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predictors of Pseudomonas and staphylococcus

Fei Zhou, Hui Li, Li Gu, Meng Liu, Chun-Xue Xue, Bin Cao, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial infections following influenza are important causes of death, requiring early implementation of preventive measures, but predictors for nosocomial infection in the early stage remained undetermined. We aimed to determine risk factors that can help clinicians identify patients with high risk of nosocomial infection following influenza on admission. METHOD: Using a database prospectively collected through a Chinese national network for hospitalised severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 patients, we compared the characteristics on admission between patients with and without nosocomial infection...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Olga H Torres Bonafonte, Eva Gil Olivas, Estefanía Pérez Macho, Cristina Pacho Pacho, Miriam Mateo Roca, Jordi Casademont Pou, Domingo Ruiz Hidalgo
OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors related to drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) in community-onset pneumonia (COP) and whether previously suggested criteria are useful in our emergency-department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective 1-year study of adults coming to the emergency department for COP. We assessed the usefulness of criteria used in health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), as well the Shorr index, the Barthel index, and clinical suspicion of resistant pathogens...
October 2017: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Elliot L Naidus, Mary T Lasalvia, Edward R Marcantonio, Shoshana J Herzig
The clinical predictors of positive sputum culture have not been previously reported in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and data on yield of sputum culture in this setting are scant. Current Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for HAP recommend noninvasive sputum sampling, though the data for this practice are limited. We assessed the yield of sputum culture in HAP cases at an academic medical center from January 2007 to July 2013. HAP cases were identifi ed by International Classifi cation of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modifi cation codes for bacterial pneumonia and all cases were validated by chart review...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Annie Wang, Nick Daneman, Charlie Tan, John S Brownstein, Derek R MacFadden
OBJECTIVE The relationship between hospital antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. We evaluated the association between antibiotic utilization and resistance in academic and community hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS We conducted a multicenter observational ecological study of 37 hospitals in 2014. Hospital antibiotic purchasing data were used as an indicator of antibiotic use, whereas antibiotic resistance data were extracted from hospital indexes of resistance. Multivariate regression was performed, with antibiotic susceptibility as the primary outcome, antibiotic consumption as the main predictor, and additional covariates of interest (ie, hospital type, laboratory standards, and patient days)...
December 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Fleur P Paling, Darren P R Troeman, Martin Wolkewitz, Rubana Kalyani, Daniël R Prins, Susanne Weber, Christine Lammens, Leen Timbermont, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of ICU pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is not fully described, but is urgently needed to support the development of effective interventions. The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa ICU pneumonia and to assess its association with patient-related and contextual risk factors. METHODS: ASPIRE-ICU is a prospective, observational, multi-center cohort study nested within routine surveillance among ICU patients in Europe describing the occurrence of S...
September 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
M Brady, A Oza, R Cunney, K Burns
AIM: To estimate the attributable mortality of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) in Ireland. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted, based on notifications from Irish microbiology laboratories and administrative patient records from six Irish hospitals from January 2007 to December 2013. Probabilistic linkage was used to link 1252 cases of bloodstream infection from a cohort of 343,189 hospitalized patients. Independent predictors of mortality were determined using a multi-variable logistic regression model, and included: patient age, emergency or re-admission to hospital, length of stay in an intensive care unit, number of procedures, number of diagnoses, major diagnostic category and presence of HA-BSI...
May 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ishaku Leo Elisha, Francien S Botha, Lyndy Joy McGaw, Jacobus Nicolaas Eloff
BACKGROUND: The development of antibiotic resistant bacteria stems from a number of factors, including inappropriate use of antibiotics in human and animal health and their prolonged use as growth promoters at sub-clinical doses in poultry and livestock production. We were interested in investigating plants that could be useful in protecting humans or animals against diarrhoea. We decided to work on extracts of nine plant species with good activity against Escherichia coli based on earlier work in the Phytomedicine Programme...
February 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Joseph C Melvin, Jamie B Smith, Robin L Kruse, Todd R Vogel
BACKGROUND: Lowering the 30-d re-admission rate after vascular surgery offers the potential to improve healthcare quality. This study evaluated re-admission associated with infections after open and endovascular lower extremity (LE) procedures for peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Patients admitted for elective LE procedures for PAD were selected from the Cerner Health Facts® database. Chi-square analysis evaluated the characteristics of the index admission associated with infection at 30-d re-admission...
April 2017: Surgical Infections
Chien-Yuan Chen, Feng-Ming Tien, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and microbiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and microbiology of 2083 patients with haematological malignancy who were treated for BSI from 2008 to 2013 at a medical centre in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. Lymphoma (38.1%) was the most common, followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (30.9%). Of the 2090 non-duplicate BSI isolates, 1310 (62.7%) were recovered from patients with neutropenia...
March 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Ryo Yamazaki, Osamu Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga, Yuji Higashimoto, Hiroaki Kume, Yuji Tohda
Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) undergo hospitalizations due to pulmonary infections. We retrospectively investigated the characteristics of hospitalizations due to pulmonary infection in patients with IPF to elucidate causative pathogens and mortality. We reviewed patients with IPF who were admitted between January 2008 and December 2014 for pulmonary infections including pneumonia and bronchitis. The causative pathogen, the relationship between the site of pneumonia and existing IPF radiological patterns on high-resolution chest CT, and predictors of mortality were evaluated...
2016: PloS One
Adelyn L Ho, Reid Chambers, Claudia Malic, Anthony Papp
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (ARO) in burn units is increasing worldwide and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Study aims are to describe the burden of AROs in burn patients admitted to a tertiary burn unit, to evaluate the impact of contact precautions implemented after an outbreak of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and to identify possible predictors of ARO acquisition. METHODS: Data of burn inpatients between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
An Hotterbeekx, Basil B Xavier, Kenny Bielen, Christine Lammens, Pieter Moons, Tom Schepens, Margareta Ieven, Philippe G Jorens, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the commonest hospital-acquired infections associated with high mortality. VAP pathogenesis is closely linked to organisms colonizing the endotracheal tube (ETT) such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the former a common commensal with pathogenic potential and the latter a known VAP pathogen. However, recent gut microbiome studies show that pathogens rarely function alone. Hence, we determined the ETT microbial consortium co-colonizing with S...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Darius Seidler, Mary Griffin, Amanda Nymon, Katja Koeppen, Alix Ashare
BACKGROUND: Due to frequent infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, repeated respiratory cultures are obtained to inform treatment. When patients are unable to expectorate sputum, clinicians obtain throat swabs as a surrogate for lower respiratory cultures. There is no clear data in adult subjects demonstrating the adequacy of throat swabs as a surrogate for sputum or BAL. Our study was designed to determine the utility of throat swabs in identifying lung colonization with common organisms in adults with CF...
2016: PloS One
Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Jonas Noe, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
Bacteremic pneumonia is usually associated with greater mortality. However, risk factors associated with hospital mortality in bacteremic pneumonia are inadequately described.The study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2008-2015). For purposes of this investigation, antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to ceftriaxone susceptibility, as ceftriaxone represents the antimicrobial agent most frequently recommended for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as opposed to nosocomial pneumonia...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yasmine S Galal, Meray Rene L Youssef, Sally K Ibrahiem
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. Although the epidemiology, pathogenesis and outcome of VAP are well described in adults; few data exist regarding VAP in paediatric patients, especially in developing countries. AIM: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of VAP in two Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) at Cairo University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who received Mechanical Ventilation (MV) were included in this prospective study during the period from September 2014 till September 2015...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Yongkang He, Xiaofeng He
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current small-molecule antibiotics, owing to their commonly observed and naturally occurring resistance against pathogens. However, natural peptides have many problems such as low bioavailability and high allergenicity that largely limit the clinical applications of AMPs. In the present study, an integrative protocol that combined chemoinformatics modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and in vitro susceptibility test was described to design AMPs containing unnatural amino acids (AMP-UAAs)...
September 2016: Biopolymers
Mark L Metersky, Christopher R Frei, Eric M Mortensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are at high risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Factors discriminating infection with MDR Gram-negative (MDR-GN) organism from infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are not well understood and patients are often treated for both organisms. This study was performed to determine risk factors predicting pneumonia due to Pseudomonas versus MRSA. METHODS: Veterans age ≥65 hospitalized with HCAP between 2002 and 2012 were identified from the Veterans Affairs administrative databases...
January 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Roberta Netto, Matteo Mondini, Chiara Pezzella, Lorenza Romani, Barbara Lucignano, Laura Pansani, Patrizia D'argenio, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and increased healthcare costs. We aimed to assess the NI epidemiology and associated risk factors in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study on 1106 patients admitted to a PCICU from January 1, 2012, to October 31, 2013. NIs were defined and recorded weekly by a multidisciplinary team. Independent risk factors for NIs were assessed by logistic regression analysis in the overall cohort, in cardiac surgical patients, and in those who had cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
May 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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