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Lung immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092864/augmentation-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-in-response-to-tetanus-and-diphtheria-toxoids-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extracts-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-leaves
#1
Bindhya Jayashankar, Divya Singh, Himanshi Tanwar, K P Mishra, Swetha Murthy, Sudipta Chanda, Jigni Mishra, R Tulswani, K Misra, S B Singh, Lilly Ganju
Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#2
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074060/s100a8-a9-and-s100a9-reduce-acute-lung-injury
#3
Yuka Hiroshima, Kenneth Hsu, Nicodemus Tedla, Sze Wing Wong, Sharron Chow, Naomi Kawaguchi, Carolyn L Geczy
S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4. S100A8 and S100A9 can function separately, likely through distinct receptors but a systematic comparison of their effects in vivo are limited. Here we assess inflammation in murine lung following S100A9 and S100A8/A9 inhalation. Unlike S100A8, S100A9 promoted mild neutrophil and lymphocyte influx, possibly mediated in part, by increased mast cell degranulation and selective upregulation of some chemokine genes, particularly CXCL-10...
January 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072762/giving-axl-the-axe-targeting-axl-in-human-malignancy
#4
Carl M Gay, Kavitha Balaji, Lauren Averett Byers
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068853/chronic-lung-disease-in-common-variable-immune-deficiency-cvid-a-pathophysiological-role-for-microbial-and-non-b-cell-immune-factors
#5
Denver Mooney, David Edgar, Gisli Einarsson, Damian Downey, Stuart Elborn, Michael Tunney
One of the most common and most severe forms of primary antibody deficiency encountered in the clinical setting is a heterogeneous group of syndromes termed common variable immune deficiency (CVID). This disorder is characterized by reduced immunoglobulin production and increased susceptibility to infection, particularly of the respiratory tract. Infection and subsequent immunological/inflammatory processes may contribute to the development of pulmonary complications such as bronchiectasis and interstitial lung disease...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068297/fatty-acid-derivative-chemokine-and-cytokine-profiles-in-exhaled-breath-condensates-can-differentiate-adult-and-children-paucibacillary-tuberculosis-patients
#6
Sergio Fabián Mosquera-Restrepo, Ana Cecilia Caro, Luis F García, Carlos Alberto Peláez-Jaramillo, Mauricio Rojas
The anti-mycobacterial immune response in adults and children with tuberculosis (TB), as well as the response in bacteriologically positive and negative patients, is different. However, knowledge of the immunological events occurring in the lungs in these clinical situations remains scarce. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples may be useful for studying the inflammatory environment of the lower airways in TB patients. The fatty acid, cytokine, and chemokine profiles in EBC from healthy adults; smear-positive and smear-negative adult patients; and healthy, asthmatic, and TB children were determined using gas chromatography and LUMINEX, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067125/value-of-non-identified-anca-non-pr3-non-mpo-in-the-diagnosis-of-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-wegener-s-granulomatosis
#7
Mélanie Givaudan, Frédéric Vandergheynst, Patrick Stordeur, Annick Ocmant, Christian Melot, Valérie Gangji, Muhammad S Soyfoo
OBJECTIVE: Determine the frequency of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) associated with non-identified ANCA (non-MPO, non-PR3 ANCA) and secondarily compare their clinic with GPA associated with MPO-positive or PR3-positive ANCA. METHODS: In a monocentric retrospective observational study, clinical data of 398 patients with non-identified ANCA (titer of ANCA at least 1/80 by immunofluorescence on ethanol fixed PMN) was gathered over a period of 6 years. GPA patients from this population were compared with GPA patients with identified ANCA on the basis of clinical, biological, immunological and histological features...
January 9, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066661/omental-flap-for-treatment-of-dead-space-after-left-upper-lobectomy-due-to-aspergilloma
#8
Joonho Jung, Seong Yong Park, Seokjin Haam
Dead space formation in the thoracic cavity as a result of lung parenchymal resection is particularly prone to intra-thoracic infections, which are often hard to treat with systemic antibiotics; secondary interventions, such as thoracoplasty, eloesser flap, or muscle flap may be required to treat this complication. Alternatively, use of an omental flap represents an attractive option in cases of surgical cavities, due to the volumetric and immunologic advantages associated with the omentum. A 55-year-old male patient, who underwent left upper lobectomy due to an aspergilloma, was left with a surgical cavity that became infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063046/messenger-rna-sequencing-of-rare-cell-populations-in-the-lung-and-lung-draining-lymph-nodes
#9
Alexander Ulges, Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp, Matthias Klein
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques provide unique prospects for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Nevertheless, the emerging and still growing knowledge about the large diversity and heterogeneity of cells that participate in immunological responses in a tissue- and micromilieu-specific manner calls for advanced isolation and sequencing methods for the accurate quantification of gene expression in small cell populations and even individual cells from any organ or tissue. One of the major limitations in performing transcriptome analyses of rare cell populations was and still is quality and quantity of RNA that often limits analyses of complex mixtures of immune cell populations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063043/subcutaneous-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#10
Laura Hesse, Martijn C Nawijn
Allergic asthma, caused by inhaled allergens such as house dust mite or grass pollen, is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, associated with an eosinophilic inflammation of the airways, as well as airway hyper responsiveness and remodeling. The inhaled allergens trigger a type-2 inflammatory response with involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and Th2 cells, resulting in high production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Consequently, renewed allergen exposure results in a classic allergic response with a distinct early and late phase, both resulting in bronchoconstriction and shortness of breath...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062694/effective-combination-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunotherapeutic-approaches-in-a-mouse-melanoma-model
#11
Alexander L Rakhmilevich, Mildred Felder, Lauren Lever, Jacob Slowinski, Kayla Rasmussen, Anna Hoefges, Tyler J Van De Voort, Hans Loibner, Alan J Korman, Stephen D Gillies, Paul M Sondel
Most cancer immunotherapies include activation of either innate or adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that the combined activation of both innate and adaptive immunity will result in better antitumor efficacy. We have previously shown the synergy of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (anti-CD40) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in activating macrophages to induce tumor cell killing in mice. Separately, we have shown that a direct intratumoral injection of immunocytokine (IC), an anti-GD2 Ab linked to IL-2, can activate T and NK cells resulting in antitumor effects...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061951/role-and-contribution-of-pulmonary-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-the-adaptive-immune-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Vanessa Hui Qi Koh, See Liang Ng, Michelle Lay Teng Ang, Wenwei Lin, Christiane Ruedl, Sylvie Alonso
Despite international control programmes, the global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous. Efforts to discover novel drugs have largely focused on targeting the bacterium directly. Alternatively, manipulating the host immune response may represent a valuable approach to enhance immunological clearance of the bacilli, but necessitates a deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here, we examined the various dendritic cells (DC) subsets present in the lung and draining lymph nodes (LN) from mice intra-tracheally infected with M...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060545/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-adenovirus-35-tb-vaccine-candidate-in-adults-with-active-or-previous-tb-a-randomized-trial
#13
Richard N van Zyl-Smit, Aliasgar Esmail, Mary E Bateman, Rodney Dawson, Jonathan Goldin, Eva van Rikxoort, Macaya Douoguih, Maria Grazia Pau, Jerald C Sadoff, J Bruce McClain, Margaret Ann Snowden, Jacqueline Benko, David A Hokey, Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski, Andrew Graves, Barbara Shepherd, Sadritdin Ishmukhamedov, Benjamin M N Kagina, Brian Abel, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Eric D Bateman
RATIONALE: Administration of tuberculosis vaccines in participants with previous or current pulmonary tuberculosis may have the potential for causing harmful post-vaccination immunological (Koch-type) reactions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of three dose levels of the AERAS-402 live, replication-deficient adenovirus 35-vectored tuberculosis candidate vaccine, containing three mycobacterial antigens, in individuals with current or previous pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057805/cns-targeted-autoimmunity-leads-to-increased-influenza-mortality-in-mice
#14
Justin D Glenn, Matthew D Smith, Pei Xue, Yee Chan-Li, Samuel Collins, Peter A Calabresi, Maureen R Horton, Katharine A Whartenby
The discovery that central nervous system (CNS)-targeted autoreactive T cells required a process of licensing in the lung revealed an unexpected relationship between these organs. The clinical and immunological significance of this finding is bidirectional in that it showed not only a mechanism by which T cells become pathogenic before entering the CNS, but also the potential for this process to influence lung immunity as well. Epidemiological studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, independent of immunosuppressive therapies...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057521/biodegradable-nanoparticle-delivery-of-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-vaccine-provides-heterologous-cell-mediated-immune-response-in-pigs
#15
Santosh Dhakal, Jagadish Hiremath, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Basavaraj Binjawadagi, Jonathan Goodman, Kairat Tabynov, Steven Krakowka, Balaji Narasimhan, Chang-Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is one of the important zoonotic pathogens. Current flu vaccines have failed to provide cross-protection against evolving viruses in the field. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is a biodegradable FDA approved polymer and widely used in drug and vaccine delivery. In this study, inactivated SwIV H1N2 antigens (KAg) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-KAg) were prepared, which were spherical in shape with 200 to 300nm diameter, and induced maturation of antigen presenting cells in vitro...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052693/safety-and-efficacy-of-ex-vivo-donor-lung-adenoviral-il-10-gene-therapy-in-a-large-animal-lung-transplant-survival-model
#16
Tiago Noguchi Machuca, Marcelo Cypel, Riccardo Bonato, Jonathan C Yeung, Yi-Min Chun, Stephen Juvet, Guan Zehong, David M Hwang, Manyin Chen, Tomohito Saito, Constantine Harmantas, Beverly Davidson, Thomas K Waddell, Mingyao Liu, Shaf Keshavjee
OBJECTIVE: Ex vivo normothermic lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel platform and method developed to facilitate functional assessment and implementation of advanced therapies for donor lungs prior to transplantation. We aimed to determine the safety and immunological and functional benefits of ex vivo adenoviral human IL-10 (AdhIL-10) gene delivery to prevent the development of primary graft dysfunction in a large animal survival model. METHODS: Pig donor lungs were retrieved, preserved for 6 hours at 4oC and then randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1) AdhIL-10 Gene Therapy: 12 hours EVLP + AdhIL-10 intra-bronchial delivery; 2) EVLP-control: 12 hours EVLP; 3) Vector-control: 12 hours EVLP + adenoviral vector intra-bronchial delivery; and 4) Prolonged hypothermic preservation: Additional 12 hours of cold ischemia...
January 4, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051240/clinical-effect-of-treating-secondary-asthma-attacks-of-children-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-with-combined-therapy-of-montelukast-and-azithromycin
#17
L Gong, L Xu, M Diao, F Guo, F-F Bian, J Min, R Liu, C-L Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical effects of treating secondary asthma attacks of children Mycoplasma pneumoniae with combined therapy of montelukast and azithromycin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 children patients diagnosed with secondary asthma attacks of Mycoplasma pneumonia were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (n=49) and the observation group (n=47). Patients in the control group received combined therapy using azithromycin and bronchodilators or glucocorticoid, and patients in the observation group received a combined therapy of montelukast, azithromycin and bronchodilators or glucocorticoid...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051086/neutrophilic-nlrp3-inflammasome-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-regulates-the-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-cell-response-in-respiratory-bacterial-infections
#18
M Hassane, D Demon, D Soulard, J Fontaine, L E Keller, E C Patin, R Porte, I Prinz, B Ryffel, A Kadioglu, J-W Veening, J-C Sirard, C Faveeuw, M Lamkanfi, F Trottein, C Paget
Traditionally regarded as simple foot soldiers of the innate immune response limited to the eradication of pathogens, neutrophils recently emerged as more complex cells endowed with a set of immunoregulatory functions. Using a model of invasive pneumococcal disease, we highlighted an unexpected key role for neutrophils as accessory cells in innate interleukin (IL)-17A production by lung resident Vγ6Vδ1(+) T cells via nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor, pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051085/intrinsic-4-1bb-signals-are-indispensable-for-the-establishment-of-an-influenza-specific-tissue-resident-memory-cd8-t-cell-population-in-the-lung
#19
A C Zhou, L E Wagar, M E Wortzman, T H Watts
The induction of long-lived heterotypic T-cell protection against influenza virus remains elusive, despite the conservation of T-cell epitopes. T-cell protection against influenza is critically dependent on lung-resident memory T cells (Trm). Here we show that intranasal administration of 4-1BBL along with influenza nucleoprotein in a replication-defective adenovirus vector to influenza pre-immune mice induces a remarkably stable circulating effector memory CD8 T-cell population characterized by higher IL-7Rα expression than control-boosted T cells, as well as a substantial lung parenchymal CD69(+) CD8 Trm population, including both CD103(+) and CD103(-) cells...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043608/new-options-in-tuberculosis-care-visions-for-the-future-are-crucial-for-controlling-the-disease
#20
Malin Ridell
The current strategies for controlling tuberculosis (TB) are not sufficient. Improved prophylactic and diagnostic tools are imperative, being crucial for decreasing TB incidence and mortality and for preventing outbreaks. Furthermore, new and better drugs are badly needed, particularly considering the increase in cases with multidrug-resistant strains. The current TB vaccine-the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-has a preventive impact on disseminated TB in children, but little effect on the most common form of TB, that is, lung TB in adults and young adults...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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