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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892278/inducible-costimulator-expressing-t-cells-promote-parasitic-growth-during-blood-stage-plasmodium-berghei-anka-infection
#1
Gajendra M Jogdand, Soumya Sengupta, Gargee Bhattacharya, Santosh Kumar Singh, Prakash Kumar Barik, Satish Devadas
The lethality of blood stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection is associated with the expression of T-bet and production of cytokine IFN-γ. Expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS) and its downstream signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the T-bet expression and IFN-γ production. Although earlier studies have examined the role of ICOS in the control of acute blood-stage infection of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS (a non-lethal model of malaria infection), its significance in the lethal blood-stage of PbA infection remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872086/3d-virtual-histology-at-the-host-parasite-interface-visualisation-of-the-master-manipulator-dicrocoelium-dendriticum-in-the-brain-of-its-ant-host
#2
Daniel Martín-Vega, Amin Garbout, Farah Ahmed, Martina Wicklein, Cameron P Goater, Douglas D Colwell, Martin J R Hall
Some parasites are able to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts to their own advantage. One of the most well-established textbook examples of host manipulation is that of the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum on ants, its second intermediate host. Infected ants harbour encysted metacercariae in the gaster and a non-encysted metacercaria in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG); however, the mechanisms that D. dendriticum uses to manipulate the ant behaviour remain unknown, partly because of a lack of a proper and direct visualisation of the physical interface between the parasite and the ant brain tissue...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864162/translational-repression-by-an-rna-binding-protein-promotes-differentiation-to-infective-forms-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#3
Maria Albertina Romaniuk, Alberto Carlos Frasch, Alejandro Cassola
Trypanosomes, protozoan parasites of medical importance, essentially rely on post-transcriptional mechanisms to regulate gene expression in insect vectors and vertebrate hosts. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that associate to the 3'-UTR of mature mRNAs are thought to orchestrate master developmental programs for these processes to happen. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which differentiation occurs remain largely unexplored in these human pathogens. Here, we show that ectopic inducible expression of the RBP TcUBP1 promotes the beginning of the differentiation process from non-infective epimastigotes to infective metacyclic trypomastigotes in Trypanosoma cruzi...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779299/health-issues-of-refugees-attending-an-infectious-disease-refugee-health-clinic-in-a-regional-australian-hospital
#4
Peta J Masters, Penelope J Lanfranco, Emmy Sneath, Amanda J Wade, Sarah Huffam, James Pollard, James Standish, Kate McCloskey, Eugene Athan, Daniel P O'Brien, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refugees in Australia present with conditions different to those of the general population. The aim of this study was to review the reasons for referral, prevalence of conditions and treatment outcomes for refugee patients attending a specialist referral clinic in regional Victoria. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients attending the refugee health clinic at University Hospital Geelong from January 2007 to December 2012...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765020/changes-in-genome-organization-of-parasite-specific-gene-families-during-the-plasmodium-transmission-stages
#5
Evelien M Bunnik, Kate B Cook, Nelle Varoquaux, Gayani Batugedara, Jacques Prudhomme, Anthony Cort, Lirong Shi, Chiara Andolina, Leila S Ross, Declan Brady, David A Fidock, Francois Nosten, Rita Tewari, Photini Sinnis, Ferhat Ay, Jean-Philippe Vert, William Stafford Noble, Karine G Le Roch
The development of malaria parasites throughout their various life cycle stages is coordinated by changes in gene expression. We previously showed that the three-dimensional organization of the Plasmodium falciparum genome is strongly associated with gene expression during its replication cycle inside red blood cells. Here, we analyze genome organization in the P. falciparum and P. vivax transmission stages. Major changes occur in the localization and interactions of genes involved in pathogenesis and immune evasion, host cell invasion, sexual differentiation, and master regulation of gene expression...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694887/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-suppresses-protective-immunity-to-gastrointestinal-helminth-infection
#6
Rafid Alhallaf, Zainab Agha, Catherine M Miller, Avril A B Robertson, Javier Sotillo, John Croese, Matthew A Cooper, Seth L Masters, Andreas Kupz, Nicholas C Smith, Alex Loukas, Paul R Giacomin
Inflammasomes promote immunity to microbial pathogens by regulating the function of IL-1-family cytokines such as IL-18 and IL-1β. However, the roles for inflammasomes during parasitic helminth infections remain unclear. We demonstrate that mice and humans infected with gastrointestinal nematodes display increased IL-18 secretion, which in Trichuris-infected or worm antigen-treated mice and in macrophages co-cultured with Trichuris antigens or exosome-like vesicles was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3-deficient mice displayed reduced pro-inflammatory type 1 cytokine responses and augmented protective type 2 immunity, which was reversed by IL-18 administration...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681951/lateral-flow-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-test-with-stem-primers-detection-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-kenyan-children-presenting-with-diarrhea
#7
Timothy S Mamba, Cecilia K Mbae, Johnson Kinyua, Erastus Mulinge, Gitonga Nkanata Mburugu, Zablon K Njiru
Background. Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite and a major cause of diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients. Current diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis such as microscopy have low sensitivity while techniques such as PCR indicate higher sensitivity levels but are seldom used in developing countries due to their associated cost. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique, a method with shorter time to result and with equal or higher sensitivity compared to PCR, has been developed and applied in the detection of Cryptosporidium species...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668140/-standardization-of-a-multiplex-real-time-pcr-test-for-the-identification-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-a-costaricensis-and-a-vasorum
#8
Rubén E Varela-M, Jinney Stefany Arias, Luz Elena Velásquez
INTRODUCTION: Angiostrongyliasis is a disease caused by Angiostrongylus nematodes that is present worldwide. The infections with the highest impact on human and animal health are caused by A. cantonensis, A. costaricensis, and A. vasorum. Clinical forms of the disease in humans are eosinophilic meningitis and abdominal angiostrongyliasis, while the most common effect on dogs are cardiopulmonary damages. It is deemed as an emerging disease as the result of the global dissemination of the African snail Lissachatina fulica, an intermediary host of these parasites...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605012/teaching-veterinary-parasitology-in-portugal-in-the-21st-century-changes-challenges-and-opportunities-after-the-bologna-process
#9
Luís Manuel Madeira de Carvalho, Ana Margarida Alho
Veterinary education in Portugal began in 1830, but individualised teaching of parasitology started in 1911 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon (FMV-ULisboa). Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases were taught in the 3rd and 4th years of the veterinary course, respectively. In 2007/2008, a new curriculum was implemented as a consequence of the Bologna Process (BP), with Parasitology converted into "Parasitology I" (General Parasitology, Arthropods and Protozoology) and "Parasitology II" (Helminthology), being taught in the 1st and 2nd semesters of the 2nd year of the course, respectively...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590075/gdv1-induces-sexual-commitment-of-malaria-parasites-by-antagonizing-hp1-dependent-gene-silencing
#10
Michael Filarsky, Sabine A Fraschka, Igor Niederwieser, Nicolas M B Brancucci, Eilidh Carrington, Elvira Carrió, Suzette Moes, Paul Jenoe, Richárd Bártfai, Till S Voss
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites that proliferate in the bloodstream. During each replication cycle, some parasites differentiate into gametocytes, the only forms able to infect the mosquito vector and transmit malaria. Sexual commitment is triggered by activation of AP2-G, the master transcriptional regulator of gametocytogenesis. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-dependent silencing of ap2-g prevents sexual conversion in proliferating parasites. In this study, we identified Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development 1 (GDV1) as an upstream activator of sexual commitment...
March 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559151/established-and-novel-approaches-for-teaching-and-learning-of-veterinary-parasitology-in-berlin
#11
Peter-Henning Clausen, Sandra Stelzer, Ard Nijhof, Jürgen Krücken, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
The teaching of veterinary parasitology to the large number of students at the Freie Universität Berlin is mainly limited to conventional face-to-face lectures, supplemented by practical classes. Extensive parasite descriptions and diagnostic techniques are at the core of the practical classes, which are also intended to emphasise key biological and veterinary aspects covered in lectures. Further in-depth and specific learning is achieved within a detailed framework of elective courses, with defined learning outcomes for small groups of students, focusing on themes such as 'diagnosis and treatment of ectoparasites in companion animals' or 'zoonotic parasites'...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559138/veterinary-parasitology-teaching-ten-years-of-experience-with-the-vetsuisse-curriculum
#12
Manuela Schnyder, Hubertus Hertzberg, Alexander Mathis, Marietta Schönmann, Adrian Hehl, Peter Deplazes
Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491832/neural-damage-in-experimental-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-infection-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#13
Chiara Tesoriero, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Marina Bentivoglio
Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b. ) gambiense is the parasite subspecies responsible for most reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. This severe infection leads to characteristic disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, recalling attention on the circadian timing system. Most animal models of the disease have been hitherto based on infection of laboratory rodents with the T. b. brucei subspecies, which is not infectious to humans. In these animal models, functional, rather than structural, alterations of the master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469325/-evaluation-on-human-resource-allocation-in-certain-national-institute-of-parasitic-diseases-in-ten-years
#14
Kui Yan, Cao Chun-Li, Tian Shen, Tao Bi-Ying, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Xiao-Nong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the human resource in a national institute of parasitic diseases from 2007 to 2016, so as to provide a reference for the construction of a well-crafted human resource of national parasitic diseases control and prevention. METHODS: The basic information of the staff in the national institute of parasitic diseases was investigated and a related database was established to analyze the quantity and structure of the human resource allocation in 10 years through the annual statistics each year...
March 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428490/invertebrate-host-responses-to-microsporidia-infections
#15
Guoqing Pan, Jialing Bao, Zhengang Ma, Yue Song, Bing Han, Maoshuang Ran, Chunfeng Li, Zeyang Zhou
Microsporidia are a group of fungi-like intracellular and unicellular parasites, which infect nearly all animals. As "master parasites", over 1400 microsporidian species have been described to date. Microsporidia infections in economical invertebrates (e.g., silkworm, shrimp) cause huge financial losses, while other microsporidia infections in daphnia, nematode, locust, honeybee and mosquito play important roles in the regulation of their population size. Research investigating invertebrate host responses following microsporidia infections has yielded numerous interesting results, especially pertaining to the innate immune response to these pathogens...
June 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377900/rewired-rnai-mediated-genome-surveillance-in-house-dust-mites
#16
Mosharrof Mondal, Pavel Klimov, Alex Sutton Flynt
House dust mites are common pests with an unusual evolutionary history, being descendants of a parasitic ancestor. Transition to parasitism is frequently accompanied by genome rearrangements, possibly to accommodate the genetic change needed to access new ecology. Transposable element (TE) activity is a source of genomic instability that can trigger large-scale genomic alterations. Eukaryotes have multiple transposon control mechanisms, one of which is RNA interference (RNAi). Investigation of the dust mite genome failed to identify a major RNAi pathway: the Piwi-associated RNA (piRNA) pathway, which has been replaced by a novel small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-like pathway...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364142/current-perspectives-of-telomerase-structure-and-function-in-eukaryotes-with-emerging-views-on-telomerase-in-human-parasites
#17
REVIEW
Abhishek Dey, Kausik Chakrabarti
Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339307/anticoccidial-activity-of-fruit-peel-of-punica-granatum-l
#18
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Tauseef Ahmad Malik, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo
In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat parasitic diseases. Here, we studied the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of the fruit peel of Punica granatum-a commercial waste from pomegranate juice industries. The hope underlying these experiments was to find a sustainable natural product for controlling coccidiosis. The plant extracts were prepared using solvents of different polarity. Acute oral toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude extracts...
March 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339033/helminth-modulation-of-lung-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon
Parasitic helminths must establish chronic infections to complete their life cycle and therefore are potent modulators of multiple facets of host physiology. Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans to become arguably master selectors of our immune system, whereby they have impacted on the selection of genes with beneficial mutations for both host and parasite. While helminth infections of humans are a significant health burden, studies have shown that helminths or helminth products can alter susceptibility to unrelated infectious or inflammatory diseases...
May 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162126/targeting-the-master-regulator-mtor-a-new-approach-to-prevent-the-neurological-of-consequences-of-parasitic-infections
#20
REVIEW
Sheila Donnelly, Wilhelmina M Huston, Michael Johnson, Natalia Tiberti, Bernadette Saunders, Bronwyn O'Brien, Catherine Burke, Maurizio Labbate, Valery Combes
A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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