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Parasite master

Margarida T Grilo Ruivo, Iset Medina Vera, Joana Sales-Dias, Patrícia Meireles, Nil Gural, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Maria M Mota, Liliana Mancio-Silva
Manipulation of the master regulator of energy homeostasis AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is a strategy used by many intracellular pathogens for successful replication. Infection by most pathogens leads to an activation of host AMPK activity due to the energetic demands placed on the infected cell. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite is observed in cells infected with rodent malaria parasites. Indeed, AMPK activity upon the infection of hepatic cells is suppressed and dispensable for successful infection...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
R J Vaughan-Higgins, N Masters, A W Sainsbury
Exposure to parasites in conservation translocations increases the risks to recipient and translocated populations from disease, and therefore there has been interest in implementing biosecurity methods. Using four case examples we described how biosecurity was applied in practical translocation scenarios prior to and during a translocation and also post-release. We implemented biosecurity, including quarantine barriers, at specific points in the translocation pathway where hazards, identified by the disease risk analysis, had the potential to induce disease...
August 4, 2016: EcoHealth
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Tauseef Ahmad Malik
Despite presence of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines in the market, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. There is wide-spread resistance to already known anticoccidial drugs. It is an infectious disease of poultry and rigorous management is required during vaccination. In addition there is possibility of drug residues in meat and other byproducts of such treated animals and consequently makes more imperative to explore and understand the role of natural products in livestock parasite management...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Jun-Hong Ch'ng, Kirsten Moll, Maria Del Pilar Quintana, Sherwin Chun Leung Chan, Ellen Masters, Ernest Moles, Jianping Liu, Anders B Eriksson, Mats Wahlgren
The spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites could lead to higher incidence of patients with malaria complications. However, there are no current treatments that directly dislodge sequestered parasites from the microvasculature. We show that four common antiplasmodial drugs do not disperse rosettes (erythrocyte clusters formed by malaria parasites) and therefore develop a cell-based high-throughput assay to identify potential rosette-disrupting compounds. A pilot screen of 2693 compounds identified Malaria Box compound MMV006764 as a potential candidate...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tania F de Koning-Ward, Matthew W A Dixon, Leann Tilley, Paul R Gilson
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have developed elaborate strategies that they use to survive and thrive within different intracellular environments. During the blood stage of infection, the parasite is a master renovator of its erythrocyte host cell, and the changes in cell morphology and function that are induced by the parasite promote survival and contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In this Review, we discuss how Plasmodium parasites use the protein trafficking motif Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), protease-mediated polypeptide processing, a novel translocon termed the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) and exomembranous structures to export hundreds of proteins to discrete subcellular locations in the host erythrocytes, which enables the parasite to gain access to vital nutrients and to evade the immune defence mechanisms of the host...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Tania Charpentier, Akil Hammami, Simona Stäger
Organisms typically react to foreign pathogens by initiating an inflammatory response. However, in order to limit inflammatory tissue injury, it is essential for the organism to maintain the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of this process can result in the strong inhibition of protective pro-inflammatory responses, and ultimately in pathogen persistence. Chronic infections are often associated with inflammation and tissue disruption. Inflamed tissues are characterized by low levels of oxygen and glucose, a microenvironment that triggers the stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α...
June 22, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Kassahun Asmare, Berhanu Sibhat, Mesele Abera, Aynalem Haile, Hailu Degefu, Tsegaw Fentie, Jemere Bekele, Getachew Terefe, Barbara Szonyi, Lucy J Robertson, Barbara Wieland
Metacestodes, the larval stages of canid cestode parasites, are among the causes of morbidity, mortality and financial losses in small ruminants in Ethiopia as a result of organ and carcass condemnation at slaughter. Several studies have been conducted over the years; however, these studies often had limited scope and coverage. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate the information so far available in order to provide a pooled prevalence estimate at national level and identify potential predictors...
July 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
André Pereira, Ângela Martins, Hugo Brancal, Hugo Vilhena, Pedro Silva, Paulo Pimenta, Duarte Diz-Lopes, Nuno Neves, Mónica Coimbra, Ana Catarina Alves, Luís Cardoso, Carla Maia
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Susana Campino, Ernest Diez Benavente, Samuel Assefa, Eloise Thompson, Laura G Drought, Catherine J Taylor, Zaria Gorvett, Celine K Carret, Christian Flueck, Al C Ivens, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Pietro Alano, David A Baker, Taane G Clark
BACKGROUND: Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation of a sub-population of asexual forms replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. The nature of the molecular mechanism underlying this key differentiation event required for malaria transmission is not fully understood. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing was used to examine the genomic diversity of the gametocyte non-producing 3D7-derived lines F12 and A4...
2016: Malaria Journal
Andreas Kyburz, Anne Müller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Mei-fen Shen, Ning-bo Huang, Xi-guang Feng, Yun Zhang, Li-fang Wang, Meng-tao Xiong, Tian-yun Li, Wei-gong Yang, Wei-dong Yang, Shao-yun Chen
OBJECTIVE: To master the dynamic endemic status and influencing factors of schistosomiasis in Yunnan Province, so as to provide the evidence for making the control and prevention measures. METHODS: Four villages of four schistosomiasis heavy endemic counties were selected as survey sites. Then, the serological screening and etiological tests were carried out in the residents, and the basic situations of the survey sites were investigated. The infection status of the livestock and relevant information of Oncomelania hupensis snails were surveyed...
October 2015: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Amruta S Mhashilkar, Swamy R Adapa, Rays H Y Jiang, Steven A Williams, Weam Zaky, Barton E Slatko, Ashley N Luck, Andrew R Moorhead, Thomas R Unnasch
A homologue of the ecdysone receptor has been identified and shown to be responsive to 20-hydroxyecdysone in Brugia malayi. However, the role of this master regulator of insect development has not been delineated in filarial nematodes. Gravid adult female B. malayi cultured in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone produced significantly more microfilariae and abortive immature progeny than control worms, implicating the ecdysone receptor in regulation of embryogenesis and microfilarial development. Transcriptome analyses identified 30 genes whose expression was significantly up-regulated in 20-hydroxyecdysone-treated parasites compared with untreated controls...
May 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Hazel Wilkie, Anton Gossner, Stephen Bishop, John Hopkins
This study used selected lambs that varied in their resistance to the gastrointestinal parasite Teladorsagia circumcincta. Infection over 12 weeks identified susceptible (high adult worm count, AWC; high fecal egg count, FEC; low body weight, BW; low IgA) and resistant sheep (no/low AWC and FEC, high BW and high IgA). Resistance is mediated largely by a Th2 response and IgA and IgE antibodies, and is a heritable characteristic. The polarization of T cells and the development of appropriate immune responses is controlled by the master regulators, T-bet (TBX21), GATA-3 (GATA3), RORγt (RORC2) and RORα (RORA); and several inflammatory diseases of humans and mice are associated with allelic or transcript variants of these transcription factors...
2016: PloS One
Tauseef Ahmad Malik, Azra N Kamili, M Z Chishti, Syed Tanveer, Shazia Ahad, R K Johri
Despite the advent of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Berberine, a natural alkaloid is well known in studies involving synergistic approaches, thereby reducing the dosage of principal drugs. Therefore, a study was designed to see whether a synergistic anticoccidial effect could be obtained between amprolium and berberine, in vivo using broiler chicken. Anticoccidial activity was measured in comparison to the reference drug amprolium on the basis of oocyst output reduction, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio...
April 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yan Peng, Julia Grassl, A Harvey Millar, Boris Baer
The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted...
January 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Leah S Imlay, Christopher M Armstrong, Mary Clare Masters, Ting Li, Kathryn E Price, Rachel L Edwards, Katherine M Mann, Lucy X Li, Christina L Stallings, Neil G Berry, Paul M O'Neill, Audrey R Odom
As resistance to current therapies spreads, novel antimalarials are urgently needed. In this work, we examine the potential for therapeutic intervention via the targeting of Plasmodium IspD (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidyltransferase), the second dedicated enzyme of the essential methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Enzymes of this pathway represent promising therapeutic targets because the pathway is not present in humans. The Malaria Box compound, MMV008138, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth, and PfIspD has been proposed as a candidate intracellular target...
April 10, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Mariana Bobadilla Suarez, John G Ewen, Jim J Groombridge, K Beckmann, J Shotton, N Masters, T Hopkins, Anthony W Sainsbury
Through the exploration of disease risk analysis methods employed for four different UK herpetofauna translocations, we illustrate how disease hazards can be identified, and how the risk of disease can be analysed. Where ecological or geographical barriers between source and destination sites exist, parasite populations are likely to differ in identity or strain between the two sites, elevating the risk from disease and increasing the number and category of hazards requiring analysis. Simplification of the translocation pathway through the avoidance of these barriers reduces the risk from disease...
December 22, 2015: EcoHealth
Alessandro D Uboldi, James M McCoy, Martin Blume, Motti Gerlic, David J P Ferguson, Laura F Dagley, Cherie T Beahan, David I Stapleton, Paul R Gooley, Antony Bacic, Seth L Masters, Andrew I Webb, Malcolm J McConville, Christopher J Tonkin
Transmissible stages of Toxoplasma gondii store energy in the form of the carbohydrate amylopectin. Here, we show that the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase CDPK2 is a critical regulator of amylopectin metabolism. Increased synthesis and loss of degradation of amylopectin in CDPK2 deficient parasites results in the hyperaccumulation of this sugar polymer. A carbohydrate-binding module 20 (CBM20) targets CDPK2 to amylopectin stores, while the EF-hands regulate CDPK2 kinase activity in response to Ca(2+) to modulate amylopectin levels...
December 9, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Michael J Coffey, Brad E Sleebs, Alessandro D Uboldi, Alexandra Garnham, Magdalena Franco, Nicole D Marino, Michael W Panas, David Jp Ferguson, Marta Enciso, Matthew T O'Neill, Sash Lopaticki, Rebecca J Stewart, Grant Dewson, Gordon K Smyth, Brian J Smith, Seth L Masters, John C Boothroyd, Justin A Boddey, Christopher J Tonkin
Infection by Toxoplasma gondii leads to massive changes to the host cell. Here, we identify a novel host cell effector export pathway that requires the Golgi-resident aspartyl protease 5 (ASP5). We demonstrate that ASP5 cleaves a highly constrained amino acid motif that has similarity to the PEXEL-motif of Plasmodium parasites. We show that ASP5 matures substrates at both the N- and C-terminal ends of proteins and also controls trafficking of effectors without this motif. Furthermore, ASP5 controls establishment of the nanotubular network and is required for the efficient recruitment of host mitochondria to the vacuole...
2015: ELife
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Samreen Akhtar
DNA barcoding is a new master key for species identification and has greatly accelerated the pace of species discovery. In this novel and cost-effective technique, a short DNA sequence from a standard region of mitochondrial "CO1" gene called "barcode" is used. At present, researchers all over the world are utilizing this powerful tool for investigating biodiversity, differentiating cryptic species, testing food authenticity, identifying parasites, vectors, insect pests, and predators, monitoring of illegal trade of animals and their products, and identifying forensically important insects...
October 16, 2015: Mitochondrial DNA
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