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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917620/normothermic-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-brain-dead-donors-reduces-inflammatory-cytokines-and-toll-like-receptor-expression
#1
Shadi Shafaghi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Hoda Godarzi, Kambiz Sheikhy, Zahra Ansari Aval, Behrooz Farzanegan, Habib Emami, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
Inflammatory responses and innate immunologic reactions play an important role in the respiratory system. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is considered a novel method in the evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs prior to transplantation. However, EVLP's effect on inflammatory and metabolic markers of human lung tissue is unknown.  This study investigated how the performance of EVLP on brain-dead (BD) donor lungs affects the production and release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a), inflammatory cells and toll-like receptors (TLR) -2, 4...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#2
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914107/non-paraneoplastic-autoimmune-subepidermal-bullous-disease-associated-with-fatal-bronchiolitis-obliterans
#3
Mari Orime, Katsuhiro Tomiyama, Hideki Hashidate, Satoru Yoshida, Satoshi Hokari, Akiko Tsuda, Hisashi Yokoyama, Jun-Ichi Narita, Youhei Uchida, Takuro Kanekura, Riichiro Abe, Norito Ishii, Takashi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Kawai
Bronchiolitis obliterans is a small-airway obstructive lung disease for which immunologically mediated pathogenesis is supposed. Frequent association of bronchiolitis obliterans with paraneoplastic pemphigus is well known, but its association with other autoimmune bullous diseases has not been reported except for a case of anti-laminin-332-type mucous membrane pemphigoid in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease associated with fatal bronchiolitis obliterans in a patient without transplantation...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#4
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#5
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902340/viral-bacterial-interactions-in-the-respiratory-tract
#6
Carla Bellinghausen, Gernot Gu Rohde, Paul Hm Savelkoul, Emiel Fm Wouters, Frank Rm Stassen
In the respiratory tract, viruses and bacteria can interact on multiple levels. It is well known that respiratory viruses, particularly influenza viruses, increase the susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. Numerous mechanisms, including compromised physical and immunological barriers, and changes in the microenvironment have hereby been shown to contribute to the development of secondary bacterial infections. In contrast, our understanding of how bacteria shape a response to subsequent viral infection is still limited...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890369/anti-tumor-activity-of-tanshinone-iia-in-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-against-lewis-mice-with-lung-cancer
#7
Qi Li, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Li-Fang Xu, Yu-Chuan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-tumor activity of tanshinone IIA in combined with cyclophosphamide against Lewis mice with lung cancer and the effect on cellular immune function. METHODS: Lewis tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right armpit of mice in each group (n = 20) to establish Lewis lung cancer mice model. After model establishment, mice in the model group were given normal saline by lavage, qd. Mice in treatment I group were given intraperitoneal injection of Tan IIA, 15 mg/kg, qd...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888588/lps-responsive-beige-like-anchor-gene-mutation-associated-with-possible-bronchiolitis-obliterans-organizing-pneumonia-associated-with-hypogammaglobulinemia-and-normal-igm-phenotype-and-low-number-of-b-cells
#8
Sima Shokri, Mohammad Nabavi, Tatjana Hirschmugl, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Saba Arshi, Mohamad Hassan Bemanian, Morteza Fallahpour, Rasool Molatefi, Mahsa Rekabi, Narges Eslami, Javad Ahmadian, Kian Darabi, Gholam Reza Sedighi, Maryam Monajemzadeh, Mohammadreza Modaresi, Nima Parvaneh, Kaan Boztug, Nima Rezaei
LPS-Responsive Beige-like Anchor (LRBA) deficiency is a disease which has recently been described in a group of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in association with autoimmunity and/or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like phenotype. We here describe a 10-year-old boy who experienced recurrent infections, mainly in the respiratory system, associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. Immunological workup showed low numbers of B cells and low IgG, but normal IgM levels. In spite of therapeutic doses of antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungal agents, in addition to immunoglobulin replacement therapy, he developed disseminated involvement of both lungs with peripheral nodules; transbronchial lung biopsy revealed possible bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)...
October 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882775/association-between-availability-of-care-providers-and-healthcare-utilizations-among-adults-with-asthma
#9
Minchul Kim, Carl V Asche, William Tillis, Jinma Ren
BACKGROUND: Limited accessibility to providers may delay appropriate control of asthma exacerbations. The objective of our study is to estimate the contributors to the hospital/emergency department (ED) visits among adults with asthma focusing on the availability of healthcare providers. METHODS: We conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis using the 2011-2013 Asthma Call-Back Survey linked with 2012-2016 Area Health Resource Files. We employed multivariable logistic regression with dichotomous outcomes of hospitalization and ED visits...
December 2, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879332/mucosal-bcg-vaccination-induces-protective-lung-resident-memory-t-cell-populations-against-tuberculosis
#10
Carolina Perdomo, Ulrike Zedler, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, Philippe Saikali, Leif E Sander, Alexis Vogelzang, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Andreas Kupz
: Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876361/beneficial-effects-of-galectin-9-on-allergen-specific-sublingual-immunotherapy-in-a-dermatophagoides-farinae-induced-mouse-model%C3%A2-of-chronic-asthma
#11
Masaki Ikeda, Shigeki Katoh, Hiroki Shimizu, Akira Hasegawa, Katsuyo Ohashi-Doi, Mikio Oka
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy is a potential disease-modifying treatment for allergic asthma. Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a β-galactoside-binding protein with various biologic effects, acts as an immunomodulator in excessive immunologic reactions by expanding regulatory T cells (Treg) and enhancing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. We investigated the efficacy of sublingually administered Gal-9 as an adjuvant to a specific allergen in a Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced mouse model of chronic asthma...
November 19, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875523/a-protein-fragment-derived-from-dna-topoisomerase-i-as-a-novel-tumour-associated-antigen-for-the-detection-of-early-stage-carcinoma
#12
Shang-Mian Yie, Shang-Rong Ye, Xiao-Li Ma, Ke Xie, Jian-Bo Zhang, Mei Cao, Xu He, Zhen-Bo Hu, Cheng-Lu Yang, Jia Zhang, Jie Zeng
BACKGROUND: The production of autoantibodies against tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) is believed to reflect greater immunologic reactivity in cancer patients and enhanced immune surveillance for cancer cells. Over the past few decades, a number of different TAAs and their corresponding autoantibodies have been investigated. However, positive frequency of autoantibody detection in cancer patients has been relatively low. Here we describe a novel TAA that was a fragment derived from human DNA-topoiomerase I and an autoantibody against the novel TAA with relatively high positive frequency in the sera of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871877/journal-allergy-clinical-immunology-perspective-clinical-potential-for-imaging-in-asthma-and-other-lung-disorders
#13
Emily M DeBoer, David R Spielberg, Alan S Brody
The ability of lung imaging to phenotype patients, determine prognosis, and to predict response to treatments is expanding in clinical and translational research. The purpose of this perspective is to describe current imaging modalities that may be useful clinical tools in asthma and other lung disorders and to explore some of the new developments in imaging modalities of the lung. These imaging modalities include chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), bronchoscopy, and others...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871313/conservation-of-immune-gene-signatures-in-solid-tumors-and-prognostic-implications
#14
Julia Chifman, Ashok Pullikuth, Jeff W Chou, Davide Bedognetti, Lance D Miller
BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes can either limit cancer growth or facilitate its spread. Diagnostic strategies that comprehensively assess the functional complexity of tumor immune infiltrates could have wide-reaching clinical value. In previous work we identified distinct immune gene signatures in breast tumors that reflect the relative abundance of infiltrating immune cells and exhibited significant associations with patient outcomes. Here we hypothesized that immune gene signatures agnostic to tumor type can be identified by de novo discovery of gene clusters enriched for immunological functions and possessing internal correlation structure conserved across solid tumors from different anatomic sites...
November 22, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869439/immunology-update-long-term-care-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#15
S Paul Starr
Nearly 31,000 US patients received solid organ transplants in 2015 and the number is increasing. Care of transplant recipients includes management of a variety of common posttransplantation issues. Skin cancers are common because of immunosuppression and require skin examinations at intervals. Patients should be educated about the need to report new skin lesions. The rates of other cancers also are increased, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, esophagus, cervix, and urinary tract. Osteoporosis is common in transplant recipients; monitoring and early therapy are important...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869438/immunology-update-biologics
#16
S Paul Starr
Biologics are substances made from a living organism or its products. These include genes, proteins (eg, antibodies, receptors, enzymes, inhibitors), recombinant proteins, and fusion proteins. Biologics often are produced using recombinant DNA technology. For example, monoclonal antibodies are produced by inserting human genes into immortalized cell cultures, which then produce the gene product (ie, an antibody) in large quantity. Another approach is to fuse genetic material from nonhuman sources (eg, mice) with human genetic material...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868075/novel-mutation-of-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-presenting-as-early-life-mycobacterial-bronchial-disease
#17
Maria J Gutierrez, Neelu Kalra, Alexandra Horwitz, Gustavo Nino
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a spectrum of inherited disorders characterized by localized or disseminated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) deficiency was the first identified genetic disorder recognized as MSMD. Mutations in the genes encoding IFNGR1 can be recessive or dominant and cause complete or partial receptor deficiency. We present the case of a 2½-year-old boy with a history of recurrent wheezing, diagnosed with endobronchial mycobacterial infection...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866431/microrna-targeted-therapeutics-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#18
Jing Xue, Jiali Yang, Meihui Luo, William C Cho, Xiaoming Liu
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that repress the expression of a broad array of target genes. Many efforts have been made to therapeutically target miRNAs in cancer treatments using miRNA mimics and miRNA antagonists. Areas covered: This article summarizes the recent findings with the role of miRNAs in lung cancer, and discusses the potential and challenges of developing miRNA-targeted therapeutics in this dreadful disease...
November 20, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864475/il-17-producing-innate-and-pathogen-specific-tissue-resident-memory-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-expand-in-the-lungs-of-bordetella-pertussis-infected-mice
#19
Alicja Misiak, Mieszko M Wilk, Mathilde Raverdeau, Kingston H G Mills
γδ T cells play a role in protective immunity to infection at mucosal surface, but also mediate pathology in certain autoimmune diseases through innate IL-17 production. Recent reports have suggested that γδ T cells can have memory analogous to conventional αβ T cells. In this study we have examined the role of γδ T cells in immunity to the respiratory pathogen Bordetella pertussis γδ T cells, predominantly Vγ4(-)γ1(-) cells, produced IL-17 in the lungs as early as 2 h after infection. The bacterial burden during primary infection was significantly enhanced and the induction of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the absence of early IL-17...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858493/sp110b-controls-host-immunity-and-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#20
Jia-Shiun Leu, Mei-Ling Chen, So-Yi Chang, Sung-Liang Yu, Chia-Wei Lin, Hsuan Wang, Wan-Chen Chen, Chin-Hao Chang, Jann-Yuan Wang, Li-Na Lee, Chong-Jen Yu, Igor Kramnik, Bo-Shiun Yan, Pan-Chyr Yang
RATIONALE: How host genetic factors affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes remains largely unknown. SP110b, an interferon (IFN)-induced nuclear protein, is the nearest human homolog to the mouse Ipr1 protein that has been shown to control host innate immunity to Mtb infection. However, the function(s) of SP110b remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the role of SP110b in controlling the host immunity and susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) as well as to identify the fundamental immunological and molecular mechanisms affected by SP110b...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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