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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605012/teaching-veterinary-parasitology-in-portugal-in-the-21st-century-changes-challenges-and-opportunities-after-the-bologna-process
#1
Luís Manuel Madeira de Carvalho, Ana Margarida Alho
Veterinary education in Portugal began in 1830, but individualised teaching of parasitology started in 1911 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon (FMV-ULisboa). Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases were taught in the 3rd and 4th years of the veterinary course, respectively. In 2007/2008, a new curriculum was implemented as a consequence of the Bologna Process (BP), with Parasitology converted into "Parasitology I" (General Parasitology, Arthropods and Protozoology) and "Parasitology II" (Helminthology), being taught in the 1st and 2nd semesters of the 2nd year of the course, respectively...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590075/gdv1-induces-sexual-commitment-of-malaria-parasites-by-antagonizing-hp1-dependent-gene-silencing
#2
Michael Filarsky, Sabine A Fraschka, Igor Niederwieser, Nicolas M B Brancucci, Eilidh Carrington, Elvira Carrió, Suzette Moes, Paul Jenoe, Richárd Bártfai, Till S Voss
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites that proliferate in the bloodstream. During each replication cycle, some parasites differentiate into gametocytes, the only forms able to infect the mosquito vector and transmit malaria. Sexual commitment is triggered by activation of AP2-G, the master transcriptional regulator of gametocytogenesis. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-dependent silencing of ap2-g prevents sexual conversion in proliferating parasites. In this study, we identified Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development 1 (GDV1) as an upstream activator of sexual commitment...
March 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559151/established-and-novel-approaches-for-teaching-and-learning-of-veterinary-parasitology-in-berlin
#3
Peter-Henning Clausen, Sandra Stelzer, Ard Nijhof, Jürgen Krücken, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
The teaching of veterinary parasitology to the large number of students at the Freie Universität Berlin is mainly limited to conventional face-to-face lectures, supplemented by practical classes. Extensive parasite descriptions and diagnostic techniques are at the core of the practical classes, which are also intended to emphasise key biological and veterinary aspects covered in lectures. Further in-depth and specific learning is achieved within a detailed framework of elective courses, with defined learning outcomes for small groups of students, focusing on themes such as 'diagnosis and treatment of ectoparasites in companion animals' or 'zoonotic parasites'...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559138/veterinary-parasitology-teaching-ten-years-of-experience-with-the-vetsuisse-curriculum
#4
Manuela Schnyder, Hubertus Hertzberg, Alexander Mathis, Marietta Schönmann, Adrian Hehl, Peter Deplazes
Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491832/neural-damage-in-experimental-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-infection-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#5
Chiara Tesoriero, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Marina Bentivoglio
Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b. ) gambiense is the parasite subspecies responsible for most reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. This severe infection leads to characteristic disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, recalling attention on the circadian timing system. Most animal models of the disease have been hitherto based on infection of laboratory rodents with the T. b. brucei subspecies, which is not infectious to humans. In these animal models, functional, rather than structural, alterations of the master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469325/-evaluation-on-human-resource-allocation-in-certain-national-institute-of-parasitic-diseases-in-ten-years
#6
Kui Yan, Cao Chun-Li, Tian Shen, Tao Bi-Ying, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Xiao-Nong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the human resource in a national institute of parasitic diseases from 2007 to 2016, so as to provide a reference for the construction of a well-crafted human resource of national parasitic diseases control and prevention. METHODS: The basic information of the staff in the national institute of parasitic diseases was investigated and a related database was established to analyze the quantity and structure of the human resource allocation in 10 years through the annual statistics each year...
March 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428490/invertebrate-host-responses-to-microsporidia-infections
#7
Guoqing Pan, Jialing Bao, Zhengang Ma, Yue Song, Bing Han, Maoshuang Ran, Chunfeng Li, Zeyang Zhou
Microsporidia are a group of fungi-like intracellular and unicellular parasites, which infect nearly all animals. As the "master parasites", more than 1400 microsporidian species were described. Microsporidia infections in economical invertebrates (e.g., silkworm, shrimp) caused huge losses, while other microsporidia infections in daphnia, nematode, locust, honeybee and mosquito play important roles in the regulation of their population size. Researches on the invertebrate host responses to Microsporidia infections obtained plenty of interesting results, especially in the innate immune response to these pathogens...
February 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377900/rewired-rnai-mediated-genome-surveillance-in-house-dust-mites
#8
Mosharrof Mondal, Pavel Klimov, Alex Sutton Flynt
House dust mites are common pests with an unusual evolutionary history, being descendants of a parasitic ancestor. Transition to parasitism is frequently accompanied by genome rearrangements, possibly to accommodate the genetic change needed to access new ecology. Transposable element (TE) activity is a source of genomic instability that can trigger large-scale genomic alterations. Eukaryotes have multiple transposon control mechanisms, one of which is RNA interference (RNAi). Investigation of the dust mite genome failed to identify a major RNAi pathway: the Piwi-associated RNA (piRNA) pathway, which has been replaced by a novel small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-like pathway...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364142/current-perspectives-of-telomerase-structure-and-function-in-eukaryotes-with-emerging-views-on-telomerase-in-human-parasites
#9
REVIEW
Abhishek Dey, Kausik Chakrabarti
Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339307/anticoccidial-activity-of-fruit-peel-of-punica-granatum-l
#10
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Tauseef Ahmad Malik, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo
In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat parasitic diseases. Here, we studied the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of the fruit peel of Punica granatum-a commercial waste from pomegranate juice industries. The hope underlying these experiments was to find a sustainable natural product for controlling coccidiosis. The plant extracts were prepared using solvents of different polarity. Acute oral toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude extracts...
March 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339033/helminth-modulation-of-lung-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon
Parasitic helminths must establish chronic infections to complete their life cycle and therefore are potent modulators of multiple facets of host physiology. Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans to become arguably master selectors of our immune system, whereby they have impacted on the selection of genes with beneficial mutations for both host and parasite. While helminth infections of humans are a significant health burden, studies have shown that helminths or helminth products can alter susceptibility to unrelated infectious or inflammatory diseases...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162126/targeting-the-master-regulator-mtor-a-new-approach-to-prevent-the-neurological-of-consequences-of-parasitic-infections
#12
REVIEW
Sheila Donnelly, Wilhelmina M Huston, Michael Johnson, Natalia Tiberti, Bernadette Saunders, Bronwyn O'Brien, Catherine Burke, Maurizio Labbate, Valery Combes
A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094698/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-signature-of-sexual-commitment-in-malaria-parasites
#13
Asaf Poran, Christopher Nötzel, Omar Aly, Nuria Mencia-Trinchant, Chantal T Harris, Monica L Guzman, Duane C Hassane, Olivier Elemento, Björn F C Kafsack
Pathogens have to balance transmission with persistence. For Plasmodium falciparum, the most widespread and virulent malaria parasite, persistence within its human host requires continuous asexual replication within red blood cells, while its mosquito-borne transmission depends on intra-erythrocytic differentiation into non-replicating sexual stages called gametocytes. Commitment to either fate is determined during the preceding cell cycle that begins with invasion by a single, asexually committed merozoite and ends, 48 hours later, with a schizont releasing newly formed merozoites, all committed to either continued asexual replication or differentiation into gametocytes...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043294/integrating-networks-and-comparative-genomics-reveals-retroelement-proliferation-dynamics-in-hominid-genomes
#14
Orr Levy, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Erez Y Levanon, Shlomo Havlin
Retroelements (REs) are mobile DNA sequences that multiply and spread throughout genomes by a copy-and-paste mechanism. These parasitic elements are active in diverse genomes, from yeast to humans, where they promote diversity, cause disease, and accelerate evolution. Because of their high copy number and sequence similarity, studying their activity and tracking their proliferation dynamics is a challenge. It is particularly difficult to pinpoint the few REs in a genome that are still active in the haystack of degenerate and suppressed elements...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888925/follicular-helper-t-cells-are-essential-for-the-elimination-of-plasmodium-infection
#15
Damián Pérez-Mazliah, Minh Phuong Nguyen, Caroline Hosking, Sarah McLaughlin, Matthew D Lewis, Irene Tumwine, Prisca Levy, Jean Langhorne
CD4(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells have been shown to be critical for the activation of germinal center (GC) B-cell responses. Similar to other infections, Plasmodium infection activates both GC as well as non-GC B cell responses. Here, we sought to explore whether Tfh cells and GC B cells are required to eliminate a Plasmodium infection. A CD4 T cell-targeted deletion of the gene that encodes Bcl6, the master transcription factor for the Tfh program, resulted in complete disruption of the Tfh response to Plasmodium chabaudi in C57BL/6 mice and consequent disruption of GC responses and IgG responses and the inability to eliminate the otherwise self-resolving chronic P...
October 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826473/pirating-conserved-phage-mechanisms-promotes-promiscuous-staphylococcal-pathogenicity-island-transfer
#16
Janine Bowring, Maan M Neamah, Jorge Donderis, Ignacio Mir-Sanchis, Christian Alite, J Rafael Ciges-Tomas, Elisa Maiques, Iltyar Medmedov, Alberto Marina, Jose R Penades
Targeting conserved and essential processes is a successful strategy to combat enemies. Remarkably, the clinically important Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) use this tactic to spread in nature. SaPIs reside passively in the host chromosome, under the control of the SaPI-encoded master repressor, Stl. It has been assumed that SaPI de-repression is effected by specific phage proteins that bind to Stl, initiating the SaPI cycle. Different SaPIs encode different Stl repressors, so each targets a specific phage protein for its de-repression...
August 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722583/a-direct-from-blood-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-monitoring-falciparum-malaria-parasite-transmission-in-elimination-settings
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Brian J Taylor, Kjerstin Lanke, Shanna L Banman, Isabelle Morlais, Merribeth J Morin, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma, Stephanie K Yanow
We describe a novel one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (direct RT-PCR) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites that amplifies RNA targets directly from blood. We developed the assay to identify gametocyte-specific transcripts in parasites from patient blood samples, as a means of monitoring malaria parasite transmission in field settings. To perform the test, blood is added directly to a master mix in PCR tubes and analyzed by real-time PCR. The limit of detection of the assay on both conventional and portable real-time PCR instruments was 100 parasites/mL for 18S rRNA, and 1,000 parasites/mL for asexual (PFE0065W) and gametocyte (PF14_0367, PFGEXP5) mRNA targets...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646326/transposable-elements-mediate-adaptive-debilitation-of-flagella-in-experimental-escherichia-coli-populations
#18
Gordon R Plague, Krystal S Boodram, Kevin M Dougherty, Sandar Bregg, Daniel P Gilbert, Hira Bakshi, Daniel Costa
Although insertion sequence (IS) elements are generally considered genomic parasites, they can mediate adaptive genetic changes in bacterial genomes. We discovered that among 12 laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli populations, three had experienced at least six different IS1-mediated deletions of flagellar genes. These deletions all involved the master flagellar regulator flhDC, and as such completely incapacitate motility. Two lines of evidence strongly suggest that these deletions were adaptive in our evolution experiment: (1) parallel evolution in three independent populations is highly unlikely just by chance, and (2) one of these deletion mutations swept to fixation within ~1000 generations, which is over two million times faster than expected if this deletion was instead selectively neutral and thus evolving by genetic drift...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602845/silencing-of-transposable-elements-by-pirnas-in-drosophila-an-evolutionary-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Shiqi Luo, Jian Lu
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can move within the genome. TEs have greatly shaped the genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes of the host organisms through a variety of mechanisms. However, TEs generally disrupt genes and destabilize the host genomes, which substantially reduce fitness of the host organisms. Understanding the genomic distribution and evolutionary dynamics of TEs will greatly deepen our understanding of the TE-mediated biological processes. Most TE insertions are highly polymorphic in Drosophila melanogaster, providing us a good system to investigate the evolution of TEs at the population level...
June 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322871/recurrent-emergence-of-structural-variants-of-ltr-retrotransposon-csrn1-evolving-novel-expression-strategy-and-their-selective-expansion-in-a-carcinogenic-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis
#20
Seon-Hee Kim, Yoon Kong, Young-An Bae
Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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