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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#1
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the post-fusion glycoprotein (RSV sF) of RSV, which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to Alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and upper respiratory tract. PCPP formulations were also characterized by Th1-biased responses, compared to Th2-biased responses that are more typical for RSV sF alone or RSV sF-Alum formulations, suggesting an inherent immunostimulating activity of the polyphosphazene adjuvant...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539271/gene-expression-profiling-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#2
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Ching-Fang Yu, Andy Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Yu-Chen Liu, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
Radiotherapy (RT) is a common cancer treatment approach that accounts for nearly 50% of patient treatment; however, tumor relapse after radiotherapy is still a major issue. To study the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the regulation of tumor progression post-RT, microarray experiments comparing TAM gene expression profiles between unirradiated and irradiated tumors were conducted to discover possible roles of TAMs in initiation or contribution to tumor recurrence following RT, taking into account the relationships among gene expression, tumor microenvironment, and immunology...
April 30, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#3
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530055/-pulmonary-fibrosis-induced-by-anti%C3%B6-tnf-%C3%AE-lpha-treatment
#4
Sharon Baum, Orit Schachter, Aviv Barzilai
INTRODUCTION: TNFα-targeted therapies have emerged as a new class of drugs in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. With the increasing use and longer follow-up periods of TNFα targeted therapies, a spectrum of immunological adverse events have been described, ranging from asymptomatic immunological alterations to life-threatening systemic diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. We present a case of a 66 year old man diagnosed with psoriasis who developed pulmonary fibrosis three years after initiation of Etanercept (Enbrel) for his skin disease...
October 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529897/uncovering-the-immune-tumor-microenvironment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-understand-response-rates-to-checkpoint-blockade-and-radiation
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan E Schoenhals, Steven N Seyedin, Clark Anderson, Eric D Brooks, Yun R Li, Ahmed I Younes, Sharareh Niknam, Ailin Li, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
The study of immunology has led to breakthroughs in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The recent approval of an anti-PD1 checkpoint drug for NSCLC has generated much interest in novel combination therapies that might provide further benefit for patients. However, a better understanding of which combinations may (or may not) work in NSCLC requires understanding the lung immune microenvironment under homeostatic conditions and the changes in that microenvironment in the setting of cancer progression and with radiotherapy...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516132/life-threatening-hypercalcemia-during-prodrome-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-an-immunocompetent-infant
#7
Judith Sebestyen VanSickle, Tarak Srivastava, Uri S Alon
Severe hypercalcemia in infants is usually attributed to genetic etiologies and less commonly to acquired ones. An 8-week-old girl presented with failure to thrive, mild respiratory distress, and life-threatening hypercalcemia (23.5 mg/dL). Serum 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D (1,25(OH)2-D) level was elevated and parathyroid hormone undetectable. Evaluation for genetic mutations and malignant etiologies of hypercalcemia was negative. Treatment with intravenous hydration, loop diuretic, and calcitonin failed to correct the hypercalcemia, which was subsequently controlled with bisphosphonate therapy...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#8
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513596/an-innate-defense-peptide-bpifa1-splunc1-restricts-influenza-a-virus-infection
#9
K M Akram, N A Moyo, G H Leeming, L Bingle, S Jasim, S Hussain, A Schorlemmer, A Kipar, P Digard, R A Tripp, R V Shohet, C D Bingle, J P Stewart
The airway epithelium secretes proteins that function in innate defense against infection. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1) is secreted into airways and has a protective role during bacterial infections, but it is not known whether it also has an antiviral role. To determine a role in host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and to find the underlying defense mechanism, we developed transgenic mouse models that are deficient in BPIFA1 and used these, in combination with in vitro three-dimensional mouse tracheal epithelial cell (mTEC) cultures, to investigate its antiviral properties...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513594/regionally-compartmentalized-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-naturally-acquired-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#10
N Ms Smith, G A Wasserman, F T Coleman, K L Hilliard, K Yamamoto, E Lipsitz, R Malley, H Dooms, M R Jones, L J Quinton, J P Mizgerd
As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Previous pneumococcal infections provided protection against a heterotypic, highly virulent pneumococcus, as evidenced by reduced bacterial burdens and long-term sterilizing immunity...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513592/ifn-%C3%AE-increases-susceptibility-to-influenza-a-infection-through-suppression-of-group-ii-innate-lymphoid-cells
#11
D Califano, Y Furuya, S Roberts, D Avram, A N J McKenzie, D W Metzger
Increased levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are routinely observed in the respiratory tract following influenza virus infection, yet its potential role remains unclear. We now demonstrate that influenza-induced IFN-γ restricts protective innate lymphoid cell group II (ILC2) function in the lung following challenge with the pandemic H1N1 A/CA/04/2009 (CA04) influenza virus. Specifically, IFN-γ deficiency resulted in enhanced ILC2 activity, characterized by increased production of interleukin (IL)-5 and amphiregulin, and improved tissue integrity, yet no change in ILC2 numbers, viral load or clearance...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512460/immunological-aspect-of-radiation-induced-pneumonitis-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Anup Kainthola, Teena Haritwal, Mrinialini Tiwari, Noopur Gupta, Suhel Parvez, Manisha Tiwari, Hrideysh Prakash, Paban K Agrawala
Delivery of high doses of radiation to thoracic region, particularly with non-small cell lung cancer patients, becomes difficult due to subsequent complications arising in the lungs of the patient. Radiation-induced pneumonitis is an early event evident in most radiation exposed patients observed within 2-4 months of treatment and leading to fibrosis later. Several cytokines and inflammatory molecules interplay in the vicinity of the tissue developing radiation injury leading to pneumonitis and fibrosis. While certain cytokines may be exploited as biomarkers, they also appear to be a potent target of intervention at transcriptional level...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502823/niaid-niehs-nhlbi-mcan-workshop-report-the-indoor-environment-and-childhood-asthma-implications-for-home-environmental-intervention-in-asthma-prevention-and-management
#13
Diane R Gold, Gary Adamkiewicz, Syed Hasan Arshad, Juan C Celedón, Martin D Chapman, Ginger L Chew, Donald N Cook, Adnan Custovic, Ulrike Gehring, James E Gern, Christine C Johnson, Suzanne Kennedy, Petros Koutrakis, Brian Leaderer, Herman Mitchell, Augusto A Litonjua, Geoffrey A Mueller, George T O'Connor, Dennis Ownby, Wanda Phipatanakul, Victoria Persky, Matthew S Perzanowski, Clare D Ramsey, Päivi M Salo, Julie M Schwaninger, Joanne E Sordillo, Avrum Spira, Shakira F Suglia, Alkis Togias, Darryl C Zeldin, Elizabeth C Matsui
Environmental exposures have been recognized as critical in the initiation and exacerbation of asthma, one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and Merck Childhood Asthma Network (MCAN) sponsored a joint workshop to discuss the current state of the science with respect to the indoor environment and its effects on the development and morbidity of childhood asthma...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499411/paraneoplastic-acral-vascular-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma-under-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#14
Thilo Gambichler, Stefanie Strutzmann, Andrea Tannapfel, Laura Susok
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome (PAVS) is a rare phenomenon which is observed in patients with adenocarcinomas and other malignancies. Various potential pathogenic mechanisms such as tumour invasion of sympathetic nerves, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, vasoactive tumour-secreted substances, and immunological mechanisms have been suggested. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male attended our hospital with a bulky lymph node mass in the right axilla...
May 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494303/hemocompatibility-of-inhaled-environmental-nanoparticles-potential-use-of-in-vitro-testing
#15
REVIEW
Eleonore Fröhlich
Hemocompatibility testing is an important part in the evaluation of nano-based medicines. However, it is not systematically used for the assessment of environmental particles since they do not come in contact with blood immediately. Studies on human exposure to air-borne particles and pulmonary exposure of rodents have reported alterations in blood physiology. It is not clear, whether these effects are majorly caused by tissue inflammation or translocated particles in blood. This review addresses the question, if in vitro hemocompatibility testing could help in the risk evaluation of inhaled particles...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493304/cpam-type-2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-malignancy-risk-study-in-a-14-month-old-boy
#16
Gloria Pelizzo, Maria A Avanzini, Marco Folini, Rossana Bussani, Melissa Mantelli, Stefania Croce, Gloria Acquafredda, Paola Travaglino, Graziella Cimino-Reale, Marina Boni, Irene Dambruoso, Valeria Calcaterra
INTRODUCTION: The association between congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and malignancy is reported in the literature. Interactions between the tumor, immune, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as crucial for understanding tumorigenesis. We characterized MSCs isolated from CPAM lesions in order to define potential malignancy risks. METHODS: CPAM II pulmonary tissue was used for MSC expansion; a "healthy" lung section from the same child was used as a comparator...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493077/lung-protective-effects-of-low-volume-resuscitation-and-pharmacologic-treatment-of-swine-subjected-to-polytrauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#17
Vahagn C Nikolian, Baihong Pan, Tomaz Mesar, Isabel S Dennahy, Patrick E Georgoff, Xiuzhen Duan, Baoling Liu, Xizi Wu, Michael J Duggan, Hasan B Alam, Yongqing Li
Hemorrhage is a common cause of death in the battlefield. Valproic acid (VPA) has been associated with improved outcomes in multiple models of trauma, when combined with isotonic fluid resuscitation. However, isotonic fluid administered in this setting is logistically impractical and may be associated with complications. In this study, we sought to evaluate the feasibility and immunologic impact of combining VPA treatment with low-volume hypertonic saline (HTS). In vivo: female Yorkshire swine were subjected to hemorrhage (40% total blood volume) and polytrauma (rib fracture and delayed liver injury)...
May 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488693/icos-protects-against-mortality-from-acute-lung-injury-through-activation-of-il-5-ilc2s
#18
C L Hrusch, S T Manns, D Bryazka, J Casaos, C A Bonham, M R Jaffery, K M Blaine, K A M Mills, P A Verhoef, A O Adegunsoye, J W Williams, M Y Tjota, T V Moore, M E Strek, I Noth, A I Sperling
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease causing irreversible lung scarring and loss of pulmonary function. IPF Patients suffer from a high rate of pulmonary infections and acute exacerbations of disease that further contribute to pulmonary decline. Low expression of the inducible T-cell costimulatory molecule (ICOS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells predicts decreased survival of IPF patients, but the mechanisms by which ICOS protects are unclear. Using a model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis, we now demonstrate that ICOS expression enhances survival from lung injury rather than regulating fibrogenesis...
May 10, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482922/therapeutic-effect-of-schistosoma-japonicum-cystatin-on-bacterial-sepsis-in-mice
#19
Huihui Li, Shushu Wang, Bin Zhan, Wenxin He, Liang Chu, Dapeng Qiu, Nan Li, Yongkun Wan, Hui Zhang, Xingzhi Chen, Qiang Fang, Jilong Shen, Xiaodi Yang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infection and remains one of the leading causes of mortality in surgical patients. Bacteremia induces excessive inflammatory responses that result in multiple organ damage. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived materials have been found to immunomodulate host immune system to reduce inflammation against some allergic or inflammatory diseases. Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (Sj-Cys) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces regulatory T-cells and a potential immunomodulatory...
May 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480388/isolation-characterization-and-immunochemical-studies-on-fibrous-proteins-from-cowry-shell-cypraea-moneta-linnaeus
#20
R A Togun, R O Balogun, D O Adeyemi, T A Esan, G M Oyatogun, E O Oziegbe, R E Okonji, A Kuku
BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are non-drug substances used to treat, enhance or replace functions of body tissues or organs. Natural sources of biomaterials have recently become the focus of several research activities. Cowry shell constitutes one of the most promising natural sources of biomaterials because of its chemical stability, biodegradability and biocompatibility in the body. However, its applications may be limited due to immunogenic and toxic responses that may occur following implantation, hence this study...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
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