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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#1
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810825/regulatory-t-cell-levels-in-the-longest-surviving-asian-patient-after-heart-lung-transplant
#2
Lei Huang, Ming Ji, Shounan Yi, Xinmin Zhou
Heart-lung transplant is the most effective therapy for patients with end-stage cardiopulmonary disease. Here, we report an initial assessment of a 31-year-old man who had survived more than 11 years after heart-lung transplant, which represents the longest survival time in this procedure in Asian studies. At his 11th anniversary after transplant, extensive tests were carried out, especially to detect regulatory T-cell levels for the first time in a surviving heart-lung transplant recipient. Preliminarily data revealed the status of his immunologic function in relation to chronic allograft rejection...
August 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808358/mbd2-regulates-th17-cell-differentiation-and-experimental-severe-asthma-by-affecting-irf4-expression
#3
Aijun Jia, Yueling Wang, Wenjin Sun, Bing Xiao, Yan Wei, Lulu Qiu, Lin Mu, Li Xu, Jianmin Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Da Liu, Cong Peng, Dongshan Zhang, Xudong Xiang
Th17 cells and IL-17 participate in airway neutrophil infiltration characteristics in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) expression increased in CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood samples of asthma patients. However, little is known about that epigenetic regulation of MBD2 in both immunological pathogenesis of experimental severe asthma and CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Here, we established a neutrophil-predominant severe asthma model, which was characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), BALF neutrophil granulocyte (NEU) increase, higher NEU and IL-17 protein levels, and more Th17 cell differentiation...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805806/lung-tumor-exome-files-with-t-cell-receptor-recombinations-a-mouse-model-of-t-cell-infiltrates-reflecting-mutation-burdens
#4
Yaping N Tu, Wei Lue Tong, Timothy J Fawcett, George Blanck
Tumor exomes and RNASeq data were originally intended for obtaining tumor mutations and gene expression profiles, respectively. However, recent work has determined that tumor exome and RNAseq read files contain reads representing T-cell and B-cell receptor (TcR and BcR) recombinations, presumably due to infiltrating lymphocytes. Furthermore, the recovery of immune receptor recombination reads has demonstrated correlations with specific, previously appreciated aspects of tumor immunology. To further understand the usefulness of recovering TcR and BcR recombinations from tumor exome files, we developed a scripted algorithm for recovery of reads representing these recombinations from a previously described mouse model of lung tumorigenesis...
August 14, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805662/clinical-and-immunological-responses-after-cd30-specific-chimeric-antigen-receptor-redirected-lymphocytes
#5
Carlos A Ramos, Brandon Ballard, Huimin Zhang, Olga Dakhova, Adrian P Gee, Zhuyong Mei, Mrinalini Bilgi, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Bambi Grilley, Catherine M Bollard, Bill H Chang, Cliona M Rooney, Malcolm K Brenner, Helen E Heslop, Gianpietro Dotti, Barbara Savoldo
BACKGROUND: Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS: We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800262/risk-factors-predisposing-to-the-development-of-hypogammaglobulinemia-and-infections-post-rituximab
#6
Evangelos A A Christou, Giuliana Giardino, Austen Worth, Fani Ladomenou
Rituximab (RTX) is a monoclonal antibody against CD20, commonly used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. The use of RTX is related to the development of hypogammaglobulinemia and infections. Aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting the association of specific risk factors with the development of hypogammaglobulinemia and infections post-RTX. Immunological complications are more common in patients with malignant diseases as compared to non-malignant diseases...
August 11, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798335/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-impair-adaptive-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis
#7
Afshin Namdar, Petya Koleva, Shima Shahbaz, Stacy Strom, Volker Gerdts, Shokrollah Elahi
Infant's immune system cannot control infection or respond to vaccination as efficiently as older individuals, a phenomenon that has been attributed to immunological immaturity. Recently, we challenged this notion and proposed the presence of actively immunosuppressive and physiologically enriched CD71(+) erythroid cells in neonates. Here we utilized Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract pathogen, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in adaptive immunity. We observed that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immunosuppressive properties and prevent recruitment of immune cells to the mucosal site of infection...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798047/mtor-regulates-metabolic-adaptation-of-apcs-in-the-lung-and-controls-the-outcome-of-allergic-inflammation
#8
Charles Sinclair, Gayathri Bommakanti, Luiz Gardinassi, Jens Loebbermann, Matthew Joseph Johnson, Paul Hakimpour, Thomas Hagan, Lydia Benitez, Andrei Todor, Deepa Machiah, Timothy Oriss, Anuradha Ray, Steven Bosinger, Rajesh Ravindran, Shuzhao Li, Bali Pulendran
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) occupy diverse anatomical tissues, but their tissue-restricted homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, working in mouse models of inflammation, we found that mTOR-dependent metabolic adaptation was required at discrete locations. mTOR was dispensable for DC homeostasis in secondary lymphoid tissues but necessary to regulate cellular metabolism and accumulation of CD103(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages in lung. Moreover, while numbers of mTOR-deficient lung CD11b(+) DCs were not changed, they were metabolically reprogrammed to skew allergic inflammation from eosinophilic Th2 to neutrophilic Th17 polarity...
August 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796839/tissue-specific-control-of-latent-cmv-reactivation-by-regulatory-t-cells
#9
Maha Almanan, Jana Raynor, Allyson Sholl, Mei Wang, Claire Chougnet, Rhonda D Cardin, David A Hildeman
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes a persistent, lifelong infection. CMV persists in a latent state and undergoes intermittent subclinical viral reactivation that is quelled by ongoing T cell responses. While T cells are critical to maintain control of infection, the immunological factors that promote CMV persistence remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in a mouse model of latent CMV infection using Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor (Foxp3-DTR) mice. Eight months after infection, MCMV had established latency in the spleen, salivary gland, lung, and pancreas, which was accompanied by an increased frequency of Treg...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791392/the-mechanism-of-de-novo-expression-of-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung
#10
Tomoyuki Igarashi, Koji Teramoto, Mitsuaki Ishida, Jun Hanaoka, Yataro Daigo
Immune checkpoint mechanisms such as the programmed cell death-ligand 1-programmed cell death 1 (PD‑L1-PD‑1) axis are utilized by tumor cells to evade the cytotoxicity of effector immune cells. However, environmental factors responsible for the expression of PD‑L1 on tumor cells remain to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that an immunological interaction with tumor-infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes (CD8+ TILs) would contribute to PD‑L1 expression in tumor cells. To verify this hypothesis, we examined the effect of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a cytokine secreted by CD8+ TILs, on PD‑L1 expression in pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas in vitro...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791025/the-ido-ahr-axis-controls-th17-treg-immunity-in-a-pulmonary-model-of-fungal-infection
#11
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Claudia Feriotti, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Nycolas Willian Preite, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
In infectious diseases, the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) that catalyzes the tryptophan (Trp) degradation along the kynurenines (Kyn) pathway has two main functions, the control of pathogen growth by reducing available Trp and immune regulation mediated by the Kyn-mediated expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, IDO1 was shown to control the disease severity of both resistant and susceptible mice to the infection; however, only in resistant mice, IDO1 is induced by TGF-β signaling that confers a stable tolerogenic phenotype to dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790285/-postoperative-chylotholax-intraoperative-prevention-and-postoperative-management
#12
Tomohito Saito, Shuji Kariya, Tomohiro Murakawa
Postoperative chylothorax is a relatively rare but potentially fatal complication caused by iatrogenic injury to thoracic duct system, with an incidence ranging from 2 to 4% after major lung surgery or esophagectomy. The pathophysiologic features of chylothorax include dehydration, loss of nutrients and immunological components. Intraopreative prevention is the first step for the management, and treatment options include conservative therapy, percutaneous intervention, and redo-operation. Although the treatment algorithm has not been standardized, chylothorax which is refractory to conservative treatment, or that with high output greater than 1,000 ml/day should be treated aggressively with thoracic duct embolization or redo-operation in a timely fashion...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783702/natural-killer-cell-mediated-inflammation-resolution-is-disabled-in-severe-asthma
#13
Melody G Duvall, Cindy Barnig, Manuela Cernadas, Isabell Ricklefs, Nandini Krishnamoorthy, Nicole L Grossman, Nirav R Bhakta, John V Fahy, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, Serpil C Erzurum, Benjamin M Gaston, Nizar N Jarjour, David T Mauger, Sally E Wenzel, Suzy A Comhair, Andrea M Coverstone, Merritt L Fajt, Annette T Hastie, Mats W Johansson, Michael C Peters, Brenda R Phillips, Elliot Israel, Bruce D Levy
Severe asthma is typically characterized by chronic airway inflammation that is refractory to corticosteroids and associated with excess morbidity. Patients were recruited into the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Severe Asthma Research Program and comprehensively phenotyped by bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Compared with healthy individuals (n = 21), patients with asthma (n = 53) had fewer BAL natural killer (NK) cells. Patients with severe asthma (n = 29) had a marked increase in the ratios of CD4(+) T cells to NK cells and neutrophils to NK cells...
March 10, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783042/inborn-errors-in-rna-polymerase-iii-underlie-severe-varicella-zoster-virus-infections
#14
Benson Ogunjimi, Shen-Ying Zhang, Katrine B Sørensen, Kristian A Skipper, Madalina Carter-Timofte, Gaspard Kerner, Stefanie Luecke, Thaneas Prabakaran, Yujia Cai, Josephina Meester, Esther Bartholomeus, Nikhita Ajit Bolar, Geert Vandeweyer, Charlotte Claes, Yasmine Sillis, Lazaro Lorenzo, Raffaele A Fiorenza, Soraya Boucherit, Charlotte Dielman, Steven Heynderickx, George Elias, Andrea Kurotova, Ann Vander Auwera, Lieve Verstraete, Lieven Lagae, Helene Verhelst, Anna Jansen, Jose Ramet, Arvid Suls, Evelien Smits, Berten Ceulemans, Lut Van Laer, Genevieve Plat Wilson, Jonas Kreth, Capucine Picard, Horst Von Bernuth, Joël Fluss, Stephane Chabrier, Laurent Abel, Geert Mortier, Sebastien Fribourg, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Søren R Paludan, Trine H Mogensen
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes chickenpox upon primary infection. In rare cases, VZV can give rise to life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy people, but the immunological basis for this remains unexplained. We report 4 cases of acute severe VZV infection affecting the central nervous system or the lungs in unrelated, otherwise healthy children who are heterozygous for rare missense mutations in POLR3A (one patient), POLR3C (one patient), or both (two patients). POLR3A and POLR3C encode subunits of RNA polymerase III...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776450/pharmacological-modulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-improves-the-airway-hyperresponsiveness-by-shifting-the-th1-response-in-allergic-inflammation-induced-by-ovalbumin
#15
Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Mavina Valente Barroso, Valdirene de Souza Muniz, Ana Carolina de Arantes, Marco Aurélio Martins, Lycia de Brito Gitirana, Josiane Sabbadini Neves, Cláudia Farias Benjamim, Manuella Lanzetti, Samuel Santos Valença
Asthma is an allergic inflammation driven by the Th2 immune response with release of such cytokines as IL-4 and IL-13, which contribute to the airflow limitations and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The involvement of oxidative stress in this process is well-established, but the specific role of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide in asthma are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the superoxide anion/nitric oxide production and detoxification in a murine asthma model...
August 4, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769133/the-prevalence-of-ana-antibodies-anticentromere-antibodies-and-anti-cyclic-citrullinated-peptide-antibodies-in-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-compared-to-patients-with-dryness-symptoms-without-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-confirmation
#16
Maria Maślińska, Małgorzata Mańczak, Bożena Wojciechowska, Brygida Kwiatkowska
OBJECTIVES: Our study analyses the prevalence of ANA, anti-SS-A, anti-SS-B, and ACA and ACPA antibodies in patients with pSS and with dryness symptoms without pSS confirmation, and the association of ACPA and ACA antibodies with specific clinical symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 113 patients were divided into two groups: I - with diagnosed pSS (N = 75); and II - with dryness without pSS evidence (N = 38). Diagnostics: indirect immunofluorescence (IF; Hep-2 cell line) of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-SS-A anti-SS-B antibodies determined with semi-quantitative method, autoantibody profile (14 antigens, ANA Profil 3 EUROLINE); basic laboratory, ophthalmic examination tests, minor salivary gland biopsy with focus score (FS), joint and lung evaluation, and ESSDAI questionnaire (pSS activity)...
2017: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769058/characterisation-of-lung-macrophage-subpopulations-in-copd-patients-and-controls
#17
Jennifer A Dewhurst, Simon Lea, Elizabeth Hardaker, Josiah V Dungwa, Arjun K Ravi, Dave Singh
Lung macrophage subpopulations have been identified based on size. We investigated characteristics of small and large macrophages in the alveolar spaces and lung interstitium of COPD patients and controls. Alveolar and interstitial cells were isolated from lung resection tissue from 88 patients. Macrophage subpopulation cell-surface expression of immunological markers and phagocytic ability were assessed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory related gene expression was measured. Alveolar and interstitial macrophages had subpopulations of small and large macrophages based on size and granularity...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754821/the-role-of-the-tumour-microenvironment-in-immune-therapy
#18
Stephan Gasser, Lina H K Lim, Florence S G Cheung
Recent success in immunomodulating strategies in lung cancer and melanoma has prompted much enthusiasm in their potential to treat other advanced solid malignancies. However, their applications have shown variable success and are even ineffective against some tumours. The efficiency of immunotherapies relies on an immunogenic tumour microenvironment. The current field of cancer immunology has focused on understanding the interaction of cancer and host immune cells to break the state of immune tolerance and explain how molecular patterns of cytokines and chemokines affect tumour progression...
July 28, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752079/unique-chemokine-profiles-of-lung-tissues-distinguish-post-chemotherapeutic-persistent-and-chronic-tuberculosis-in-a-mouse-model
#19
Soomin Park, Seung-Hun Baek, Sang-Nae Cho, Young-Saeng Jang, Ahreum Kim, In-Hong Choi
There is a substantial need for biomarkers to distinguish latent stage from active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, for predicting disease progression. To induce the reactivation of tuberculosis, we present a new experimental animal model modified based on the previous model established by our group. In the new model, the reactivation of tuberculosis is induced without administration of immunosuppressive agents, which might disturb immune responses. To identify the immunological status of the persistent and chronic stages, we analyzed immunological genes in lung tissues from mice infected with M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745326/defective-positioning-in-granulomas-but-not-lung-homing-limits-cd4-t-cell-interactions-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages-in-rhesus-macaques
#20
K D Kauffman, M A Sallin, S Sakai, O Kamenyeva, J Kabat, D Weiner, M Sutphin, D Schimel, L Via, C E Barry, T Wilder-Kofie, I Moore, R Moore, D L Barber
Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4 T cells to migrate into the lung and interact with infected macrophages. In mice, less-differentiated CXCR3(+) CD4 T cells migrate into the lung and suppress growth of Mtb, whereas CX3CR1(+) terminally differentiated Th1 cells accumulate in the blood vasculature and do not control pulmonary infection. Here we examine CD4 T-cell differentiation and lung homing during primary Mtb infection of rhesus macaques. Mtb-specific CD4 T cells simultaneously appeared in the airways and blood ∼21-28 days post exposure, indicating that recently primed effectors are quickly recruited into the lungs after entering circulation...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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