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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148014/unfavorable-clinical-implications-of-peripheral-blood-cd44-and-cd54-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy
#1
Zhuanbo Luo, Yun Wang, Yanru Lou, Chao Cao, Richard Hubbard, Ning Xu, Xiaoping Huang
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for identification of additional prognostic markers for lung cancer. The aim of this study was to identify novel clinical and immunological predictors of prognosis in lung cancer patients. METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/8+, CD25+, CD69+, CD44+ and CD54+ were quantified in peripheral blood using flow cytometry, for 203 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and 120 healthy controls. RESULTS: The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ and CD69+ lymphocytes were significantly lower in patients with lung cancer compared with the healthy control group, while CD54+ and CD44+ lymphocytes were significantly higher...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147605/egfr-mutation-correlates-with-uninflamed-phenotype-and-weak-immunogenicity-causing-impaired-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Zhong-Yi Dong, Jia-Tao Zhang, Si-Yang Liu, Jian Su, Chao Zhang, Zhi Xie, Qing Zhou, Hai-Yan Tu, Chong-Rui Xu, Li-Xu Yan, Yu-Fa Li, Wen-Zhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
Patients with EGFR mutations showed unfavorable response to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Yet the underlying association between EGFR mutation and immune resistance remains largely unclear. We performed an integrated analysis of PD-ligand 1(PD-L1)/CD8 expression and mutation profile based on the repository database and resected early-stage NSCLC in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute (GLCI). Meanwhile, 2 pool-analyses were set to clarify the correlation between EGFR mutation and PD-L1 expression, and the association of EGFR status with response to anti-PD-1/L1 therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146488/kinetics-of-parasite-distribution-after-reinfection-with-genetically-distinct-strains-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#3
Julia Gatti Ladeia Costa, Alice Thomáz Tavares, Daliane Regis Correa Silva, Lorena Velozo Pinto, Ramon Castro Araújo Baraviera, Maria Lourdes Meirelles Noviello, Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor
Recent data shows that prior infection by Toxoplasma gondii does not protect the host from subsequent reinfection even after the development of immunological memory. Although animal models for T. gondii reinfection were proposed after cases of natural human reinfection were described, little is known about the events that occur immediately after challenge. To further understand these events, BALB/c mice were chronically infected with D8 non-virulent strain (genotype ToxoDB#8 BrIII) and challenged with two different virulent strains: EGS (genotype ToxoDB #229) or CH3 strain (genotype ToxoDB #19)...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139478/trigger-happy-resident-memory-cd4-t-cells-inhabit-the-human-lungs
#4
A E Oja, B Piet, C Helbig, R Stark, D van der Zwan, H Blaauwgeers, E B M Remmerswaal, D Amsen, R E Jonkers, P D Moerland, M A Nolte, R A W van Lier, P Hombrink
Resident memory T cells (TRM) reside in the lung epithelium and mediate protective immunity against respiratory pathogens. Although lung CD8(+) TRM have been extensively characterized, the properties of CD4(+) TRM remain unclear. Here we determined the transcriptional signature of CD4(+) TRM, identified by the expression of CD103, retrieved from human lung resection material. Various tissue homing molecules were specifically upregulated on CD4(+) TRM, whereas expression of tissue egress and lymph node homing molecules were low...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137294/immunoprevention-of-kras-driven-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-a-multipeptide-vaccine
#5
Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Shizuko Sei, Robert H Shoemaker, Ronald A Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Mutations in KRAS are detected in up to 30% of lung cancer cases. No effective therapies specifically targeting mutant KRAS have been developed. Vaccination against KRAS mutants is one of the venues of active exploration. The present study evaluated both immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy of a newly formulated multipeptide vaccine targeting multiple epitopes of the KRAS molecule. The formulated vaccine contained top four peptides, which elicited the strongest immunologic response and showed 100% sequence homology between human and mouse...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135830/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation-innocent-passengers-or-the-key-to-organ-transplant-survival
#6
Amy C Prosser, Axel Kallies, Michaela Lucas
Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same time period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or 'passenger', lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s; however, their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described...
November 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128757/lethal-murine-infection-model-for-human-respiratory-disease-associated-pteropine-orthoreovirus
#7
Yuta Kanai, Takahiro Kawagishi, Minoru Okamoto, Yusuke Sakai, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Takeshi Kobayashi
Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging bat-borne human pathogen causing severe respiratory illness. To date, however, the evaluation of PRV virulence has largely depended on the limited numbers of clinical cases owing to the lack of animal models. To develop an in vivo model of PRV infection, an inbred C3H mouse strain was infected intranasally with pathogenic PRV strain Miyazaki-Bali/2007. C3H mice suffered severe lung infection with significant body weight reduction and died within 7 days after intranasal infection...
November 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128673/bi-allelic-irf8-mutation-a-complex-immunodeficiency-syndrome-with-dendritic-cell-deficiency-monocytopenia-and-immune-dysregulation
#8
Venetia Bigley, Sheetal Maisuria, Urszula Cytlak, Laura Jardine, Matthew A Care, Kile Green, Merry Gunawan, Paul Milne, Rachel Dickinson, Sarah Wiscombe, David Parry, Rainer Doffinger, Arian Laurence, Claudia Fonseca Lic, Oda Stoevesandt, Andrew Gennery, Andrew Cant, Reuben Tooze, A John Simpson, Sophie Hambleton, Sinisa Savic, Gina Doody, Matthew Collin
BACKGROUND: Homozygous K108E mutation of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is reported to cause dendritic cell and monocyte deficiency. However, more widespread immune dysfunction is predicted from the multiple roles ascribed to IRF8 in immune cell development and function. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the effect on hematopoiesis and immunity of compound heterozygous R83C/ R291Q mutation of IRF8, present in a patient with recurrent viral infection, granulo-proliferation and intracerebral calcification...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115600/messenger-rna-sequencing-reveals-similar-mechanisms-between-neonatal-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Hua Mei, Yuheng Zhang, Chunzhi Liu, Yayu Zhang, Chunli Liu, Dan Song, Chun Xin, Jing Wang, Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding, Yan Zhu, Feng Tang
Hypoxemia and hypercarbia resulting from a lack of surfactant is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Surfactant replacement therapy may mitigate the symptoms of the disease by decreasing the surface tension of alveoli and facilitating inflation. However, surfactant serves an additional role in immunological processes. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that mechanisms of NRDS involving surfactant exert additional functions to promoting alveolar inflation...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113413/intersecting-transcriptomic-profiling-technologies-and-long-non-coding-rna-function-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-discovery-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-applications
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan Castillo, Theresa R Stueve, Crystal N Marconett
Previously thought of as junk transcripts and pseudogene remnants, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have come into their own over the last decade as an essential component of cellular activity, regulating a plethora of functions within multicellular organisms. lncRNAs are now known to participate in development, cellular homeostasis, immunological processes, and the development of disease. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified. However, movement beyond mere discovery to the understanding of molecular processes has been stymied by the complicated genomic structure, tissue-restricted expression, and diverse regulatory roles lncRNAs play...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110797/pre-anaesthetic-evaluation-of-the-patient-with-end-stage-lung-disease
#11
REVIEW
Mahesh Prabhu, Kamen Valchanov
Lung transplantation is a viable alternative for end-stage lung diseases, which offers good quality of life and survival outcomes for recipients. The aims of pre-assessment for potential lung transplant recipients are to assess fitness for surgery, optimise co-morbidities, commence interventions or investigations, weigh risk-benefit ratio, plan appropriate analgesia and obtain informed consent. The assessment information is gathered from the medical record, patient interview, physical examination and pre-operative tests...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109964/immunotherapy-as-a-promising-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Marlena Janiczek, Łukasz Szylberg, Anna Kasperska, Adam Kowalewski, Martyna Parol, Paulina Antosik, Barbara Radecka, Andrzej Marszałek
Prostate cancer treatment is currently based on surgical removal, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. In recent years, another therapeutic method has emerged-immunological treatment. Immunotherapy modulates and strengthens one's immune responses against cancer. Neoplastic cells naturally escape from the control of the immune system, and the main goal of immune therapy is to bring the control back. Satisfying outcomes after treatment of advanced melanoma and lung cancer suggest a great potential of immunotherapy as an approach for other tumors' treatment, especially in patients primarily introduced to palliative care...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106304/role-of-mait-cells-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-diseases-new-players-in-old-game
#13
Vijay Kumar, Ali Ahmad
Current advances in immunology have led to the identification of a population of novel innate immune T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The cells in humans express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33) paired with a limited subset of TCRβ chains (Vβ2, 13 and 22), are restricted by the MHC class I (MH1)-related (MR)-1, and recognize molecules that are produced in the bacterial riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the circulation, liver and at various mucosal sites (i...
November 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100279/radiotherapy-prolongs-the-survival-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-undergone-to-an-immune-modulating-treatment-with-dose-fractioned-cisplatin-and-metronomic-etoposide-and-bevacizumab-mpebev
#14
Pierpaolo Pastina, Valerio Nardone, Cirino Botta, Stefania Croci, Paolo Tini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Veronica Ricci, Maria Grazia Cusi, Claudia Gandolfo, Gabriella Misso, Silvia Zappavigna, Michele Caraglia, Antonio Giordano, Donatella Aldinucci, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale
Radiotherapy (RT), together with a direct cytolytic effect on tumor tissue, also elicits systemic immunological events, which sometimes result in the regression of distant metastases (abscopal effect). We have shown the safety and anti-tumor activity of a novel metronomic chemotherapy (mCH) regimen with dose-fractioned cisplatin, oral etoposide and bevacizumab, a mAb against the vasculo-endothelial-growth-factor (mPEBev regimen), in metastatic non-small-cell-lung cancer (mNSCLC). This regimen, designed on the results of translational studies, showed immune-modulating effects that could trigger and empower the immunological effects associated with tumor irradiation...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091081/protective-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-cigarette-smoke-and-influenza-infection
#15
M J Hong, B H Gu, M C Madison, C Landers, H Y Tung, M Kim, X Yuan, R You, A A Machado, B E Gilbert, P Soroosh, M Elloso, L Song, M Chen, D B Corry, G Diehl, F Kheradmand
Airborne pathogens commonly trigger severe respiratory failure or death in smokers with lung disease. Cigarette smoking compromises the effectiveness of innate immunity against infections but the underlying mechanisms responsible for defective acquired immune responses in smokers remains less clear. We found that mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke recovered poorly from primary Influenza A pneumonia with reduced type I and II interferons (IFNs) and viral-specific immunoglobulins, but recruited γδ T cells to the lungs that predominantly expressed interleukin 17A (IL-17A)...
November 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090342/recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-expressing-ha2-antigen-elicits-protective-immunity-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-chickens
#16
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Xin Yang, Seria-Masole Shonyela, Liang Zhao, Yan-Long Jiang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guan Wang, Jin-Hui Zhao, Chun-Feng Wang
Low pathogenic H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can lead to moderate respiratory symptoms and low egg production rates in poultry. Due to its immunologic suppression, other various infectious pathogens give rise to the co-infection of hosts, causing heavy economic losses in the commercial poultry industry in both China and worldwide. Therefore, it is time to explore a novel, safe, and effective vaccine. We have already made use of the surface of Lactobacillus plantarum to display AIV HA2 (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-HA2), which demonstrated that it has a good immunogenicity...
October 31, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075294/desired-turbulence-gut-lung-axis-immunity-and-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Rea Bingula, Marc Filaire, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Mathieu Bey, Jean-Yves Berthon, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Marie-Paule Vasson, Edith Filaire
The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function...
2017: Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071966/-effects-of-moxibustion-at-feishu-bl-13-and-shenshu-bl-23-on-peripheral-blood-t-cells-and-serum-interleukin-in-asthmatic-rats
#18
Xiang-Hua Chen, Hai-Ming He
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Feishu" (BL 13) and "Shenshu"(BL 23) on peripheral blood T cells and serum interleukin in rats with asthma, so as to explore its immunological mechanisms in relieving asthma. METHODS: Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model and moxibustion groups(10 rats/group). Asthma model was established by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide, and ovalbumin inhalation. Moxibustion was applied to bilateral "Feishu" (BL 13) and "Shenshu"(BL 23) for 30 min, once daily for 14 d...
April 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067999/myd88-dependent-dendritic-and-epithelial-cell-crosstalk-orchestrates-immune-responses-to-allergens
#19
S Y Thomas, G S Whitehead, M Takaku, J M Ward, X Xu, K Nakano, M R Lyons-Cohen, H Nakano, K M Gowdy, P A Wade, D N Cook
Sensitization to inhaled allergens is dependent on activation of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and on the adaptor molecule, MyD88. However, many cell types in the lung express Myd88, and it is unclear how signaling in these different cell types reprograms cDCs and leads to allergic inflammation of the airway. By combining ATAC-seq with RNA profiling, we found that MyD88 signaling in cDCs maintained open chromatin at select loci even at steady state, allowing genes to be rapidly induced during allergic sensitization...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067998/epithelial-derived-tgf-%C3%AE-1-acts-as-a-pro-viral-factor-in-the-lung-during-influenza-a-infection
#20
L Denney, W Branchett, L G Gregory, R A Oliver, C M Lloyd
Mucosal surfaces are under constant bombardment from potentially antigenic particles and so must maintain a balance between homeostasis and inappropriate immune activation and consequent pathology. Epithelial cells have a vital role orchestrating pulmonary homeostasis and defense against pathogens. TGF-β regulates an array of immune responses-both inflammatory and regulatory-however, its function is highly location- and context-dependent. We demonstrate that epithelial-derived TGF-β acts as a pro-viral factor suppressing early immune responses during influenza A infection...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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