Read by QxMD icon Read

Lung immunology

Jutaek Nam, Sejin Son, Lukasz J Ochyl, Rui Kuai, Anna Schwendeman, James J Moon
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a promising cancer treatment modality, but PTT generally requires direct access to the source of light irradiation, thus precluding its utility against disseminated, metastatic tumors. Here, we demonstrate that PTT combined with chemotherapy can trigger potent anti-tumor immunity against disseminated tumors. Specifically, we have developed polydopamine-coated spiky gold nanoparticles as a new photothermal agent with extensive photothermal stability and efficiency. Strikingly, a single round of PTT combined with a sub-therapeutic dose of doxorubicin can elicit robust anti-tumor immune responses and eliminate local as well as untreated, distant tumors in >85% of animals bearing CT26 colon carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhilin Zeng, Miao Li, Jinkun Chen, Qinghai Li, Qin Ning, Jianping Zhao, Yongjian Xu, Jungang Xie, Jun Yu
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common inflammatory lung disease characterized by inflammatory cells activation and production of inflammatory mediators. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) plays an important role in diverse immunological disorders by regulating immune cell functions, such as differentiation and mediator secretion. However, the role of MBD2 in COPD remains unknown. Methods: MBD2 protein expression in lung tissues of patients with COPD and cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Véronique Hofman, Sandra Lassalle, Coraline Bence, Elodie Long-Mira, Sacha Nahon-Estève, Simon Heeke, Virginie Lespinet-Fabre, Catherine Butori, Marius Ilié, Paul Hofman
The identification of certain genomic alterations ( EGFR , ALK , ROS1 , BRAF ) or immunological markers (PD-L1) in tissues or cells has led to targeted treatment for patients presenting with late stage or metastatic lung cancer. These biomarkers can be detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or by molecular biology (MB) techniques. These approaches are often complementary but depending on, the quantity and quality of the biological material, the urgency to get the results, the access to technological platforms, the financial resources and the expertise of the team, the choice of the approach can be questioned...
March 13, 2018: Cancers
Robert P Dickson, John R Erb-Downward, Nicole R Falkowski, Ellen M Hunter, Shanna L Ashley, Gary B Huffnagle
RATIONALE: The "gut-lung axis" is commonly invoked to explain the microbiome's influence on lung inflammation. Yet the lungs harbor their own microbiome which is altered in respiratory disease. The relative influence of gut and lung bacteria on lung inflammation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if baseline lung immune tone reflects local (lung-lung) or remote (gut-lung) microbe-host interactions. METHODS: We compared lung, tongue, and cecal bacteria in forty healthy, genetically-identical 10-week old mice using 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Angela Deyà-Martínez, Ana Esteve-Solé, Natalia Vélez-Tirado, Veronica Celis, Jordi Costa, Maria Cols, Cristina Jou, Alexandru Vlagea, Ana María Plaza-Martin, Manel Juan, Laia Alsina
BACKGROUND: One of the most frequent non-infectious complications of humoral immunodeficiencies with a CVID-like pattern is a particular form of inflammatory lung disease which is called granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). Its development worsens patient prognosis, with a significant decrease in survival. Currently there are no unified guidelines regarding its management, and different combinations of immunosuppressants have been used with variable success. METHODS: Clinical and radiological data were collected from patient's medical charts...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Masakatsu Yamashita, Makoto Kuwahara
Although Bach2 (broad complex-tramtrack-bric a brac and Cap'n'collar homology 2) plays an important role in regulating Th2 cell differentiation and type-2 immune responses, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our current studies demonstrate that Bach2 associates with Batf (basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like) family transcription factors and binds to the regulatory regions of the Th2 cytokine gene loci. The Bach2-Batf complex antagonizes the recruitment of the interferon regulatory factor 4 (Irf4)-containing Batf complex to activator protein 1 (AP-1) motifs in the Th2 cytokine gene locus and suppresses Th2 cytokine production and/or Th2 cell differentiation...
February 24, 2018: International Immunology
Nathan Esplin, Khadija Fergiani, Timothy B Legare, John W Stelzer, Hammad Bhatti, Sayed K Ali
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous regression has been defined as occurring when the malignant tumor mass partially or completely disappears without any treatment or as a result of a therapy considered inadequate to influence systemic neoplastic disease. Recently, studies have implicated immunological responses as likely being involved. We report a case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung who experienced spontaneous regression following biopsy without other intervention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old white man was referred to our pulmonary clinic after an incidental finding of a nodule in the lower lobe of his left lung...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
G Yu, W J Wang, D R Liu, Z F Tao, X Y Hui, J Hou, J Q Sun, X C Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of 8 immunodeficiency cases caused by human recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations, and to explore the relationship among genotypes, clinical manifestations and immunophenotypes. Methods: Clinical data were collected and analyzed from patients with RAG1 mutations who visited the Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University between October 2013 and June 2017. The data included clinical manifestations, immunophenotypes and genotypes...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Peter Hart, Alastair Copland, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Shane Harris, Ralf Spallek, Wulf Oehlmann, Mahavir Singh, Juan Basile, Martin Rottenberg, Matthew John Paul, Rajko Reljic
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease, and the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is inadequate. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an emerging vaccine technology, with recent successes in oncology and infectious diseases. NPs have been exploited as antigen delivery systems and also for their adjuvantic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying their immunological activity remain obscure. Here, we developed a novel mucosal TB vaccine (Nano-FP1) based upon yellow carnauba wax NPs (YC-NPs), coated with a fusion protein consisting of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens: Acr, Ag85B, and HBHA...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
John Rene Labib, Sally Kamal Ibrahem, Hala Mohamed Sleem, Mohamed M Ismail, Shaimaa A M Abd El Fatah, Marwa Rashad Salem, Amaal A Abdelaal, Hadeel Al-Hanafi
Early identification of acute lung injury (ALI) in pediatric patients at risk of mortality is important for improving outcome.Assessment of soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) as a valid biomarker for diagnosis of ALI among critically ill, pediatric patients in addition to correlating levels of sRAGE and different outcomes of those patients.A Hospital-based case-control study was conducted in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at Cairo University Hospital, along a period of 6 months...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Claus Bachert, Susetta Finotto, Tuomas Jartti, George N Konstantinou, Alexander Kiefer, Marek Kowalski, Anna Lewandowska-Polak, Heikki Lukkarinen, Eirini Roumpedaki, Anna Sobanska, Ina Sintobin, Tytti Vuorinen, Nan Zhang, Theodor Zimmermann, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: The PreDicta cohort was designed to prospectively evaluate wheeze/asthma persistence in preschoolers in association to viral/microbial exposures and immunological responses. We present the cohort design, demographic/disease characteristics and evaluate unsupervised and predefined phenotypic subgroups at inclusion. METHODS: PreDicta is a 2-year prospective study conducted in five European regions, including children 4-6 years with a diagnosis of asthma as cases and healthy age-matched controls...
March 7, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Aileen Weiwei Li, Miguel C Sobral, Soumya Badrinath, Youngjin Choi, Amanda Graveline, Alexander G Stafford, James C Weaver, Maxence O Dellacherie, Ting-Yu Shih, Omar A Ali, Jaeyun Kim, Kai W Wucherpfennig, David J Mooney
Existing strategies to enhance peptide immunogenicity for cancer vaccination generally require direct peptide alteration, which, beyond practical issues, may impact peptide presentation and result in vaccine variability. Here, we report a simple adsorption approach using polyethyleneimine (PEI) in a mesoporous silica microrod (MSR) vaccine to enhance antigen immunogenicity. The MSR-PEI vaccine significantly enhanced host dendritic cell activation and T-cell response over the existing MSR vaccine and bolus vaccine formulations...
March 5, 2018: Nature Materials
Qi Cheng, Kunal Patel, Biao Lei, Lindsay Rucker, D Patterson Allen, Peng Zhu, Chentha Vasu, Paulo N Martins, Martin Goddard, Satish N Nadig, Carl Atkinson
Donor brain death (BD) is an inherent part of lung transplantation (LTx) and a key contributor to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Complement activation occurs as a consequence of BD in other solid organ Tx and exacerbates IRI, but the role of complement in LTx has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the utility of delivering nebulized C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA) pre-Transplant to BD donor lungs in order to reduce post-LTx IRI. BD was induced in Balb/c donors, and lungs nebulized with C3aRA or vehicle 30 minutes prior to lung procurement...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Bo Sun, Linnan Zhu, Yaling Tao, Hai-Xi Sun, Yang Li, Peng Wang, Yuzhu Hou, Yang Zhao, Xiaodong Zhang, Lianfeng Zhang, Ning Na, Yong Zhao
Neutrophils are involved in the pathogenesis of allergy. However, the contribution of the different functionally polarized neutrophils in allergy needs to be clarified. We sought to define the characteristics of interleukin (IL)-33-induced neutrophils and the involvement of this subset of polarized neutrophils in allergic pathogenesis. Freshly isolated neutrophils were treated with different cytokines and the cytokine expression levels were detected by real-time PCR. The gene expression profile of IL-33-induced neutrophils was determined by microarray assay...
March 5, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Jessica Moskovitz, Jennifer Moy, Robert L Ferris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discussion of current strategies targeting the immune system related to solid tumors with emphasis on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).This review will outline the current challenges with immunotherapy and future goals for treatment using these agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Agents targeting immune checkpoint receptors (IR) such as program death 1 (PD1) have been used in the clinical realm for melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the use of these agents for these malignancies has provided crucial information about how and why patients respond or not to inhibitory checkpoint receptor blockade therapy (ICR)...
March 3, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Andrea Rubbert-Roth, Daniel E Furst, Jan Michael Nebesky, Angela Jin, Erhan Berber
Tocilizumab (TCZ) is the first humanized anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Castleman's disease, polyarticular and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and, most recently, giant cell arteritis as well as for the treatment of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy-induced cytokine release syndrome. The global clinical development program for TCZ provides a wealth of clinical data on intravenous TCZ, and more recent studies in patients with RA have provided evidence characterizing the role of intravenous TCZ as monotherapy in early disease and led to the introduction of a subcutaneous formulation of TCZ...
March 3, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
Johannes C Schoeman, Amy C Harms, Michel van Weeghel, Ruud Berger, Rob J Vreeken, Thomas Hankemeier
Oxidative stress and inflammation are underlying pathogenic mechanisms associated with the progression of several pathological conditions and immunological responses. Elucidating the role of signalling lipid classes, which include, among others, the isoprostanes, nitro fatty acids, prostanoids, sphingoid bases and lysophosphatidic acids, will create a snapshot of the cause and effect of inflammation and oxidative stress at the metabolic level. Here we describe a fast, sensitive, and targeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics method that allows the quantitative measurement and biological elucidation of 17 isoprostanes as well as their respective isomeric prostanoid mediators, three nitro fatty acids, four sphingoid mediators, and 24 lysophosphatidic acid species from serum as well as organ tissues, including liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney and brain...
March 2, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Shweta Bansal, Arun Garg, Richa Khurana
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of rare disorders histologically characterized by the proliferation of LC, involving multiple organs and systems. Typically, there is bone involvement and, less frequently, lesions may be found in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, skin, and mucosae. Oral soft tissue lesions without bone involvement are rare. Antigenic markers that react with CD1a glycoprotein, cytoplasmatic protein S100 detected by immunoperoxidase staining, and/or presence of Birbeck granules on electron microscopic examination are required for a definitive diagnosis of LCH...
October 2017: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Mark H T Stappers, Alexandra E Clark, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Stefan Bidula, Delyth M Reid, Patawee Asamaphan, Sarah E Hardison, Ivy M Dambuza, Isabel Valsecchi, Bernhard Kerscher, Anthony Plato, Carol A Wallace, Raif Yuecel, Betty Hebecker, Maria da Glória Teixeira Sousa, Cristina Cunha, Yan Liu, Ten Feizi, Axel A Brakhage, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Neil A R Gow, Matteo Zanda, Monica Piras, Chiara Zanato, Martin Jaeger, Mihai G Netea, Frank L van de Veerdonk, João F Lacerda, António Campos, Agostinho Carvalho, Janet A Willment, Jean-Paul Latgé, Gordon D Brown
Resistance to infection is critically dependent on the ability of pattern recognition receptors to recognize microbial invasion and induce protective immune responses. One such family of receptors are the C-type lectins, which are central to antifungal immunity. These receptors activate key effector mechanisms upon recognition of conserved fungal cell-wall carbohydrates. However, several other immunologically active fungal ligands have been described; these include melanin, for which the mechanism of recognition is hitherto undefined...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"