsheng Li, Guoqiang Fan
Exposure to high salinity can trigger acclimation in many plants. Such an adaptative response is greatly advantageous for plants and involves extensive reprogramming at the molecular level. Acclimation allows plants to survive in environments that are prone to increasing salinity. In this study, diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia fortunei seedlings were used to detect alterations in leaf proteins in plants under salt stress. Up to 152 differentially abundant proteins were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746399/coordination-of-matrix-attachment-and-atp-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-regulate-auxin-biosynthesis-and-arabidopsis-hypocotyl-elongation
#18
Kyounghee Lee, Pil Joon Seo
Hypocotyl elongation is extensively controlled by hormone signaling networks. In particular, auxin metabolism and signaling play key roles in light-dependent hypocotyl growth. The nuclear matrix facilitates organization of DNA within the nucleus, and dynamic interactions between nuclear matrix and DNA are related to gene regulation. Conserved scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) are anchored to the nuclear matrix by the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED (AHL) proteins in Arabidopsis. Here, we found that ESCAROLA (ESC)/AHL27 and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B-4 #3 (SOB3)/AHL29 redundantly regulate auxin biosynthesis in the control of hypocotyl elongation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732267/understanding-the-holobiont-the-interdependence-of-plants-and-their-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
Carmen Sánchez-Cañizares, Beatriz Jorrín, Philip S Poole, Andrzej Tkacz
The holobiont is composed by the plant and its microbiome. In a similar way to ecological systems of higher organisms, the holobiont shows interdependent and complex dynamics [1,2]. While plants originate from seeds, the microbiome has a multitude of sources. The assemblage of these communities depends on the interaction between the emerging seedling and its surrounding environment, with soil being the main source. These microbial communities are controlled by the plant through different strategies, such as the specific profile of root exudates and its immune system...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722158/gravitropism-interferes-with-hydrotropism-via-counteracting-auxin-dynamics-in-cucumber-roots-clinorotation-and-spaceflight-experiments
#20
Keita Morohashi, Miki Okamoto, Chiaki Yamazaki, Nobuharu Fujii, Yutaka Miyazawa, Motoshi Kamada, Haruo Kasahara, Ikuko Osada, Toru Shimazu, Yasuo Fusejima, Akira Higashibata, Takashi Yamazaki, Noriaki Ishioka, Akie Kobayashi, Hideyuki Takahashi
Roots of land plants show gravitropism and hydrotropism in response to gravity and moisture gradients, respectively, for controlling their growth orientation. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, although the mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. Here, we differentiated hydrotropism from gravitropism in cucumber roots by conducting clinorotation and spaceflight experiments. We also compared mechanisms regulating hydrotropism and auxin-regulated gravitropism. Clinorotated or microgravity (μG)-grown cucumber seedling roots hydrotropically bent toward wet substrate in the presence of moisture gradients, but they grew straight in the direction of normal gravitational force at the Earth's surface (1G) on the ground or centrifuge-generated 1G in space...
September 2017: New Phytologist
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