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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789020/influenza-vaccination-of-cancer-patients-during-pd-1-blockade-induces-serological-protection-but-may-raise-the-risk-for-immune-related-adverse-events
#1
Heinz Läubli, Catharina Balmelli, Lukas Kaufmann, Michal Stanczak, Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Dominik Vogt, Astrid Hertig, Beat Müller, Oliver Gautschi, Frank Stenner, Alfred Zippelius, Adrian Egli, Sacha I Rothschild
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibiting antibodies were introduced into routine clinical practice for cancer patients. Checkpoint blockade has led to durable remissions in some patients, but may also induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Lung cancer patients show an increased risk for complications, when infected with influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccination is recommended. However, the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination during checkpoint blockade and its influence on irAEs is unclear...
May 22, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784675/radiation-followed-by-ox40-stimulation-drives-local-and-abscopal-antitumor-effects-in-an-anti-pd1-resistant-lung-tumor-model
#2
Sharareh Niknam, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Jonathan E Schoenhals, Heather Jackson, Niranjan Yanamandra, Mauricio S Caetano, Ailin Li, Ahmed I Younes, Alexandra P Cadena, Taylor R Cushman, Joe Y Chang, Quynh Nguyen, Daniel R Gomez, Adi Diab, John V Heymach, Patrick Hwu, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
PURPOSE: Radiation is used extensively to treat localized cancer, but improved understanding of its effects on the immune system have increased interest in its potential systemic (abscopal) effects, particularly in combination with checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD1. The majority of patients either do not respond or develop resistance to monotherapy over time. Here, we investigated the efficacy of OX40 (CD134) stimulation as an alternative immunotherapeutic approach in combination with radiotherapy (XRT) in a murine model of anti-PD1-resistant lung tumors...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779634/low-pretransplant-iga-level-is-associated-with-early-post-lung-transplant-seromucous-infection
#3
Sudish C Murthy, Robin K Avery, Marie Budev, Sandeep Gupta, Gösta B Pettersson, Edward R Nowicki, Atul Mehta, Jeffrey T Chapman, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, Eugene H Blackstone
OBJECTIVES: Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. METHODS: From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773775/case-study-in-international-cooperation-cuba-s-molecular-immunology-center-and-roswell-park-cancer-institute
#4
Rachel Evans, Mary Reid, Brahm Segal, Scott I Abrams, Kelvin Lee
In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764162/the-evolving-role-of-immune-oncology-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Shaheenah Dawood
Metastatic colorectal cancer still remains an essentially non curable disease. However, with advances in chemotherapeutic and personalizing therapeutic approaches with the incorporation of targeted therapy such as anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents survival associated with metastatic colorectal cancer has certainly improved over the last two decades. Patients who are not amenable to surgery median survival remain approximately 2 to 3 years. In an attempt to improve prognostic outcome over the last decade research has focused on therapeutic options geared towards harnessing the immune system with success observed with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the realm of a number of solid tumors including lung and renal cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761642/immunological-blocking-of-spermidine-mediated-host-pathogen-communication-provides-effective-control-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#6
Jianhe Wang, Jing Wang, Lian-Hui Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to cause life-threatening infections. The previous studies showed that the type III secretion system (T3SS) of this pathogen is a key virulence determinant, which is activated by polyamines signals spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from mammalian host. To test the potential of blocking host-pathogen communication in disease control, in this study we developed a high potency mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab 4E4, IgG1 sub-isotype) by using Spm-protein conjugate as an immunogen...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#7
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758167/myeloid-regulatory-cells-new-and-exciting-players-in-the-immunology-of-lung-cancer
#8
Zvi G Fridlender
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#9
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756991/the-immune-landscape-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-utility-of-cytologic-and-histologic-samples-obtained-through-minimally-invasive-pulmonary-procedures
#10
Jason Beattie, Lonny Yarmus, Momen Wahidi, M Patricia Rivera, Christopher Gilbert, Fabien Maldonado, Kasia Czarnecka, Angela Argento, Alexander Chen, Felix Herth, Daniel H Sterman
The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the discovery of useful biomarkers to predict response to these agents has shifted much of the focus of personalized care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer towards harnessing the immune response. With further advancement, more effective immunotherapy options will emerge along with more useful biomarkers. For patients with advanced disease, minimally invasive techniques will remain most appropriate for acquisition of tissue. This is in contrast to default gold-standard large tissue specimens obtained through surgical resection...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752757/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-suppresses-th2-inflammation-and-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-but-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-grass-pollen-mouse-models-for-allergic-asthma
#11
Laura Hesse, Uilke Brouwer, Arjen H Petersen, Renée Gras, Lisette Bosman, Jens Brimnes, Joanne N G Oude Elberink, Antoon J M van Oosterhout, Martijn C Nawijn
BACKGROUND: Both subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SCIT and SLIT) have been shown to effectively suppress allergic manifestations upon allergen exposure, providing long term relief from symptoms in allergic disorders including allergic asthma. Clinical studies directly comparing SCIT and SLIT report a different kinetics and magnitude of immunological changes induced during treatment. Comparative studies into the mechanisms underlying immune suppression in SCIT and SLIT are lacking...
May 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752554/secondary-hypogammaglobulinemia-after-rituximab-for-neuromyelitis-optica-a-case-report
#12
Lara Farhat, Jasmeen Dara, Susan Duberstein, Aliva De
A 17-year-old male with history of neuromyelitis optica and seizures presented to the pulmonology clinic for evaluation of recurrent pneumonias. He had received rituximab for the past 6 years. Over the past 2 years, he experienced four episodes of pneumonia. In between these episodes, he would improve briefly but continued to have daily cough that was productive with yellow phlegm. He also had recurrent rhinitis and sinusitis despite multiple antibiotic courses. Review of chest X-rays revealed localized right middle lobe and right lower lobe infiltrates...
May 11, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750876/evaluation-of-molecular-changes-of-distal-organs-after-small-bowel-transplantation-experimental-study
#13
P Urban, M Rabajdová, Š Feterik, G Bódy, T Granda, M Mareková, J Veselá
The ischemia and reperfusion of a jejunal graft during transplantation triggers the stress of endoplasmic reticulum; thus inducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spreading of these signals stimulate immunological reactions in distal tissues i.e. lung, liver and spleen. The aim of this study was to detect the molecular changes in liver and spleen induced by transplanted jejunal graft with one or six hours of reperfusion (group Tx1 and Tx6). Analysis of gene expression changes of inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha, IL-10) and specific chaperones (Gadd153, Grp78) derived from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was done and compared to control group...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749672/transgenic-mice-that-accept-luciferase-or-gfp-expressing-syngeneic-tumor-cells-at-high-efficiencies
#14
Naoki Aoyama, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Hitoshi Miyachi, Masahiro Sonoshita, Masaru Okabe, Makoto Mark Taketo
Jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase can serve as versatile tracking markers for identification and quantification of transplanted cancer cells in vivo. However, immune reactions against these markers can hamper the formation of syngraft tumors and metastasis that follows. Here, we report two transgenic (Tg) mouse lines that express nonfunctional mutant marker proteins, namely modified firefly luciferase (Luc2) or enhanced GFP (EGFP). These mice, named as Tg-mLuc2 and Tg-mEGFP, turned out to be immunologically tolerant to the respective tracking markers and thus efficiently accepted syngeneic cancer cells expressing the active forms of the markers...
May 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749320/combined-treatment-for-gastric-cancer-immunological-approach
#15
Olzhas Zhandossov, Galina Kaussova, Avraam Koten
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the most common oncological diseases. It can develop in any part of the stomach and spread to other organs, especially the esophagus, lungs, and liver. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of our proposed therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our research promises more effective neoadjuvant therapy, including immunotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy. Of the 62 patients involved in our study, 32 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with surgery, whereas the rest underwent neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy with surgery...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744913/cartilage-hair-hypoplasia-with-cutaneous-lymphomatoid-granulomatosis
#16
D Sathishkumar, J E Gach, M Ogboli, M Desai, T Cole, W Högler, J Motwani, A Norton, B Morland, I Colmenero
Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short-stature, sparse hair and impaired cellular immunity. We describe a young girl who was diagnosed with CHH based on the findings of recurrent infections, short stature with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, and a confirmed bi-allelic RMRP gene mutation. At 13 years, the patient developed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven lymphoproliferative disorder involving the lung, which responded partially to chemotherapy. Simultaneously, she developed multiple indurated plaques involving her face, which had histological findings of granulomatous inflammation and EBV-associated low-grade lymphomatoid granulomatosis...
May 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740435/a-beneficial-effect-of-low-dose-aspirin-in-a-murine-model-of-active-tuberculosis
#17
Vera Marie Kroesen, Paula Rodríguez-Martínez, Eric García, Yaiza Rosales, Jorge Díaz, Montse Martín-Céspedes, Gustavo Tapia, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Pere-Joan Cardona, Cristina Vilaplana
An excessive, non-productive host-immune response is detrimental in active, chronic tuberculosis (TB) disease as it typically leads to tissue damage. Given their anti-inflammatory effect, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can potentially attenuate excessive inflammation in active TB disease. As such, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of low-dose aspirin (LDA) (3 mg/kg/day), either alone or in combination with common anti-TB treatment or BCG vaccination, on disease outcome in an experimental murine model of active TB...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736739/inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-responses-co-exist-inside-lung-granuloma-of-fatal-cases-of-coccidioidomycosis-a-pilot-report
#18
Heidi G Rodriguez-Ramirez, Adolfo Soto-Dominguez, Gloria M González, Oralia Barboza-Quintana, Mario C Salinas-Carmona, Luis A Ceceñas-Falcon, Roberto Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Adrian G Rosas-Taraco
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. These fungi are endemic in the southern USA and northern Mexico. Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to develop severe forms of this fungal infection. Cytokines play an important role in controlling the fungal infection, but little is known about the predominant immunological environment in human lung tissue from fatal cases. Our aim was to analyze the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and monocyte/macrophages markers (CD14 and CD206) in the granulomas of six fatal cases of coccidioidomycosis...
May 7, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729581/immune-prophets-of-lung-cancer-the-prognostic-and-predictive-landscape-of-cellular-and-molecular-immune-markers
#19
REVIEW
Ivana Catacchio, Anna Scattone, Nicola Silvestris, Anita Mangia
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths throughout the world. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease when surgery, the best curative option, is no longer feasible. Thus, the prognosis of lung cancer remains poor and heterogeneous and new biomarkers are needed. As the immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer, the study of tumor microenvironment, with regard to the immune component, may provide valuable information for a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and progression of the disease...
May 2, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728610/mutations-in-rna-polymerase-iii-genes-and-defective-dna-sensing-in-adults-with-varicella-zoster-virus-cns-infection
#20
Madalina E Carter-Timofte, Anders F Hansen, Mette Christiansen, Søren R Paludan, Trine H Mogensen
Recently, deficiency in the cytosolic DNA sensor RNA Polymerase III was described in children with severe primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in the CNS and lungs. In the present study we examined adult patients with VZV CNS infection caused by viral reactivation. By whole exome sequencing we identified mutations in POL III genes in two of eight patients. These mutations were located in the coding regions of the subunits POLR3A and POLR3E. In functional assays, we found impaired expression of antiviral and inflammatory cytokines in response to the POL III agonist Poly(dA:dT) as well as increased viral replication in patient cells compared to controls...
May 1, 2018: Genes and Immunity
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