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predictors of Pseudomonas and staphylococcus

Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
M Brady, A Oza, R Cunney, K Burns
AIM: To estimate the attributable mortality of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) in Ireland. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted, based on notifications from Irish microbiology laboratories and administrative patient records from six Irish hospitals from January 2007 to December 2013. Probabilistic linkage was used to link 1252 cases of bloodstream infection from a cohort of 343,189 hospitalized patients. Independent predictors of mortality were determined using a multi-variable logistic regression model, and included: patient age, emergency or re-admission to hospital, length of stay in an intensive care unit, number of procedures, number of diagnoses, major diagnostic category and presence of HA-BSI...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ishaku Leo Elisha, Francien S Botha, Lyndy Joy McGaw, Jacobus Nicolaas Eloff
BACKGROUND: The development of antibiotic resistant bacteria stems from a number of factors, including inappropriate use of antibiotics in human and animal health and their prolonged use as growth promoters at sub-clinical doses in poultry and livestock production. We were interested in investigating plants that could be useful in protecting humans or animals against diarrhoea. We decided to work on extracts of nine plant species with good activity against Escherichia coli based on earlier work in the Phytomedicine Programme...
February 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Joseph C Melvin, Jamie B Smith, Robin L Kruse, Todd R Vogel
BACKGROUND: Lowering the 30-d re-admission rate after vascular surgery offers the potential to improve healthcare quality. This study evaluated re-admission associated with infections after open and endovascular lower extremity (LE) procedures for peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Patients admitted for elective LE procedures for PAD were selected from the Cerner Health Facts(®) database. Chi-square analysis evaluated the characteristics of the index admission associated with infection at 30-d re-admission...
April 2017: Surgical Infections
Chien-Yuan Chen, Feng-Ming Tien, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and microbiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and microbiology of 2083 patients with haematological malignancy who were treated for BSI from 2008 to 2013 at a medical centre in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. Lymphoma (38.1%) was the most common, followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (30.9%). Of the 2090 non-duplicate BSI isolates, 1310 (62.7%) were recovered from patients with neutropenia...
March 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Ryo Yamazaki, Osamu Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga, Yuji Higashimoto, Hiroaki Kume, Yuji Tohda
Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) undergo hospitalizations due to pulmonary infections. We retrospectively investigated the characteristics of hospitalizations due to pulmonary infection in patients with IPF to elucidate causative pathogens and mortality. We reviewed patients with IPF who were admitted between January 2008 and December 2014 for pulmonary infections including pneumonia and bronchitis. The causative pathogen, the relationship between the site of pneumonia and existing IPF radiological patterns on high-resolution chest CT, and predictors of mortality were evaluated...
2016: PloS One
Adelyn L Ho, Reid Chambers, Claudia Malic, Anthony Papp
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (ARO) in burn units is increasing worldwide and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Study aims are to describe the burden of AROs in burn patients admitted to a tertiary burn unit, to evaluate the impact of contact precautions implemented after an outbreak of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and to identify possible predictors of ARO acquisition. METHODS: Data of burn inpatients between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
An Hotterbeekx, Basil B Xavier, Kenny Bielen, Christine Lammens, Pieter Moons, Tom Schepens, Margareta Ieven, Philippe G Jorens, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the commonest hospital-acquired infections associated with high mortality. VAP pathogenesis is closely linked to organisms colonizing the endotracheal tube (ETT) such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the former a common commensal with pathogenic potential and the latter a known VAP pathogen. However, recent gut microbiome studies show that pathogens rarely function alone. Hence, we determined the ETT microbial consortium co-colonizing with S...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Darius Seidler, Mary Griffin, Amanda Nymon, Katja Koeppen, Alix Ashare
BACKGROUND: Due to frequent infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, repeated respiratory cultures are obtained to inform treatment. When patients are unable to expectorate sputum, clinicians obtain throat swabs as a surrogate for lower respiratory cultures. There is no clear data in adult subjects demonstrating the adequacy of throat swabs as a surrogate for sputum or BAL. Our study was designed to determine the utility of throat swabs in identifying lung colonization with common organisms in adults with CF...
2016: PloS One
Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Jonas Noe, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
Bacteremic pneumonia is usually associated with greater mortality. However, risk factors associated with hospital mortality in bacteremic pneumonia are inadequately described.The study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2008-2015). For purposes of this investigation, antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to ceftriaxone susceptibility, as ceftriaxone represents the antimicrobial agent most frequently recommended for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as opposed to nosocomial pneumonia...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yasmine S Galal, Meray Rene L Youssef, Sally K Ibrahiem
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. Although the epidemiology, pathogenesis and outcome of VAP are well described in adults; few data exist regarding VAP in paediatric patients, especially in developing countries. AIM: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of VAP in two Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) at Cairo University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who received Mechanical Ventilation (MV) were included in this prospective study during the period from September 2014 till September 2015...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Yongkang He, Xiaofeng He
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current small-molecule antibiotics, owing to their commonly observed and naturally occurring resistance against pathogens. However, natural peptides have many problems such as low bioavailability and high allergenicity that largely limit the clinical applications of AMPs. In the present study, an integrative protocol that combined chemoinformatics modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and in vitro susceptibility test was described to design AMPs containing unnatural amino acids (AMP-UAAs)...
September 2016: Biopolymers
Mark L Metersky, Christopher R Frei, Eric M Mortensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are at high risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Factors discriminating infection with MDR Gram-negative (MDR-GN) organism from infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are not well understood and patients are often treated for both organisms. This study was performed to determine risk factors predicting pneumonia due to Pseudomonas versus MRSA. METHODS: Veterans age ≥65 hospitalized with HCAP between 2002 and 2012 were identified from the Veterans Affairs administrative databases...
January 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Roberta Netto, Matteo Mondini, Chiara Pezzella, Lorenza Romani, Barbara Lucignano, Laura Pansani, Patrizia D'argenio, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and increased healthcare costs. We aimed to assess the NI epidemiology and associated risk factors in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study on 1106 patients admitted to a PCICU from January 1, 2012, to October 31, 2013. NIs were defined and recorded weekly by a multidisciplinary team. Independent risk factors for NIs were assessed by logistic regression analysis in the overall cohort, in cardiac surgical patients, and in those who had cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
May 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jayandiran Pillai, Ceyhan Yazicioglu, Steve Moeng, Thomas Rangaka, Taalib Monareng, Raja Jayakrishnan, Martin Veller, Daniella Pinkus
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine if any patterns of infection or bacterial resistance existed in critically ill polytrauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the CM Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center study of patient laboratory records of 73 critically injured polytrauma patients admitted to an ICU. The data collected from each patient, beginning with admission and extending until discharge from the ICU, included age, gender, admission hemoglobin levels, injury severity score, length of ICU stay, microbiological cultures and sensitivity (MCS), and types and numbers of surgical procedures...
July 2015: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Kavitha Saravu, Madhura Prasad, Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections are linked to rising morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sought to investigate the pattern of nosocomial sepsis, device usage, risk factors for mortality and the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the causative organisms in medical intensive care units (ICUs) in an Indian tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre based prospective cohort study in four medical ICUs and patients who developed features of sepsis 48 hours after admission to the ICUs were included...
July 2015: Pathogens and Global Health
Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Takao Tamesa, Yoshihiro Tokuhisa, Satoshi Matsukuma, Yukio Tokumitsu, Yoshinari Maeda, Shigeru Takeda, Tomio Ueno, Shigeru Yamamoto, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Masaaki Oka
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate microbial examination of sputum on postoperative day one (POD1) and to determine risk factors for postoperative pneumonia (POP) after hepatectomy. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-four patients who expectorated sputum on POD1 after hepatectomy between 2003 and 2014 were investigated. Sputum samples were submitted for microbial examination. Risk factors for POP were identified using multivariable analysis...
September 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Afizi Kibuuka, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Jane Achan, Adoke Yeka, Joan N Nalyazi, Arthur Mpimbaza, Philip J Rosenthal, Moses R Kamya
Bacteremia may be inappropriately treated as malaria in children admitted with a febrile illness in Africa. We determined the prevalence, clinical features, and spectrum of bacteremia among febrile children younger than 5 years of age admitted with a negative malaria test, but prescribed antimalarials at a referral hospital in Jinja, Uganda. After initial evaluation, a blood sample was drawn from 250 children for a complete blood count and bacterial culture. Of 250 samples cultured, 15 grew organisms presumed to be skin contaminants, and of the remaining 235 samples, 45 (19...
August 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jason W Soares, Romy Kirby, Laurel A Doherty, Alexa Meehan, Steven Arcidiacono
A naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, SMAP-29, was synthesized with an n-terminal or c-terminal cysteine, termed c_SMAP and SMAP_c, respectively, for site-directed immobilization to superparamagnetic beads. Immobilized SMAP orientation-dependent activity was probed against multiple bacteria of clinical interest including Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus anthracis sterne and Staphylococcus aureus. A kinetic microplate assay was employed to reveal both concentration and time-dependent activity for elucidation of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and sub-lethal effects...
August 2015: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
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