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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214182/opportunistic-autoimmunity-secondary-to-cancer-immunotherapy-oasi-an-emerging-challenge
#1
M Kostine, L Chiche, E Lazaro, P Halfon, C Charpin, D Arniaud, F Retornaz, P Blanco, N Jourde-Chiche, C Richez, C Stavris
With "checkpoint inhibitors" targeting PD1/PD-1-ligands or CTLA-4/CD28 pathways, immunotherapy has profoundly modified therapeutic strategies in oncology. First approved in refractory metastatic neoplasms (melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma), it is now being tested broadly in other cancers and/or as adjuvant treatment. For a significant proportion of patients, immunotherapy is responsible for "immunological" events, identified as Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs). Owing to the increasing number of prescriptions, identification and management of specific immunological side effects is crucial and requires close collaboration between oncologists and internists and/or other organ specialists...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198768/long-term-follow-up-of-humoral-immune-status-in-adult-lung-transplant-recipients
#2
Diana A van Kessel, Thijs W Hoffman, Johanna M Kwakkel-van Erp, Erik-Jan D Oudijk, Pieter Zanen, Ger T Rijkers, Jan C Grutters
BACKGROUND: Lung transplant recipients have an increased risk for infections in the posttransplant period due to immunosuppressive therapy. Protection against infections can be achieved through vaccination, but the optimal vaccination schedule in lung transplant recipients is unknown. Data on long-term immunological follow up and vaccination responses after lung transplantation are scarce. METHODS: Here we present long-term immunological follow up of a cohort of 55 lung transplant recipients...
February 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196763/il-33-dysregulates-regulatory-t-treg-cells-and-impairs-established-immunological-tolerance-in-the-lungs
#3
Chien-Chang Chen, Takao Kobayashi, Koji Iijima, Fan-Chi Hsu, Hirohito Kita
BACKGROUND: Airway exposure to environmental antigens generally leads to immunological tolerance. A fundamental question remains: why is airway tolerance compromised in patients with allergic airway diseases? Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes innate and adaptive type 2 immunity and may provide the answer to this question. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the roles IL-33 plays in altering regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lungs and in affecting previously established airway immunological tolerance...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194020/cd103-lung-dendritic-cells-ldcs-induce-stronger-th1-th17-immunity-to-a-bacterial-lung-infection-than-cd11b-hi-ldcs
#4
Sudhanshu Shekhar, Ying Peng, Shuhe Wang, Xi Yang
Recent studies suggest differential roles for CD103+ and CD11b(hi) lung dendritic cells (LDCs) in host defense against viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we examined the contribution of these LDC subsets in protective immunity to chlamydial lung infection using a Chlamydia muridarum mouse infection model. We found that CD103+ LDCs showed higher expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) and increased production of cytokines (IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-23 and IL-6) compared with CD11b(hi) LDCs, but the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was similar between the two subsets...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193507/identification-of-organ-tissue-types-and-skin-from-forensic-samples-by-microrna-expression-analysis
#5
Eva Sauer, Antje Extra, Philipp Cachée, Cornelius Courts
The identification of organ tissues in traces recovered from scenes and objects with regard to violent crimes involving serious injuries can be of considerable relevance in forensic investigations. Molecular genetic approaches are provably superior to histological and immunological assays in characterizing organ tissues, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs), due to their cell type specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, emerged as a promising molecular species for forensic analyses, with a range of tried and tested indicative markers...
February 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178396/immunological-evaluation-of-peptide-vaccination-for-cancer-patients-with-the-hla-a11-or-a33-allele
#6
Shijoro Sakamoto, Satoko Matsueda, Shinzou Takamori, Uhi Toh, Masanori Noguchi, Shigeru Yutani, Akira Yamada, Shigeki Shichijo, Teppei Yamada, Shigetaka Suekane, Kouichirou Kawano, Masayasu Naitou, Tetsuro Sasada, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Kyogo Itoh
The HLA-A11 or -A33 allele is found in approximately 18% or 10% of the Asian population, respectively, but each of which is a minor allele worldwide, and therefore no clinical trials were previously conducted. To develop a therapeutic peptide vaccine for each of them, we investigated immunological responses of advanced cancer patients with the HLA-A11(+) /A11(+) (n=18) or -A33(+) /A33(+) (n=13) allele to personalized peptide vaccine (PPV) regimens. The primary sites of HLA-A11+/A11+ or -A33+/A33+ patients were the colon (n=4 or 2), stomach (2 or 3), breast (3 or 2), lung and pancreas(2 or 2), and so on...
February 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178325/prevalence-and-clinical-relevance-of-helminth-co-infections-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-urban-tanzania
#7
Francis Mhimbira, Jerry Hella, Khadija Said, Lujeko Kamwela, Mohamed Sasamalo, Thomas Maroa, Magreth Chiryamkubi, Grace Mhalu, Christian Schindler, Klaus Reither, Stefanie Knopp, Jürg Utzinger, Sébastien Gagneux, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
February 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176791/il-36%C3%AE-is-a-crucial-proximal-component-of-protective-type-1-mediated-lung-mucosal-immunity-in-gram-positive-and-negative-bacterial-pneumonia
#8
M A Kovach, B Singer, G Martinez-Colon, M W Newstead, X Zeng, P Mancuso, T A Moore, S L Kunkel, M Peters-Golden, B B Moore, T J Standiford
Interleukin-36γ (IL-36γ) is a member of novel IL-1-like proinflammatory cytokine family that are highly expressed in epithelial tissues and several myeloid-derived cell types. Little is known about the role of the IL-36 family in mucosal immunity, including lung anti-bacterial responses. We used murine models of IL-36γ deficiency to assess the contribution of IL-36γ in the lung during experimental pneumonia. Induction of IL-36γ was observed in the lung in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) infection, and mature IL-36γ protein was secreted primarily in microparticles...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168855/vaccination-of-calves-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-reduces-the-frequency-and-severity-of-lesions-of-bovine-tuberculosis-under-a-natural-transmission-setting-in-ethiopia
#9
G Ameni, K Tafess, A Zewde, T Eguale, M Tilahun, T Hailu, A Sirak, F J Salguero, S Berg, A Aseffa, R G Hewinson, H M Vordermeier
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is highly prevalent in intensive dairy farms of the urban "milk-sheds" in Ethiopia, and vaccination could be a cost-effective disease control strategy. In the present study, the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to protect against bTB was assessed in Holstein-Friesian calves in a natural transmission setting. Twenty-three 2-week-old calves were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG Danish SSI strain 1331, and matched 26 calves were injected with placebo. Six weeks later, calves were introduced into a herd of M...
February 6, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163207/expression-of-recombinant-surfactant-protein-sfta3-in-the-human-kidney-cell-line-hek-293t
#10
H Schröder, R Fischer, L Sollfrank, F Paulsen, L Bräuer, M Schicht
Pulmonary surfactant is broadly known to keep the lung dry, clean and open by lowering the surface tension of the fluid-film that lines the alveoli. The surfactant's protein component, the so called surfactant proteins (SPs), make up a multifunctional protein family. In addition to the four "classical" surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D), which possess immunologic as well as surfactant regulatory properties, two novel putative surfactant proteins (SFTA2 and SFTA3) have recently been described. Neither of them shows sequential nor structural similarity with the already known surfactant proteins...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#11
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145442/elevated-gdf-15-contributes-to-pulmonary-inflammation-upon-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#12
F M Verhamme, L J M Seys, E G De Smet, S Provoost, W Janssens, D Elewaut, G F Joos, G G Brusselle, K R Bracke
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still unclear, however signaling pathways associated with lung development, such as the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, could be implicated in COPD. Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is involved in inflammation, mucus secretion, and cachexia. We analyzed the pulmonary expression of GDF-15 in smokers and patients with COPD, in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs), and in CS-exposed mice...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145441/colonization-with-helicobacter-is-concomitant-with-modified-gut-microbiota-and-drastic-failure-of-the-immune-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
L Majlessi, F Sayes, J-F Bureau, A Pawlik, V Michel, G Jouvion, M Huerre, M Severgnini, C Consolandi, C Peano, R Brosch, E Touati, C Leclerc
Epidemiological and experimental observations suggest that chronic microbial colonization can impact the immune control of other unrelated pathogens contracted in a concomitant or sequential manner. Possible interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and persistence of other bacteria have scarcely been investigated. Here we demonstrated that natural colonization of the digestive tract with Helicobacter hepaticus in mice is concomitant with modification of the gut microbiota, subclinical inflammation, and drastic impairment of immune control of the growth of subsequently administered M...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#14
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#15
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120850/critical-role-of-cxcl4-in-the-lung-pathogenesis-of-influenza-h1n1-respiratory-infection
#16
L Guo, K Feng, Y C Wang, J J Mei, R T Ning, H W Zheng, J J Wang, G S Worthen, X Wang, J Song, Q H Li, L D Liu
Annual epidemics and unexpected pandemics of influenza are threats to human health. Lung immune and inflammatory responses, such as those induced by respiratory infection influenza virus, determine the outcome of pulmonary pathogenesis. Platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) has an immunoregulatory role in inflammatory diseases. Here we show that CXCL4 is associated with pulmonary influenza infection and has a critical role in protecting mice from fatal H1N1 virus respiratory infection. CXCL4 knockout resulted in diminished viral clearance from the lung and decreased lung inflammation during early infection but more severe lung pathology relative to wild-type mice during late infection...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120462/research-priority-setting-in-organ-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#17
Allison Tong, Benedicte Sautenet, Jeremy R Chapman, Claudia Harper, Peter MacDonald, Nicholas Shackel, Sally Crowe, Camilla Hanson, Sophie Hill, Anneliese Synnot, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Barriers to access and long-term complications remain a challenge in transplantation. Further advancements may be achieved through research priority setting with patient engagement to strengthen its relevance. We evaluated research priority setting in solid organ transplantation and described stakeholder priorities. METHODS: Databases were searched to October 2016. We synthesized the findings descriptively. RESULTS: The 28 studies (n=2071 participants) addressed kidney (9 [32%]), heart (7 [25%]), liver (3 [11%]), lung (1 [4%]), pancreas (1 [4%]), and non-specified organ transplantation (7 [25%]) using consensus conferences, expert panel meetings, workshops, surveys, focus groups, interviews, and the Delphi technique...
January 25, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117931/role-of-intrinsic-graft-vs-extrinsic-host-factors-in-the-growth-of-transplanted-organs-following-allogeneic-and-xenogeneic-transplantation
#18
Tatsu Tanabe, Hironosuke Watanabe, Jigesh A Shah, Hisashi Sahara, Akira Shimizu, Shunichiro Nomura, Arsenoi Asfour, Makenzie Danton, Lennan Boyd, Adrienne Dardenne Meyers, Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, David H Sachs, Kazuhiko Yamada
In our studies of life-supporting GalT-KO pig-to-baboon kidneys, we have found that some recipients developed increased serum creatinine with growth of the grafts, without histologic or immunologic evidence of rejection. We hypothesized that the rapid growth of orthotopic pig grafts in smaller baboon recipients may have led to deterioration of organ function. To test this hypothesis for both kidneys and lungs, we have assessed whether the growth of outbred (Yorkshire) organ transplants in miniature swine is regulated by intrinsic (graft) or extrinsic (host environment) factors...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117173/polyanhydride-nanovaccine-against-swine-influenza-virus-in-pigs
#19
Santosh Dhakal, Jonathan Goodman, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Jagadish Hiremath, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Steven Krakowka, Michael J Wannemuehler, Chang Won Lee, Balaji Narasimhan, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
We have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of an influenza A virus (IAV) subunit vaccine based on biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticles delivery in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of ∼200nm polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating inactivated swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) as a vaccine to induce protective immunity against a heterologous IAV challenge in pigs. Nursery pigs were vaccinated intranasally twice with inactivated SwIAV H1N2 (KAg) or polyanhydride nanoparticle-encapsulated KAg (KAg nanovaccine), and efficacy was evaluated against a heterologous zoonotic virulent SwIAV H1N1 challenge...
January 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114970/culture-supernatant-of-adipose-stem-cells-can-ameliorate-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-recruitment-of-cd4-cd25-foxp3-t-cells
#20
Hak Sun Yu, Mi-Kyung Park, Shin Ae Kang, Kyu-Sup Cho, Sue Jean Mun, Hwan-Jung Roh
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we demonstrated that intravenous administration of adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs) could significantly reduce allergic symptoms and suppress eosinophilic inflammation. METHODS: To evaluate the secretome of ASCs, we administrated culture supernatant of ASCs (ASC sup, which contains the ASC secretome) and uncultured fresh medium (con sup) into a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Subsequently we observed the mice for signs of inflammation and investigated Th1-, Th2-, and Treg-related cytokine levels as well as recruitment of Treg cells into the airway...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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