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Horsehair worm

Arun K Yadav, Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, R Laha, A Sen
The members of the phylum Nematomorpha, called as horsehair or gordian worms, are the parasites of arthropods and emerge from their host for reproduction and early development in water. There are about 360 species of nematomorphs described till date. Although, horsehair worms are parasites of arthropod species, sporadic cases of their occurrence have also been reported from several other hosts, including man. This paper describes a case history of the occurrence of two nematomorph worms in the meat of a pig in Shillong, India...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Arun K Yadav, Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Limatemjen
Three horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) are recorded from Nagaland, India. The first species is Chordodes combiareolatus, which was recently described from Nagaland. The second is Chordodes cf. furnessi, earlier reported from Meghalaya, and some new observations are added. The third is a new species, described as Beatogordius nagalandissp. n. This is the first report of the genus Beatogordius in India and this observation fits well into the Gondwana distribution of the genus. The species is quite similar to Beatogordius chinensis, reported from South China...
2017: ZooKeys
Stephan Henne, Frank Friedrich, Jörg U Hammel, Andy Sombke, Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa
The Nematomorpha (horsehair worms) and Nematoda (round worms) are sister taxa (together Nematoida) and closely related to Scalidophora (Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). To date, all species were assumed to possess a specific brain type, i.e., the "cycloneuralian" brain that forms a ring-shaped neuropil around the pharynx and is composed of anteriorly and posteriorly located somata. However, descriptions of the nematomorph nervous system are rare and somewhat variable, calling in to question the validity of the cycloneuralian condition...
January 2017: Journal of Morphology
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Lalramliana Lalramliana
Chordodes tjorvenae, a new species of horsehair worms is described from Mizoram, Northeast India. The species is distinct from all other known species by a unique combination of cuticular charatcers. In addition, the occurrence of the genus Acutogordius, particularly A. finni, is reported for the first time from India.
August 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Christian J Schwarz
With the exception of one species, no horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) were known to date from the Philippines. We report here several records, almost all from Panay Island. Two species, Gordius jorriti and Acutogordius finni, are described as new species. Two species of Chordodes, C. caledoniensis and C. cf. moutoni, were found. In addition, further specimens from the genera Gordius, Acutogordius and Chordodes could not be determined to species level.
August 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Jesús Martínez
A new species, Gordius gonzalezi, is described from the Iberian Peninsula, from the Sierra de los Tormantos in Central Spain. Characteristic for the species is the presence of multiple short spines on the cuticle, not present in this form in any other Gordius species. Additionally, two further specimens are reported, which could not be determined to species level. One male of the genus Gordius is close to G. aquaticus and one female with regular areoles could belong either to the genus Gordius or to Gordionus...
April 11, 2016: Zootaxa
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Renzo Perissinotto
Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters...
2016: ZooKeys
Ming-Chung Chiu, Chin-Gi Huang, Wen-Jer Wu, Shiuh-Feng Shiao
The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Eui-Ju Hong, Cheolho Sim, Joon-Seok Chae, Hyeon-Cheol Kim, Jinho Park, Kyoung-Seong Choi, Do-Hyeon Yu, Jae-Gyu Yoo, Bae-Keun Park
Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections...
December 2015: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Arun K Yadav
Fifteen species of freshwater Nematomorpha have been described from India, five of which belong to the genus Chordodes. This paper describes one new species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha): Chordodes lasuboni and a new record, C. moutoni from North-East India, which raises the total number of described species from India to 17. Chordodes lasuboni is characterized by a novel cuticular pattern in the head region and by the presence of slender, hooked thorn areoles on the body cuticle. Compared to the large size and ecological diversity of India, the nematomorph fauna is regarded as under-sampled and several new species are to be expected...
2013: Zootaxa
E A Guzeeva, B D Efeykin, V Yu Schmatko, S E Spiridonov
The cuticular structure of the horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) was studied under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Adult worms were collected in the Syuk River near Nickel' Village in the Republic of Adygea (Russia) in June 2013. In the sampling area, the G. alpestris juveniles parasitize diplopods Pachyiulus krivolutskyi Golovatch, 1977. Similarities with other Nematomorpha species with the known cuticle ultrastucture are discussed.
January 2015: Parazitologiia
Ming-Chung Chiu, Chin-Gi Huang, Wen-Jer Wu, Shiuh-Feng Shiao
Parasitic castration is a strategy used by parasites to minimize damage to the host by consuming its reproductive system, which results in the morphological alteration of the host. We determined that the forewing shape and density of the antennal sensilla of field-collected adult male mantids (Hierodula formosana), infected by horsehair worms (Chordodes formosanus) was partially feminized (intersexuality), and both male and female mantids infected by horsehair worms exhibited allometric changes in their wings and walking legs...
July 2015: Parasitology
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Limatemjen, Arun K Yadav
The currently known diversity of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from India is only 17 species. We report here two female specimens found on two occasions on a terrace paddy field in Tsupo, Viswema, Kohima, Nagaland, India. Although found at the same location, both species differ in their cuticular structures. One is determined as Chordodes moutoni, a species known from China, Malaysia and India. The other specimen shows a new type of cuticular structure, the areoles, which combines characters of both simple areoles and tubercle areoles...
February 27, 2015: Zootaxa
Nalini Puniamoorthy, Martin A Schäfer, Jörg Römbke, Rudolf Meier, Wolf U Blanckenhorn
Avermectins are potent and popular veterinary pharmaceuticals used globally to fight parasites of livestock and humans. By disturbing ion channel transport through the membrane, avermectins are effective against endo- and ectoparasitic round and horsehair worms (Nematoida), insects, or ticks (Arthropoda), but not against Plathelminthes, including flatworms (Trematoda) and tapeworms (Cestoda), or segmented worms (Annelida). Unfortunately, excreted avermectins have strong nontarget effects on beneficial arthropods such as the insect community decomposing livestock dung, ultimately impeding this important ecosystem function to the extent that regulators mandate standardized eco-toxicological tests of dung organisms worldwide...
May 2014: Evolutionary Applications
Ke-xia Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2010: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Minoru Yamada, Tatsuya Tegoshi, Niichiro Abe, Misako Urabe
The present study was performed to describe 2 human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp., in Japan. Two gordiid worms were collected in the vomit and excreta of an 80-year-old woman in November 2009 in Kyoto city, and in the mouth of 1-year-old boy in December 2009 in Nara city, Japan, respectively. Both worms were males having bifurcated posterior ends and male gonads in cross sectional specimens. They were identified as Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areoles in the cuticle...
September 2012: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Ming-Chung Chiu, Chin-Gi Huang, Wen-Jer Wu, Shiuh-Feng Shiao
A new species of horsehair worm, Chordodes formosanussp. n., is described and compared to a closely related species, Chordodes japonensis. Although both species possess the same six cuticular structures of areoles on the surface, the significantly longer filaments on the female crowned areoles can be used as diagnostic characters for the new species. The different taxonomic status of these two species was also confirmed after analyzing the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence, and the mantid hosts, which are respectively limited to the genus Tenodera for Chordodes japonensis and Hierodula for Chordodes formosanussp...
2011: ZooKeys
Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Lalramliana
Chordodes mizoramensis, a new species of freshwater gordiid horsehair worm, is described from Mizoram, NE India on the basis of scanning electron microscopic and morphometric studies. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in that the apical filaments of the crowned areoles are branched several times, a pattern that has not been observed in other species. An additional distinguishing character is that it has more bulging areoles, which are distributed among simple areoles alone or in groups, do not form clear patterns...
2011: ZooKeys
Jeanne M Fair, Ben Hanelt, Kassidy Burnett
Hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) are internal parasites that alter the behavior of their terrestrial insect host, forcing it to enter the water to reach its reproductive habitat. After reproduction of the free-living adults, the larvae encyst in aquatic insects and are retained upon metamorphosis of the insect into an adult fly. This paratenic host links the aquatic and terrestrial environments after its consumption by omnivorous or predatory insects. Therefore, hairworms are usually only associated with invertebrates, and few reports discuss hairworm interactions with vertebrate species...
April 2010: Journal of Parasitology
Andrew J Hudson, Kevin D Floate
We used molecular techniques to characterize bacteria associated with the nematomorph Gordius robustus (Leidy). This worm is a parasite of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus (Burmeister), which is infected with the symbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia. Because of this close association, our a priori expectation was that G. robustus may be similarly infected. However, results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA failed to detect any bacteria (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) in G...
December 2009: Journal of Parasitology
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