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predictors of Pseudomonas and staphylococcus

Darius Seidler, Mary Griffin, Amanda Nymon, Katja Koeppen, Alix Ashare
BACKGROUND: Due to frequent infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, repeated respiratory cultures are obtained to inform treatment. When patients are unable to expectorate sputum, clinicians obtain throat swabs as a surrogate for lower respiratory cultures. There is no clear data in adult subjects demonstrating the adequacy of throat swabs as a surrogate for sputum or BAL. Our study was designed to determine the utility of throat swabs in identifying lung colonization with common organisms in adults with CF...
2016: PloS One
Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Jonas Noe, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
Bacteremic pneumonia is usually associated with greater mortality. However, risk factors associated with hospital mortality in bacteremic pneumonia are inadequately described.The study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2008-2015). For purposes of this investigation, antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to ceftriaxone susceptibility, as ceftriaxone represents the antimicrobial agent most frequently recommended for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as opposed to nosocomial pneumonia...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yasmine S Galal, Meray Rene L Youssef, Sally K Ibrahiem
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. Although the epidemiology, pathogenesis and outcome of VAP are well described in adults; few data exist regarding VAP in paediatric patients, especially in developing countries. AIM: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of VAP in two Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) at Cairo University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who received Mechanical Ventilation (MV) were included in this prospective study during the period from September 2014 till September 2015...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Yongkang He, Xiaofeng He
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current small-molecule antibiotics, owing to their commonly observed and naturally occurring resistance against pathogens. However, natural peptides have many problems such as low bioavailability and high allergenicity that largely limit the clinical applications of AMPs. In the present study, an integrative protocol that combined chemoinformatics modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and in vitro susceptibility test was described to design AMPs containing unnatural amino acids (AMP-UAAs)...
September 2016: Biopolymers
Mark L Metersky, Christopher R Frei, Eric M Mortensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are at high risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Factors discriminating infection with MDR Gram-negative (MDR-GN) organism from infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are not well understood and patients are often treated for both organisms. This study was performed to determine risk factors predicting pneumonia due to Pseudomonas versus MRSA. METHODS: Veterans age ≥65 hospitalized with HCAP between 2002 and 2012 were identified from the Veterans Affairs administrative databases...
January 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Roberta Netto, Matteo Mondini, Chiara Pezzella, Lorenza Romani, Barbara Lucignano, Laura Pansani, Patrizia D'argenio, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and increased healthcare costs. We aimed to assess the NI epidemiology and associated risk factors in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study on 1106 patients admitted to a PCICU from January 1, 2012, to October 31, 2013. NIs were defined and recorded weekly by a multidisciplinary team. Independent risk factors for NIs were assessed by logistic regression analysis in the overall cohort, in cardiac surgical patients, and in those who had cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
November 29, 2015: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jayandiran Pillai, Ceyhan Yazicioglu, Steve Moeng, Thomas Rangaka, Taalib Monareng, Raja Jayakrishnan, Martin Veller, Daniella Pinkus
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine if any patterns of infection or bacterial resistance existed in critically ill polytrauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the CM Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center study of patient laboratory records of 73 critically injured polytrauma patients admitted to an ICU. The data collected from each patient, beginning with admission and extending until discharge from the ICU, included age, gender, admission hemoglobin levels, injury severity score, length of ICU stay, microbiological cultures and sensitivity (MCS), and types and numbers of surgical procedures...
July 2015: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Kavitha Saravu, Madhura Prasad, Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections are linked to rising morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sought to investigate the pattern of nosocomial sepsis, device usage, risk factors for mortality and the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the causative organisms in medical intensive care units (ICUs) in an Indian tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre based prospective cohort study in four medical ICUs and patients who developed features of sepsis 48 hours after admission to the ICUs were included...
July 2015: Pathogens and Global Health
Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Takao Tamesa, Yoshihiro Tokuhisa, Satoshi Matsukuma, Yukio Tokumitsu, Yoshinari Maeda, Shigeru Takeda, Tomio Ueno, Shigeru Yamamoto, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Masaaki Oka
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate microbial examination of sputum on postoperative day one (POD1) and to determine risk factors for postoperative pneumonia (POP) after hepatectomy. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-four patients who expectorated sputum on POD1 after hepatectomy between 2003 and 2014 were investigated. Sputum samples were submitted for microbial examination. Risk factors for POP were identified using multivariable analysis...
September 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Afizi Kibuuka, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Jane Achan, Adoke Yeka, Joan N Nalyazi, Arthur Mpimbaza, Philip J Rosenthal, Moses R Kamya
Bacteremia may be inappropriately treated as malaria in children admitted with a febrile illness in Africa. We determined the prevalence, clinical features, and spectrum of bacteremia among febrile children younger than 5 years of age admitted with a negative malaria test, but prescribed antimalarials at a referral hospital in Jinja, Uganda. After initial evaluation, a blood sample was drawn from 250 children for a complete blood count and bacterial culture. Of 250 samples cultured, 15 grew organisms presumed to be skin contaminants, and of the remaining 235 samples, 45 (19...
August 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jason W Soares, Romy Kirby, Laurel A Doherty, Alexa Meehan, Steven Arcidiacono
A naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, SMAP-29, was synthesized with an n-terminal or c-terminal cysteine, termed c_SMAP and SMAP_c, respectively, for site-directed immobilization to superparamagnetic beads. Immobilized SMAP orientation-dependent activity was probed against multiple bacteria of clinical interest including Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus anthracis sterne and Staphylococcus aureus. A kinetic microplate assay was employed to reveal both concentration and time-dependent activity for elucidation of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and sub-lethal effects...
August 2015: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Ching-Chi Lee, Chih-Chia Hsieh, Nan-Yao Lee, Tsung-Yu Chan, Ming-Yuan Hong, Chih-Hsien Chi, Wen-Chien Ko
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the differences in clinical presentation and characteristics of community-onset bacteremia between neutropenic and nonneutropenic adults visiting the emergency department. METHODS: A case-control study with a ratio of 1:2 was conducted retrospectively over a 6-year period. Demographic characteristics, microorganisms, severity of illness, and clinical outcomes determined from medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 116 neutropenic adults (case patients) and 232 nonneutropenic adults (control patients) were examined...
July 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
N Saltoglu, M Yemisen, O Ergonul, A Kadanali, G Karagoz, A Batirel, O Ak, H Eraksoy, A Cagatay, A Vatan, G Sengoz, F Pehlivanoglu, T Aslan, Y Akkoyunlu, D Engin, N Ceran, B Erturk, L Mulazimoglu, O Oncul, H Ay, F Sargin, N Ozgunes, F Simsek, T Yildirmak, N Tuna, O Karabay, K Yasar, N Uzun, Y Kucukardali, M Sonmezoglu, F Yilmaz, U Tozalgan, S Ozer, M Ozyazar
We aimed to investigate the predictors for limb loss among patients with diabetes who have complicated skin/soft-tissue infections. In this observational study, consecutive patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI) from 17 centres in Turkey, between May 2011 and May 2013 were included. The Turkish DFI Working Group performed the study. Predictors of limb loss were investigated by multivariate analysis. In total, 455 patients with DFI were included. Median age was 61 years, 68% were male, 65% of the patients were hospitalized, 52% of the patients had used antibiotics within the last month, and 121 (27%) had osteomyelitis...
July 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ligia S C F Rabello, Jose R L Silva, Luciano C P Azevedo, Ivens Souza, Viviane B L Torres, Maíra M Rosolem, Thiago Lisboa, Marcio Soares, Jorge I F Salluh
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the most frequent type of infection in cancer patients and a frequent cause of ICU admission. The primary aims of this study were to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcomes in critically ill cancer patients with severe pneumonia. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 325 adult cancer patients admitted to three ICUs with severe pneumonia not acquired in the hospital setting. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were collected...
2015: PloS One
Zhenxiao Huang, Amal Hajjij, Gang Li, Jayakar V Nayak, Bing Zhou, Peter H Hwang
BACKGROUND: Neo-osteogenesis of the paranasal sinuses is a radiologic finding of unclear clinical significance. Although current evidence suggests that these bony changes represent an inflammatory response rather than an infectious osteitis, bacteria associated with the sinonasal mucosa may induce inflammatory mediators as a mechanism of neo-osteogenesis. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether there is an association between bacteria isolated on sinus culture and neo-osteogenesis, and (2) to identify other predictive factors for neo-osteogenesis...
April 2015: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Badri Thapa, Anurag Thapa, Dhan Raj Aryal, Kusum Thapa, Asha Pun, Sudhir Khanal, Kishori Mahat
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal sepsis causes high morbidity and mortality of newborns. The study aims to study the predictors and clinical, haematological and bacteriological factors of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital in Kathmandu between October and December 2011. Demographic, obstetrics, clinical and microbiological data were studied for 300 neonates...
October 2013: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Heather D Bean, Jaime Jiménez-Díaz, Jiangjiang Zhu, Jane E Hill
In this model study, we explored the host's contribution of breath volatiles to diagnostic secondary electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breathprints for acute bacterial lung infections, their correlation with the host's immune response, and their use in identifying the lung pathogen. Murine airways were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cell lysates or to PBS (controls), and their breath and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at six time points (from 6 to 120 h) after exposure...
January 2015: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
N Macesic, C O Morrissey, A C Cheng, A Spencer, A Y Peleg
UNLABELLED: Infections remain important contributors to mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHOD: We studied the evolving epidemiology and trends in susceptibility of bacterial and Candida isolates at an Australian HSCT center. A total of 528 HSCTs in 508 patients were performed from April 2001 to May 2010. A total of 605 isolates were eligible for study inclusion; 318 (53%) were gram-positive, 268 (44%) were gram-negative, and 19 (3%) were Candida species...
December 2014: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Chizobam Ani, Siavash Farshidpanah, Amy Bellinghausen Stewart, H Bryant Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported decreased overall severe sepsis mortality, but associations with organism trends have not yet been investigated. This study explored organism-specific severe sepsis mortality trends from 1999 to 2008 in a large hospital-based administrative database. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. SETTING: United States hospitals sampled in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset...
January 2015: Critical Care Medicine
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