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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322871/recurrent-emergence-of-structural-variants-of-ltr-retrotransposon-csrn1-evolving-novel-expression-strategy-and-their-selective-expansion-in-a-carcinogenic-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis
#1
Seon-Hee Kim, Yoon Kong, Young-An Bae
Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268038/comparison-of-different-commercial-dna-extraction-kits-and-pcr-protocols-for-the-detection-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-eggs-in-faecal-samples-from-foxes
#2
Pavlo Maksimov, Gereon Schares, Sebastian Press, Andreas Fröhlich, Walter Basso, Mandy Herzig, Franz J Conraths
Effective and sensitive methods for the molecular detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in faecal samples of final hosts are crucial for the prevention and control of human alveolar echinococcosis and for studies on the epidemiology of the parasite. Little is known about the suitability of commercial test kits for isolating DNA of E. multilocularis from fox faeces and the performance of standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocols in relation to the quality of DNA extracted by these kits. We compared four different kits: ZR Faecal DNA MiniPrep™ (Zymo Research), FastDNA(®) SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals), QIAamp(®) Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN) and NucleoSpin(®) Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel) for the extraction of DNA from E...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185248/mastering-gut-permeability-new-roles-for-old-friends
#3
Michael Bramhall, Colby Zaph
Mast cells are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to infection in barrier tissues such as the skin and intestinal mucosa. Expulsion of parasitic worms in the gut involves a robust type 2 host response, and an acute mastocytosis is often generated at the site of infection. However, the role of mast cells in resistance to worm infections appears to be parasite specific. Mast cells are also involved in tissue repair, but the long-term contribution of mast cell activation after worm expulsion has not been definitively studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159660/anticoccidial-activity-of-artemisia-vestita-anthemideae-asteraceae-a-traditional-herb-growing-in-the-western-himalayas-kashmir-india
#4
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo, Tauseef Ahmad Malik
Coccidiosis, caused by various species of genus Eimeria, is a major parasitic disease in chicken. The increasing resistance of these parasites to currently used anticoccidial drugs has stimulated the search for new methods of control. As part of this effort, a study was designed to see the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of Artemisia vestita-a traditional herb growing in Kashmir Himalayas. The plant extracts were prepared using different solvents. Preliminary toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude plant extracts...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155915/age-but-not-anthelmintic-treatment-is-associated-with-urinary-neopterin-levels-in-semi-free-ranging-barbary-macaques
#5
Nadine Müller, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. Here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uNEO), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Urinary NEO levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals between 5-29 years of age...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125609/master-leader-slave-cuckoo-search-with-parameter-control-for-ann-optimization-and-its-real-world-application-to-water-quality-prediction
#6
Najmeh Sadat Jaddi, Salwani Abdullah, Marlinda Abdul Malek
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been employed to solve a broad variety of tasks. The selection of an ANN model with appropriate weights is important in achieving accurate results. This paper presents an optimization strategy for ANN model selection based on the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm, which is rooted in the obligate brood parasitic actions of some cuckoo species. In order to enhance the convergence ability of basic CS, some modifications are proposed. The fraction Pa of the n nests replaced by new nests is a fixed parameter in basic CS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117431/culture-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-selects-for-convergent-loss-of-function-mutants
#7
Antoine Claessens, Muna Affara, Samuel A Assefa, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051908/antimicrobial-capacity-of-the-freshwater-planarians-against-s-aureus-is-under-the-control-of-timeless
#8
Landry Laure Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Virginie Trouplin, Benjamin Coiffard, Gregory Gimenez, Jean-Louis Mege, Eric Ghigo
Planarians, which are non-parasitic flatworms, are highly resistant to bacterial infections. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we investigated the role of the circadian machinery in the anti-bacterial response of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We identified Smed-Tim from S. mediterranea as a homolog of the mammalian clock gene Tim. We showed via RNA interference that Smed-Tim is required for the anti-microbial activities of Schmidtea mediterranea against Staphylococcus aureus infection during the light/dark cycle...
January 4, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008805/eosinophils-in-homeostasis-and-their-contrasting-roles-during-inflammation-and-helminth-infections
#9
Julia Strandmark, Sebastian Rausch, Susanne Hartmann
Eosinophil numbers are highly elevated during helminth infections and a range of allergic and inflammatory disorders, but eosinophils are also present in several tissues in the absence of infection. Indeed, new findings demonstrate that eosinophils may be involved in events as diverse as glucose metabolism, mammary gland development, intestinal health, tissue remodeling, thymic selection, and B-cell survival. Although eosinophils often correlate with pathological parameters during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, the evidence for their contribution to tissue pathology remains controversial...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779220/two-flagellar-bar-domain-proteins-in-trypanosoma-brucei-with-stage-specific-regulation
#10
Zdenka Cicova, Mario Dejung, Tomas Skalicky, Nicole Eisenhuth, Steffen Hanselmann, Brooke Morriswood, Luisa M Figueiredo, Falk Butter, Christian J Janzen
Trypanosomes are masters of adaptation to different host environments during their complex life cycle. Large-scale proteomic approaches provide information on changes at the cellular level, and in a systematic way. However, detailed work on single components is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms on a molecular level. Here, we have performed a detailed characterization of a bloodstream form (BSF) stage-specific putative flagellar host adaptation factor Tb927.11.2400, identified previously in a SILAC-based comparative proteome study...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568570/host-ampk-is-a-modulator-of-plasmodium-liver-infection
#11
Margarida T Grilo Ruivo, Iset Medina Vera, Joana Sales-Dias, Patrícia Meireles, Nil Gural, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Maria M Mota, Liliana Mancio-Silva
Manipulation of the master regulator of energy homeostasis AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is a strategy used by many intracellular pathogens for successful replication. Infection by most pathogens leads to an activation of host AMPK activity due to the energetic demands placed on the infected cell. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite is observed in cells infected with rodent malaria parasites. Indeed, AMPK activity upon the infection of hepatic cells is suppressed and dispensable for successful infection...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491684/biosecurity-for-translocations-cirl-bunting-emberiza-cirlus-fisher-s-estuarine-moth-gortyna-borelii-lunata-short-haired-bumblebee-bombus-subterraneus-and-pool-frog-pelophylax-lessonae-translocations-as-case-studies
#12
R J Vaughan-Higgins, N Masters, A W Sainsbury
Exposure to parasites in conservation translocations increases the risks to recipient and translocated populations from disease, and therefore there has been interest in implementing biosecurity methods. Using four case examples we described how biosecurity was applied in practical translocation scenarios prior to and during a translocation and also post-release. We implemented biosecurity, including quarantine barriers, at specific points in the translocation pathway where hazards, identified by the disease risk analysis, had the potential to induce disease...
March 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413313/anticoccidial-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-a-wild-mushroom-ganoderma-applanatum-during-experimentally-induced-coccidial-infection-in-broiler-chicken
#13
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Tauseef Ahmad Malik
Despite presence of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines in the market, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. There is wide-spread resistance to already known anticoccidial drugs. It is an infectious disease of poultry and rigorous management is required during vaccination. In addition there is possibility of drug residues in meat and other byproducts of such treated animals and consequently makes more imperative to explore and understand the role of natural products in livestock parasite management...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403804/rosette-disrupting-effect-of-an-anti-plasmodial-compound-for-the-potential-treatment-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-complications
#14
Jun-Hong Ch'ng, Kirsten Moll, Maria Del Pilar Quintana, Sherwin Chun Leung Chan, Ellen Masters, Ernest Moles, Jianping Liu, Anders B Eriksson, Mats Wahlgren
The spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites could lead to higher incidence of patients with malaria complications. However, there are no current treatments that directly dislodge sequestered parasites from the microvasculature. We show that four common antiplasmodial drugs do not disperse rosettes (erythrocyte clusters formed by malaria parasites) and therefore develop a cell-based high-throughput assay to identify potential rosette-disrupting compounds. A pilot screen of 2693 compounds identified Malaria Box compound MMV006764 as a potential candidate...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374802/plasmodium-species-master-renovators-of-their-host-cells
#15
Tania F de Koning-Ward, Matthew W A Dixon, Leann Tilley, Paul R Gilson
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have developed elaborate strategies that they use to survive and thrive within different intracellular environments. During the blood stage of infection, the parasite is a master renovator of its erythrocyte host cell, and the changes in cell morphology and function that are induced by the parasite promote survival and contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In this Review, we discuss how Plasmodium parasites use the protein trafficking motif Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), protease-mediated polypeptide processing, a novel translocon termed the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) and exomembranous structures to export hundreds of proteins to discrete subcellular locations in the host erythrocytes, which enables the parasite to gain access to vital nutrients and to evade the immune defence mechanisms of the host...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372381/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-a-critical-factor-for-the-immune-response-to-pathogens-and-leishmania
#16
Tania Charpentier, Akil Hammami, Simona Stäger
Organisms typically react to foreign pathogens by initiating an inflammatory response. However, in order to limit inflammatory tissue injury, it is essential for the organism to maintain the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of this process can result in the strong inhibition of protective pro-inflammatory responses, and ultimately in pathogen persistence. Chronic infections are often associated with inflammation and tissue disruption. Inflamed tissues are characterized by low levels of oxygen and glucose, a microenvironment that triggers the stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α...
June 22, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317327/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-metacestodes-prevalence-in-small-ruminants-in-ethiopia
#17
REVIEW
Kassahun Asmare, Berhanu Sibhat, Mesele Abera, Aynalem Haile, Hailu Degefu, Tsegaw Fentie, Jemere Bekele, Getachew Terefe, Barbara Szonyi, Lucy J Robertson, Barbara Wieland
Metacestodes, the larval stages of canid cestode parasites, are among the causes of morbidity, mortality and financial losses in small ruminants in Ethiopia as a result of organ and carcass condemnation at slaughter. Several studies have been conducted over the years; however, these studies often had limited scope and coverage. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate the information so far available in order to provide a pooled prevalence estimate at national level and identify potential predictors...
July 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160667/parasitic-zoonoses-associated-with-dogs-and-cats-a-survey-of-portuguese-pet-owners-awareness-and-deworming-practices
#18
André Pereira, Ângela Martins, Hugo Brancal, Hugo Vilhena, Pedro Silva, Paulo Pimenta, Duarte Diz-Lopes, Nuno Neves, Mónica Coimbra, Ana Catarina Alves, Luís Cardoso, Carla Maia
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control...
May 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098483/genomic-variation-in-two-gametocyte-non-producing-plasmodium-falciparum-clonal-lines
#19
Susana Campino, Ernest Diez Benavente, Samuel Assefa, Eloise Thompson, Laura G Drought, Catherine J Taylor, Zaria Gorvett, Celine K Carret, Christian Flueck, Al C Ivens, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Pietro Alano, David A Baker, Taane G Clark
BACKGROUND: Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation of a sub-population of asexual forms replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. The nature of the molecular mechanism underlying this key differentiation event required for malaria transmission is not fully understood. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing was used to examine the genomic diversity of the gametocyte non-producing 3D7-derived lines F12 and A4...
April 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028536/the-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiota-and-allergic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Kyburz, Anne Müller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity...
2016: Digestive Diseases
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