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Anette Bro Christensen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Kåre Schmidt Ettrup, Dariusz Orlowski, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam
INTRODUCTION: The rotating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model has long been important when developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Similar non-human primate models have been developed for translational research purposes as large animal models are required by regulatory bodies as an intermediate "phase 0" trial step. However, experimental research in non-human primates encounters several economical and regulatory issues, which may be avoided by the alternative use of pigs as a large animal model for experimental brain research...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Holger Joswig, Andrew G Parrent, Keith W MacDougall, David A Steven
BACKGROUND: During Leksell frame-based stereotaxy the lateral trajectory can be obstructed by the arc supports at certain combinations of the X-coordinate and arc angle. OBJECTIVE: To provide a matrix with usable and prohibited combinations of the X-coordinate and arc angle to faciliate finding lateral stereotactic trajectories with the Leksell frame in standard configuration. METHODS: Various combination settings of the X-coordinate and arc angle were tested for a Leksell Multi Purpose Stereotactic Arc mounted on a Leksell Coordinate Frame G...
January 29, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Caio M Matias, Leonardo A Frizon, Sean J Nagel, Darlene A Lobel, André G Machado
OBJECTIVE The authors' aim in this study was to evaluate placement accuracy and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation devices with the aid of frame-based stereotaxy and intraoperative MRI after induction of general anesthesia. METHODS Thirty-three patients with movement disorders (27 with Parkinson's disease) underwent implantation of unilateral or bilateral deep brain stimulation systems (64 leads total). All patients underwent the implantation procedure with standard frame-based techniques under general anesthesia and without microelectrode recording...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Biplab Sarkar, Anusheel Munshi, Saneg Krishnankutty, Tharmar Ganesh, Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Paul S Larson, Philip A Starr, Alastair J Martin
Interventional and intraoperative MRI approaches to deep brain stimulator implantation are relatively new, and in their purest form represent a distinct departure from traditional stereotactic techniques. They employ a novel means of stereotaxis based on regions of interest in the MR space and simple geometric principles, which eliminate the need for a stereotactic frame. This approach is appropriate for targets that are MR visible, and for whom the local anatomy and function are well characterized. It may also be appropriate for targets that do not have a well-described physiologic signature and for which clinical response to macrostimulation does not play a critical role...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Viktoras Palys, Kathryn L Holloway
The stereotactic frame has served as the gold standard apparatus for accurate and precise targeting of deep brain structures since 1947. Despite passing the test of time, the stereotactic frame has several limitations from the perspective of both neurosurgeons and patients. Therefore, there was a need to develop a frameless system that had equivalent accuracy and reliability to the frame. This need was met with 3 commercially available frameless stereotactic systems designed specifically for deep brain stimulation surgery: Nexframe, STarFix, and ClearPoint...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Andrea Spyrantis, Adriano Cattani, Adam Strzelczyk, Felix Rosenow, Volker Seifert, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies with robot-guided stereotaxy use computed tomography (CT) scans for referencing. We will provide evidence that using preoperative MRI datasets referenced with a laser scan of the patient's face is sufficient for sEEG implantation. METHODS: In total, 40 sEEG electrodes were implanted in five patients by the robotic surgical assistant (ROSA). The postoperative CT scan for identifying electrode positions was fused with the preoperative MRI-based planning data...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Anne Weigand, Andreas Horn, Ruth Caballero, Danielle Cooke, Adam P Stern, Stephan F Taylor, Daniel Press, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Michael D Fox
BACKGROUND: The optimal target in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for treating depression with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) remains unknown. Better efficacy has been associated with stimulation sites that are 1) more anterior and lateral and 2) more functionally connected to the subgenual cingulate. Here we prospectively test whether these factors predict response in individual patients. METHODS: A primary cohort (Boston, n = 25) with medication-refractory depression underwent conventional open-label rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Dongxin Wang, Xuejun Liu, Bin Zhou, Weiping Kuang, Tiansheng Guo
Deep brain stimulation is a method that involves using an electric stimulus on a specific target in the brain with stereotaxis. It is a minimally invasive, safe, adjustable and reversible nerve involvement technology. At present, this technique is widely applied to treat movement disorders and has produced promising effects on mental symptoms, including combined anxiety and depression. Deep brain stimulation has therefore been employed as a novel treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, habituation, Tourette's syndrome, presenile dementia, anorexia nervosa and other refractory mental illnesses...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Howard L Weiner, Dimitris G Placantonakis
The resection of deep-seated brain tumors has been associated with morbidity due to injury to critical neural structures during the approach. Recent technological advancements in navigation and stereotaxy, surgical planning, brain tractography and minimal-access brain ports present the opportunity to overcome such limitations. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient with a left thalamic/midbrain juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA). The tumor displaced the corticospinal fibers posteriorly and resulted in hemiparesis...
October 11, 2017: Curēus
Lieselore Vandermeulen, Ann Cornelis, Christina Kjaergaard Rasmussen, Dirk Timmerman, Thierry Van den Bosch
Objective: To compare ultrasonographic features of uterine lesions with the findings at macroscopy and microscopy. Methods: Case series of ten consecutive women undergoing a hysterectomy for uterine pathology. A preoperative transvaginal ultrasound examination was performed. After hysterectomy, the uterus was re-evaluated by 3D in vitro ultrasonography and in vitro gel instillation sonography (iGIS). The lesion of interest was pinpointed by inserting an intramuscular injection needle using a free-hand 2D-ultrasound guided technique to focus the macroscopic and the microscopic examination by the pathologist...
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Liverana Lauretti, Francois Yves Legninda Sop, Roberto Pallini, Eduardo Fernandez, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris
BACKGROUND: Total removal of craniopharyngiomas is burdened by high morbidity. In cases of a cystic or mixed craniopharyngioma, when the symptoms are caused by the cystic component of the tumor, a less invasive surgical approach aiming at cyst drainage may be recommended. Here, we report our experience with intraventricular neuroendoscopy, describe our clear-cut surgical technique, and analyze results in the context of literature data. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical data of 8 consecutive adult patients affected by cystic or mixed craniopharyngioma who were treated with intraventricular neuroendoscopy at our institution in the last decade...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
Philippe De Vloo, Bart Nuttin
BACKGROUND: Stereotaxy is frequently employed in rodent models for precise brain injections or implantations. We intended to map the current practice in rat stereotaxy and list proposals to improve targeting accuracy. METHODS: We selected 235 publications on rat stereotaxy from the last 5 years. We collected data on the subjects, targets, coordinate system used, postoperative implant verification and analysis of subjects with off-target implants. RESULTS: Approximately 10,000 rats, mostly Sprague-Dawley and Wistar, were subjected to stereotaxy...
October 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Gláucia Aparecida Bento Dos Santos, Rafael Emídio da Silva, Ricardo Caires Neves, Maryana Alegro, Daniel Boari Coelho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Helmut Heinsen
Stereotaxy is based on the precise image-guided spatial localization of targets within the human brain. Even with the recent advances in MRI technology, histological examination renders different (and complementary) information of the nervous tissue. Although several maps have been selected as a basis for correlating imaging results with the anatomical locations of sub-cortical structures, technical limitations interfere in a point-to-point correlation between imaging and anatomy due to the lack of precise correction for post-mortem tissue deformations caused by tissue fixation and processing...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Reiji Yamazaki, Hiroko Baba, Yoshihide Yamaguchi
Myelin, which is a multilamellar structure that sheathes the axon, is essential for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes (OLs), which wrap their plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we reported that myosin ID (Myo1d) is distributed in rat CNS myelin and is especially enriched in the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops...
October 6, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
Prashant Chittiboina
A variety of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) systems are in use during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). The variations in iMRI systems include field strengths, magnet configurations, and room configurations. Most studies report that the primary utility of iMRI during TSS lies in detecting resectable tumor residuals following maximal resection with conventional technique. Stereotaxis, neuronavigation, and complication avoidance/detection are enhanced by iMRI use during TSS. The use of iMRI during TSS can lead to increased extent of resection for large tumors...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Ahmed Mohyeldin, J Bradley Elder
The resolution and real-time navigation of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) has been leveraged in neurosurgery. We review frameless stereotactic biopsy platforms and focus on emerging technology integrating intraoperative MRI with frameless stereotaxy. Brain biopsy with iMRI allows for an accurate tissue sample with the ability to correct cannula trajectory during surgery, eliminating misdiagnosis secondary to faulty targeting. This technology allows for a percutaneous approach avoiding large incisions, obviates the need for frozen tissue evaluation, has the potential to reduce unnecessary specimen harvesting and operating room time, and optimizes safety of targeting deep brain lesions...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
R A Holewijn, D Verbaan, R M A de Bie, P R Schuurman
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to investigate if deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD) under general anesthesia further improves outcome by lessening postoperative cognitive, mood, and behavioral adverse effects; shorten surgical time and hospital admittance; and produce comparable symptomatic and functional improvement to surgery under local anesthesia. METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint trial comparing DBS under general anesthesia with DBS under local anesthesia...
September 7, 2017: Trials
Changjian Lin, Steen Pehrson, Peter Karl Jacobsen, Xu Chen
BACKGROUND: There have been advancements of sophisticated mapping systems used for ablation procedures over the last decade. Utilization of these novel mapping systems in combination with remote magnetic navigation (RMN) needs to be established. We investigated the new EnSite Precision mapping system (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA), which collects magnetic data for checking navigation field stability and is built on an open platform, allowing physicians to choose diagnostic and ablation catheters...
December 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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