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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092346/differential-hypothalamic-leptin-sensitivity-in-obese-rat-offspring-exposed-to-maternal-and-postnatal-intake-of-chocolate-and-soft-drink
#1
M Kjaergaard, C Nilsson, A Secher, J Kildegaard, T Skovgaard, M O Nielsen, K Grove, K Raun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#2
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092070/current-bioengineering-and-regenerative-strategies-for-the-generation-of-kidney-grafts-on-demand
#3
REVIEW
Ximo García-Domínguez, Jose S Vicente, Cesar D Vera-Donoso, Francisco Marco-Jimenez
Currently in the USA, one name is added to the organ transplant waiting list every 15 min. As this list grows rapidly, fewer than one-third of waiting patients can receive matched organs from donors. Unfortunately, many patients who require a transplant have to wait for long periods of time, and many of them die before receiving the desired organ. In the USA alone, over 100,000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant. However, it is a problem that affects around 6% of the word population. Therefore, seeking alternative solutions to this problem is an urgent work...
January 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092062/-it-s-a-very-big-burden-on-me-women-s-experiences-using-insulin-for-gestational-diabetes
#4
Marlaine Figueroa Gray, Clarissa Hsu, Linda Kiel, Sascha Dublin
Objectives Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) affects hundreds of thousands of women each year. Many require medications to manage their blood glucose levels. Only insulin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in pregnancy. While other medications can be used, their safety remains controversial. Few studies have examined women's lived experience of using insulin for GDM. Our objective in this study was to foreground the voices of women speaking about their treatment experience. Methods We conducted two focus groups including 16 women treated for GDM with medications, primarily insulin...
January 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091992/analysing-the-correlations-of-long-term-seasonal-water-quality-parameters-suspended-solids-and-total-dissolved-solids-in-a-shallow-reservoir-with-meteorological-factors
#5
Chen Zhang, Wenna Zhang, Yixuan Huang, Xueping Gao
To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091410/molecular-mechanisms-of-increased-heart-rate-in-shenxianshengmai-treated-bradycardia-rabbits
#6
Zhou-Ying Liu, Jian Huang, Na-Na Liu, Min Zheng, Tao Zhao, Bu-Chang Zhao, Yi-Min Wang, Jie-Lin Pu
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms of Shenxianshengmai (SXSM), a traditional Chinese medicine, on bradycardia have been incompletely understood. The study tried to investigate the gene expression profile and proteomics of bradycardia rabbits' hearts after SXSM treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four adult rabbits were randomly assigned in four groups: sham, model, model plus SXSM treatment, and sham plus SXSM treatment groups. Heart rate was recorded in all rabbits. Then, total RNA of atria and proteins of ventricle were isolated and quantified, respectively...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#7
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090634/dietary-interventions-for-fetal-growth-restriction-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-pregnancy
#8
Elizabeth Cottrell, Teresa Tropea, Laura Ormesher, Susan Greenwood, Mark Wareing, Edward Johnstone, Jenny Myers, Colin Sibley
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089954/solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-ct-imaging-features-and-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#9
Gopinathan Anil, Junwei Zhang, Nawal Ebrahim Al Hamar, Min En Nga
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the imaging features of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. METHODS: Ten patients (all female; mean age, 32 years) with histologic or cytologic diagnosis of SPN encountered between January 2007 and December 2013 were included in this study. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed for location, attenuation, enhancement pattern, margin, shape, size, morphology, presence of capsule and calcification...
January 16, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089792/pharmacological-inhibition-of-pkc%C3%AE-counteracts-muscle-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
V Marrocco, P Fiore, A Benedetti, S Pisu, E Rizzuto, A Musarò, L Madaro, B Lozanoska-Ochser, M Bouché
: Inflammation plays a considerable role in the progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. We previously showed that genetic ablation of Protein Kinase C θ (PKCθ) in mdx, the mouse model of DMD, improves muscle healing and regeneration, preventing massive inflammation. To establish whether pharmacological targeting of PKCθ in DMD can be proposed as a therapeutic option, in this study we treated young mdx mice with the PKCθ inhibitor Compound 20 (C20)...
January 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089781/genotoxic-effect-and-rat-hepatocyte-death-occurred-after-oxidative-stress-induction-and-antioxidant-gene-downregulation-caused-by-long-term-fluoride-exposure
#11
F D Campos-Pereira, L Lopes-Aguiar, F L Renosto, G A S Nogueira, E F D Costa, R Barbieri Pulz, E C M Silva-Zacarin, C A Oliveira, A A Pigoso, G D C Severi-Aguiar
Studies focusing on possible genotoxic effects of excess fluoride are contradictory and inconclusive. Currently, studies have reported a probable link to oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis induced by fluoride in rat hepatocytes. We developed an in vivo study administering three doses of fluoride by gavage given to rats for 60 day. Micronucleus test was applied to investigate genotoxic potential of fluoride. The TUNEL method determined DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Biochemical parameters to investigate mitochondrial swelling and oxidative stress...
January 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089586/natural-uranium-impairs-the-differentiation-and-the-resorbing-function-of-osteoclasts
#12
Tatiana Gritsaenko, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Thomas Lorivel, Véronique Breuil, Georges F Carle, Sabine Santucci-Darmanin
BACKGROUND: Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide ubiquitously present in the environment. The skeleton is the main site of uranium long-term accumulation. While it has been shown that natural uranium is able to perturb bone metabolism through its chemical toxicity, its impact on bone resorption by osteoclasts has been poorly explored. Here, we examined for the first time in vitro effects of natural uranium on osteoclasts. METHODS: The effects of uranium on the RAW 264...
January 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089434/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-barrett-s-esophagus-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-possible-underestimated-long-term-complication
#13
Alfredo Genco, Emanuele Soricelli, Giovanni Casella, Roberta Maselli, Lidia Castagneto-Gissey, Nicola Di Lorenzo, Nicola Basso
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients are affected by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia (HH) more frequently than lean patients. Because of conflicting results, the indication to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in patients with GERD is still debated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of GERD on the basis of clinical, endoscopic, and histologic data in patients undergoing SG. SETTINGS: University hospital, Rome, Italy. METHODS: From July 2007 to January 2010, 162 patients underwent primary SG...
December 9, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089194/left-ventricular-global-longitudinal-strain-predicts-major-adverse-cardiac-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-heart-transplant-patients
#14
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Hans Eiskjær, Brian Bridal Løgstrup, Lars Bo Ilkjær, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) is a robust longitudinal myocardial deformation marker that is strongly affected by cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), microvascular dysfunction, and acute cellular rejection (ACR). We evaluated graft deformation for risk stratification in long-term heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: The study included 196 patients who underwent HTx between 2011 and 2013. Patients underwent comprehensive echocardiography and coronary angiography...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#15
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088802/interplay-between-cortical-spreading-depolarization-and-seizures
#16
Daniel R Kramer, Tatsuhiro Fujii, Ifije Ohiorhenuan, Charles Y Liu
Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is an electrophysiologic phenomenon found mostly in the setting of neurologic injury resulting in the disturbance of ion homeostasis and leading to changes in the local vascular response. The bioelectric etiology of CSD shares similarities to those in epileptic disorders, yet the relationship between seizures and CSD is unclear, with several studies observing cortical depression before, during, and after seizure activity, thus obscuring our understanding of whether CSD activity potentiates or limits seizures and vice versa...
January 14, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088499/initial-uncertainty-impacts-statistical-learning-in-sound-sequence-processing
#17
Juanita Todd, Alexander Provost, Lisa Whitson, Daniel Mullens
This paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form "prediction models" that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given context. The presence and strength of these prediction models is inferred from changes in automatically elicited components of auditory evoked potentials...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088459/strain-development-in-bulk-filled-cavities-of-different-depths-characterized-using-a-non-destructive-acoustic-emission-approach
#18
Annelies Van Ende, Diogo Pedrollo Lise, Jan De Munck, Johan Vanhulst, Martine Wevers, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of cavity depth and composite type on the interfacial debonding in bulk-filled cavities. (2) To correlate the theoretical shrinkage stress and the level of interfacial debonding determined by acoustic emission (AE). METHODS: 80 sound molars were divided in two groups to receive a Class-I cavity (3.5×3.5mm) with 2.5- or 4.0-mm depth. The cavities were restored with either a conventional paste-like (Filtek Z100, 3M ESPE), a conventional flowable (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC), a bulk-fill paste-like (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) or a bulk-fill flowable (SDR, Dentsply) composite (n=10)...
January 11, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088401/pharmacological-rescue-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#19
Manuela Allegra, Cristina Spalletti, Beatrice Vignoli, Stefano Azzimondi, Irene Busti, Pierre Billuart, Marco Canossa, Matteo Caleo
Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a Rho GTPase activating protein whose mutations cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). How loss of function of Ophn1 affects neuronal development is only partly understood. Here we have exploited adult hippocampal neurogenesis to dissect the steps of neuronal differentiation that are affected by Ophn1 deletion. We found that mice lacking Ophn1 display a reduction in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. A significant fraction of the Ophn1-deficient newly generated neurons failed to extend an axon towards CA3, and showed an altered density of dendritic protrusions...
January 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087954/functional-limitation-and-health-related-quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-among-long-term-stroke-survivors-in-a-malaysian-community
#20
M N Nor Azlin, N A Aziz, B S Saperi, S M Aljunid
PURPOSE: this study aimed to evaluate function and quality of life (QoL) and associated factors among long term stroke survivors in the Malaysian community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving stroke survivors living in the community at two or more years post-stroke. Eligible participants with the diagnosis of stroke were identified from 2005-2010 case mix database of a tertiary hospital. the patients' medical records were analysed and data on demographic and clinical profiles were collected...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
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