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Crrt, vancomycin

Qinhua Pu, Jinxian Qian, Weiyi Tao, Aixiang Yang, Jian Wu, Yaodong Wang
RATIONALE: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive agent and can cause corrosive burns. HF can penetrate deeply into tissues through intact skin and the lipid barrier, leading to painful liquefactive necrosis, and inducing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In this study, we hypothesize that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may be beneficial in addressing hemodynamic instability in cases of HF poisoning. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old man fell into an electroplating pool containing 10% HF and 50% nitric acid...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Meagan Doolin, Andrew Fritschle, Serena Harris, Sharon Erdman, Megan Fleming, David Foster, Todd Walroth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Susan B Conley, Mindy J Dickerman, Christine Small, Dominick Carella, Paul Shea, Jason Parker, Arun Chopra
Pharmacokinetic parameters can be significantly altered for both extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This case report describes the pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem in a patient on ECLS with concurrent CRRT. A 2.8-kg, 10-day-old, full-term neonate born via spontaneous vaginal delivery presented with hypothermia, lethargy, and a ~500-g weight loss from birth. She progressed to respiratory failure on hospital day 2 (HD 2) and developed sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver failure as a result of disseminated adenoviral infection...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Ali S Omrani, Alaa Mously, Marylie P Cabaluna, John Kawas, Mohammed M Albarrak, Wafa A Alfahad
BACKGROUND: Recommendations regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring in critically ill patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are limited. This is a retrospective study to assess the adequacy of current vancomycin dosing and monitoring practice for patients on CRRT in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted between 1 April 2011 and 30 March 2013 to critical care and received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT was performed...
July 2015: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Darren M Roberts, Xin Liu, Jason A Roberts, Priya Nair, Louise Cole, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Rinaldo Bellomo
INTRODUCTION: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may alter antibiotic pharmacokinetics and increase the risk of incorrect dosing. In a nested cohort within a large randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of higher (40 mL/kg per hour) and lower (25 mL/kg per hour) intensity CRRT on antibiotic pharmacokinetics. METHODS: We collected serial blood samples to measure ciprofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin levels. We calculated extracorporeal clearance (CL), systemic CL, and volume of distribution (Vd) by non-linear mixed-effects modelling...
March 13, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Darren M Roberts, Xin Liu, Jason A Roberts, Priya Nair, Louise Cole, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Rinaldo Bellomo
INTRODUCTION: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may alter antibiotic pharmacokinetics and increase the risk of incorrect dosing. In a nested cohort within a large randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of higher (40 mL/kg/hour) and lower (25 mL/kg/hour) intensity CRRT on antibiotic pharmacokinetics. METHODS: We collected serial blood samples to measure ciprofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin levels. We calculated extracorporeal clearance (CL), systemic CL and volume of distribution (Vd) by nonlinear mixed effects modelling...
December 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ahro Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Young-Min Paek, Keun-Sik Hong, Young-Jin Cho, Joong-Yang Cho, Hee-Kyung Park, Hyeon-Kyoung Koo, Pamela Song
Cefepime is a fourth-generation B-lactam cephalosporin, commonly used in immunosuppressed patients. Neurotoxicity, which present as nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), has been reported previously especially in adult patients with impaired renal function. We present a case of cefepime induced NCSE after recovering from acute renal failure. A 71-year-old woman was hospitalized for right lower lobe lobectomy after diagnosis of lung cancer. Although she had successful lobectomy, she underwent several post operative complication including operation site bleeding, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and atypical pneumonia...
June 2013: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Marjorie Beumier, Jason A Roberts, Hakim Kabtouri, Maya Hites, Frederic Cotton, Fleur Wolff, Jeffrey Lipman, Frédérique Jacobs, Jean-Louis Vincent, Fabio Silvio Taccone
INTRODUCTION: Continuous infusion (CI) of high-dose vancomycin is often used to treat life-threatening infections caused by less-susceptible Gram-positive bacteria. However, this approach has not been well studied in patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of a new CI vancomycin regimen in septic patients undergoing CRRT. METHODS: In this prospective study we measured vancomycin concentrations obtained with a new CI regimen for CRRT, which included a loading dose of 35 mg/kg given over a 4 h period followed by a daily dose of 14 mg/kg...
December 2013: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Cecilia Covajes, Sabino Scolletta, Laura Penaccini, Eva Ocampos-Martinez, Ali Abdelhadii, Marjorie Beumier, Frédérique Jacobs, Daniel de Backer, Jean-Louis Vincent, Fabio Silvio Taccone
Vancomycin is frequently administered as a continuous infusion to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Previous studies have suggested a loading dose of 15 mg/kg followed by continuous infusion of 30 mg/kg in patients with normal renal function; however, there are no dosing recommendations in patients with renal failure undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Data from all adult septic patients admitted to a Department of Intensive Care over a 3-year period in whom vancomycin was given as a continuous infusion were reviewed...
March 2013: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Nadezda Petejova, Arnost Martinek, Jana Zahalkova, Jana Duricova, Hana Brozmannova, Karel Urbanek, Milan Grundmann, Jiri Plasek, Ivana Kacirova
AIMS: To assess the influence of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) at a filtration rate of 45 mL/kg/h on vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Seventeen adult septic patients with acute kidney injury treated with CVVH and vancomycin were included. All patients received first dose of 1.0 g intravenously followed by 1.0 g/12 h if not adjusted. In sixteen patients vancomycin was introduced on the day of the start of CRRT therapy...
2014: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
F Perry Wilson, Jeffrey S Berns
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is frequently used in the intensive care setting for the treatment of acute kidney injury. Dosing guidelines for many commonly used antibiotics were established during intermittent dialysis or in studies examining CRRT at lower blood and dialysis flow rates than are used in common practice. Herein we present data demonstrating frequent subtherapeutic levels of vancomycin in a population of patients on CRRT. Nephrology trainees should be educated as to the risks of under-dosing antibiotics in this population...
April 2012: Clinical Nephrology
Deborah A Pasko, Mariann D Churchwell, Noha N Salama, Bruce A Mueller
BACKGROUND/AIMS: With advanced anticoagulation, many institutions operate continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) circuits longer than manufacturers' recommendations. This extended use may change hemodiafilter performance and clearance properties. However, hemodiafilter performance over time has not been assessed. We investigated solute clearance over time in modeled CRRT. METHODS: In vitro continuous hemofiltration (CH) and continuous hemodialysis (CD) were operated for 48 h using AN69 polyacrylonitrile, cellulose triacetate, F70 polysulfone, and Optiflux F160NR polysulfone hemodiafilters with citrated bovine blood...
2011: Blood Purification
Robin L Trotman, John C Williamson, D Matthew Shoemaker, William L Salzer
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is now commonly used as a means of support for critically ill patients with renal failure. No recent comprehensive guidelines exist that provide antibiotic dosing recommendations for adult patients receiving CRRT. Doses used in intermittent hemodialysis cannot be directly applied to these patients, and antibiotic pharmacokinetics are different than those in patients with normal renal function. We reviewed the literature for studies involving the following antibiotics frequently used to treat critically ill adult patients receiving CRRT: vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, nafcillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B (deoxycholate and lipid formulations), and acyclovir...
October 15, 2005: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Megan E DelDot, Jeffrey Lipman, Susan E Tett
AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in critically ill patients on continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and to see if routine measures approximate vancomycin clearance. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic profiles (15) of initial and steady-state doses of 750 mg twice daily intravenous vancomycin were obtained from blood and ultrafiltrate samples from 10 critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, with acute renal failure on CVVHDF (1 l h(-1) dialysate plus 2 l h(-1) filtration solution; 3 l h(-1) effluent; extracorporeal blood flow 200 ml min(-1))...
September 2004: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
J Böhler, J Donauer, F Keller
Some drugs are removed significantly by continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRTs), and a substitutional dose is required to prevent underdosing of the substance. This review outlines the basic pharmacokinetic principles that determine whether a dose adjustment is required. Only the free non-protein-bound fraction of a drug can pass through the dialyzer membrane. In postdilution hemofiltration the drug clearance equals the ultrafiltration rate, while in predilution hemofiltration, the dilution of the blood prior to filtration needs to be considered when calculating clearance...
November 1999: Kidney International. Supplement
M S Joy, G R Matzke, R F Frye, P M Palevsky
The clearance of vancomycin is significantly reduced in patients with acute, as well as, chronic renal failure. Although multiple-dosage regimen adjustment techniques have been proposed for these patients, there is little quantitative data to guide the individualization of vancomycin therapy in acute renal failure patients who are receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). To determine appropriate vancomycin dosing strategies for patients receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD), we performed controlled clearance studies in five stable hemodialysis patients with three hemofilters: an acrylonitrile copolymer 0...
June 1998: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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