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seedling dynamic

Ying Zhang, Qinqin Yu, Nan Jiang, Xu Yan, Chao Wang, Qingmei Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Muyuan Zhu, Sebastian Y Bednarek, Jian Xu, Jianwei Pan
Phototropism is the process by which plants grow towards light in order to maximize the capture of light for photosynthesis, which is particularly important for germinating seedlings. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl phototropism is predominantly triggered by blue light (BL), which has a profound effect on the establishment of asymmetric auxin distribution, essential for hypocotyl phototropism. Two auxin efflux transporters ATP-BINDING CASSETTE B19 (ABCB19) and PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3), are known to mediate the effect of BL on auxin distribution in the hypocotyl, but the details for how BL triggers PIN3 lateralization remain poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Travis L Goron, Manish N Raizada
BACKGROUND: The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is a primary transport form of nitrogen in vasculature following root uptake, critical for the location/timing of growth in maize and other cereals. Analytical chemistry methods do not permit in situ analysis of Gln, including visualization within the vascular network. Their cost and tissue requirement are barriers to exploring the complexity of Gln dynamics. We previously reported a biosensor, GlnLux, which can measure relative Gln levels inexpensively with tiny amounts of tissue...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Lin-Lin Yuan, Ming Zhang, Xing Yan, Yan-Wei Bian, Shou-Min Zhen, Yue-Ming Yan
Drought stress is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth and development. In this study, we performed the first dynamic phosphoproteome analysis of Brachypodium distachyon L. seedling leaves under drought stress for different times. A total of 4924 phosphopeptides, contained 6362 phosphosites belonging to 2748 phosphoproteins. Rigorous standards were imposed to screen 484 phosphorylation sites, representing 442 unique phosphoproteins. Comparative analyses revealed significant changes in phosphorylation levels at 0, 6, and 24 h under drought stress...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jan Plue, Floriane Colas, Alistair G Auffret, Sara A O Cousins
Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesize that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences...
October 14, 2016: Plant Biology
Anca Macovei, Andrea Pagano, Paola Leonetti, Daniela Carbonera, Alma Balestrazzi, Susana S Araújo
The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy...
October 11, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Jorin Hoogenboom, Nathalja Berghuis, Dario Cramer, Rene Geurts, Han Zuilhof, Tom Wennekes
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrates, also called glycans, play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The non-template driven formation of glycans makes it impossible to image them in vivo with genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycan analogs that are metabolically incorporated by the plant into its glycans. These metabolically incorporated probes can be visualized, but techniques documented so far use toxic copper-catalyzed labeling...
October 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
X X Cheng, S He, G H Geng
In this study, dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in a recombinant inbred line (F2:4) population derived from a BF3109 x Q267 cross. This was done during the unconditional (4, 7, and 10 days) and conditional (0 to 4, 4 to 7, and 7 to 10 days) germination stages in sh2 sweet corn. The values of seedling dry weight, weight of mobilized seed reserve (WMSR), seed reserve depletion percentage (SRDP), seed reserve utilization efficiency (SRUE), and their heritability differed across the investigated stages...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Anna Oldén, Atte Komonen, Kaisa Tervonen, Panu Halme
Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing...
October 4, 2016: Ambio
Yao Zhang, Jiang-Bo Xie, Yan Li
Tree mortality induced by drought is one of the most complex processes in ecology. Although two mechanisms associated with water and carbon balance respectively are proposed to explain tree mortality, outstanding problems still exist. In the greenhouse experiment, various water and carbon related physiological indicators (shoot water potential, photosynthesis, dark respiration, hydraulic conductance and non-structural carbohydrates) were examined on drought and control Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings, and how the root system benefited the survival and resprouting of seedlings was tested...
October 1, 2016: Plant Biology
Laura Astola, Hans Stigter, Maria Victoria Gomez Roldan, Fred van Eeuwijk, Robert D Hall, Marian Groenenboom, Jaap J Molenaar
We study the glycosylation processes that convert initially toxic substrates to nutritionally valuable metabolites in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings. To estimate the reaction rates we use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to model the enzyme kinetics. A popular choice is to use a system of linear ODEs with constant kinetic rates or to use Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In reality, the catalytic rates, which are affected among other factors by kinetic constants and enzyme concentrations, are changing in time and with the approaches just mentioned, this phenomenon cannot be described...
2016: PeerJ
Márcio José Rossi, Francisco Xavier Nascimento, Admir José Giachini, Vetúria Lopes Oliveira, Agenor Furigo
The study had the objective of examining the aspects involved in the cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for the production of commercially sustainable inoculant to attend the demands of the seedling nursery industry. It focused on certain parameters, such as the oxygen consumption levels, during the cultivation of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Rhizopogon nigrescens CBMAI 1472, which was performed in a 5-L airlift bioreactor. The dynamic method was employed to determine the volumetric coefficient for the oxygen transfer (k L a) and the specific oxygen uptake rate (Q O2 )...
September 29, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Stephen J Murphy, Kaiyang Xu, Liza S Comita
Insect herbivores can serve as important regulators of plant dynamics, but their impacts in temperate forest understories have received minimal attention at local scales. Here, we test several related hypotheses about the influence of plant neighborhood composition on insect leaf damage in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Using data on seedlings and adult trees sampled at 36 sites over an approximately 900 ha area, we tested for the effects of total plant density, rarefied species richness (i.e., resource concentration and dietary-mixing hypotheses), conspecific density (i...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Aaron M Prescott, Forest W McCollough, Bryan L Eldreth, Brad M Binder, Steven M Abel
Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoheng Wang, Yu Li, Hong Lu, Shigong Wang
A simulated climate warming experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on the bioaccumulation, translocation and subcellular distributions of Cd and Zn in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1.) at Dingxi, Gansu Province, China. The objective was to find evidence that global climate change is affecting the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in T. aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1. The results showed that compared to control A, elevated temperature and CO2 increased Cd bioaccumulation in the shoots by 1...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
M Lüpke, M Leuchner, R Steinbrecher, A Menzel
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances cover broad ecological amplitudes. In a greenhouse study, we investigated the impact of drought stress and rewetting on gas exchange for three provenances (Italy: Emilia Romagna; Spain: Alto Ebro; Germany: East-German lowlands) of 2-year old Scots pine seedlings. CO2, water vapour and isoprenoid exchange of stressed and control trees were quantified with a four-chamber dynamic-enclosure system in the controlled environment of a climate chamber. The three provenances showed distinct isoprenoid emission patterns and were classified into a non-Δ(3)-carene, with either high α-/β-pinene or β-myrcene fraction, and a Δ(3)-carene dominated type...
September 2, 2016: Tree Physiology
Linlin Dong, Jiang Xu, Guangquan Feng, Xiwen Li, Shilin Chen
Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years...
2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew R Evans, Aristides Moustakas
Woodlands provide valuable ecosystem services, and it is important to understand their dynamics. To predict the way in which these might change, we need process-based predictive ecological models, but these are necessarily very data intensive. We tested the ability of existing datasets to provide the parameters necessary to instantiate a well-used forest model (SORTIE) for a well-studied woodland (Wytham Woods). Only five of SORTIE's 16 equations describing different aspects of the life history and behavior of individual trees could be parameterized without additional data collection...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Frida I Piper, Alex Fajardo
Carbon (C) storage is considered a key component to plant survival under drought and shade, although the combined effects of these factors on survival remain poorly understood. We investigated how drought and shade alter the C dynamics and survival of tree seedlings, and whether drought limits the access to or usage of stored C. We experimentally applied two levels of soil humidity (well-watered versus drought, the latter induced by dry-down) and light availability (light versus complete darkness) on 1-year-old seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus L...
August 18, 2016: Tree Physiology
Beth A Middleton
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The nature of regeneration dynamics after hurricane flooding and salinity intrusion may play an important role in shaping coastal vegetation patterns. METHODS: The regeneration potentials of coastal species, types and gradients (wetland types from seaward to landward) were studied on the Delmarva Peninsula after Hurricane Sandy using seed bank assays to examine responses to various water regimes (unflooded and flooded to 8 cm) and salinity levels (0, 1, and 5 ppt)...
August 2016: American Journal of Botany
Suvendu Mondal, Young Sam Go, Seung Sik Lee, Byung Yeoup Chung, Jin-Hong Kim
Dynamic histone modifications play an important role in controlling gene expression in response to various environmental cues. This mechanism of regulation of gene expression is important for sessile organisms, like land plants. We have previously reported consistent upregulation of various marker genes in response to gamma rays at various post-irradiation times. In the present study, we performed various chromatin modification analyses at selected loci using the standard chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure, and demonstrate that upregulation of these genes is associated with histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) at the gene body or transcription start sites of these loci...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
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