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Cerebral small vascular disease

Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Marco Duering, Marek J Konieczny, Steffen Tiedt, Ebru Baykara, Anil Man Tuladhar, Esther van Leijsen, Philippe Lyrer, Stefan T Engelter, Benno Gesierich, Melanie Achmüller, Christian Barro, Ruth Adam, Michael Ewers, Martin Dichgans, Jens Kuhle, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Nils Peters
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a blood marker for neuroaxonal damage. We assessed the association between serum NfL and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which is highly prevalent in elderly individuals and a major cause of stroke and vascular cognitive impairment. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we studied 53 and 439 patients with genetically defined SVD (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy [CADASIL]) and sporadic SVD, respectively, as well as 93 healthy controls...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Jong S Kim, Eric Jouvent, M Edip Gurol
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and lacunar infarction (LI) are the major acute clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel diseases (cSVDs). Hypertensive small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and hereditary causes, such as Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), constitute the three common cSVD categories. Diagnosing the underlying vascular pathology in these patients is important because the risk and types of recurrent strokes show significant differences...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
Qiquan Zhu, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Lei Huang, Tongyu Zhang, Chengmei Sun, Zhiyi Xie, Pei Wu, Jun Mo, Jiping Tang, Zongyi Xie, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption are two critical mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced brain injury, which are closely related to patient prognosis. Recently, angiogenic factor with G-patch and FHA domain 1 (Aggf1) was shown to inhibit inflammatory effect and preserve vascular integrity in non-nervous system diseases. This study aimed to determine whether Aggf1 could attenuate neuroinflammation and preserve BBB integrity after experimental SAH, as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective roles...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ghazal Aarabi, Götz Thomalla, Guido Heydecke, Udo Seedorf
Chronic oral infections (gingivitis/periodontitis) have been associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke. In addition, imaging surrogates of cerebrovascular ischemia beyond acute ischemic stroke (i.e. silent strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities) may also be associated with chronic oral infections. The pathology underlying lacunar strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities relates to small vessel disease in the brain. In this review, we highlight recent progress in exploring potential associations of oral infections with cerebral small vessel disease and its surrogates (silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities) and clinical sequelae (i...
June 7, 2018: Oral Diseases
Suning Ping, Xuecheng Qiu, Maria E Gonzalez-Toledo, Xiaoyun Liu, Li-Ru Zhao
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a cerebral small vascular disease caused by NOTCH3 mutation-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) degeneration, leading to ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. Our previous study has demonstrated that repeated treatment with a combination of stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces VSMC degeneration and cerebral endothelial cell (EC) damage and improves cognitive function in a mouse model of CADASIL (TgNotch3R90C)...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
David C Hondius, Kristel N Eigenhuis, Tjado H J Morrema, Roel C van der Schors, Pim van Nierop, Marianna Bugiani, Ka Wan Li, Jeroen J M Hoozemans, August B Smit, Annemieke J M Rozemuller
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits as plaques in the parenchyma and in the walls of cortical and leptomeningeal blood vessels of the brain called cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is suggested that CAA type-1, which refers to amyloid deposition in both capillaries and larger vessels, adds to the symptomatic manifestation of AD and correlates with disease severity. Currently, CAA cannot be diagnosed pre-mortem and disease mechanisms involved in CAA are elusive. To obtain insight in the disease mechanism of CAA and to identify marker proteins specifically associated with CAA we performed a laser dissection microscopy assisted mass spectrometry analysis of post-mortem human brain tissue of (I) AD cases with only amyloid deposits in the brain parenchyma and no vascular related amyloid, (II) AD cases with severe CAA type-1 and no or low numbers of parenchymal amyloid deposits and (III) cognitively healthy controls without amyloid deposits...
June 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Clemma J Muller, Tara M Madhyastha, Dean Shibata, Shelley A Cole, Jinying Zhao, W T Longstreth, Dedra Buchwald
Telomeres are repeating regions of DNA that cap chromosomes. They shorten over the mammalian life span, especially in the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation. Telomeres may play a direct role in cell senescence, serving as markers of premature vascular aging. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may be associated with premature vascular brain injury and cerebral atrophy. However, reports have been inconsistent, especially among minority populations with a heavy burden of illness related to vascular aging...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Gargi Banerjee, Hyemin Jang, Hee Jin Kim, Sung Tae Kim, Jae Seung Kim, Jae Hong Lee, Kiho Im, Hunki Kwon, Jong Min Lee, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David John Werring
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that combining individual imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may more accurately reflect its overall burden and better correlate with clinical measures. OBJECTIVE: We established the clinical relevance of the total SVD score in a memory clinic population by investigating the association with SVD score and cognitive performance, cortical atrophy, and structural network measures, after adjusting for amyloid-β...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Pieter Nelis, Ilka Kleffner, Matthias C Burg, Christoph R Clemens, Maged Alnawaiseh, Jeremias Motte, Martin Marziniak, Nicole Eter, Florian Alten
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) represents the most recent tool in ophthalmic imaging. It allows for a non-invasive, depth-selective and quantitative visualization of blood flow in central retinal vessels and it has an enormous diagnostic potential not only in ophthalmology but also with regards to neurologic and systemic diseases. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary vascular small-vessel disease caused by Notch3 mutations and represents the most common form of hereditary stroke disorder...
May 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Annemieke Ter Telgte, Esther M C van Leijsen, Kim Wiegertjes, Catharina J M Klijn, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is commonly observed on neuroimaging among elderly individuals and is recognized as a major vascular contributor to dementia, cognitive decline, gait impairment, mood disturbance and stroke. However, clinical symptoms are often highly inconsistent in nature and severity among patients with similar degrees of SVD on brain imaging. Here, we provide a new framework based on new advances in structural and functional neuroimaging that aims to explain the remarkable clinical variation in SVD...
May 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
J Molad, E Ben-Assayag, A D Korczyn, E Kliper, N M Bornstein, H Hallevi, E Auriel
BACKGROUND: The definition of transient ischemic attack was traditionally based on clinical features only. The wide use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) led to the definition of a new entity - transient symptoms associated with infarction (TSI). It is unclear why patients with similar radiological infarctions may have different clinical manifestation - ranging from complete symptoms resolution to major neurological sequelae. We sought to determine which factors differentiate acute diffuse weighted imaging (DWI) lesion presentation - stroke versus TSI...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Hee Jin Kim, Seongbeom Park, Hanna Cho, Young Kyoung Jang, Jin San Lee, Hyemin Jang, Yeshin Kim, Ko Woon Kim, Young Hoon Ryu, Jae Yong Choi, Seung Hwan Moon, Michael W Weiner, William J Jagust, Gil D Rabinovici, Charles DeCarli, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
Importance: Amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), which occasionally coexist, are the most common causes of cognitive impairments in older people. However, whether tau is observed in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI), as well as its associations with Aβ and CSVD, are not yet established. More importantly, the role of tau underlying cognitive impairments in SVCI is unknown. Objective: To investigate the extent and the role of tau in patients with SVCI using 18F-AV1451, which is a new ligand to detect neurofibrillary tangles in vivo...
May 14, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Anna E Leeuwis, Niels D Prins, Astrid M Hooghiemstra, Marije R Benedictus, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier
Introduction: Co-occurrence of cerebrovascular disease and depression led to the "vascular depression hypothesis". White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies. We studied the association between small vessel disease and depressive symptoms in a memory clinic population. Methods: We included >2000 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Mari Yoshida
Vascular dementia involves several mechanism of pathogenesis. Cerebral small vessel diseases play a central role in vascular dementia, including sporadic cerebral small vessel diseases, cerebral autosomal-dominant or autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL or CARASIL), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and amyloid β-related angiitis. Although these diseases have different pathomechanisms, chronic white matter hypoperfusion contributes to development of neuronal dysfunction as a common pathway in vascular dementia...
May 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Loes C A Rutten-Jacobs, Daniel J Tozer, Marco Duering, Rainer Malik, Martin Dichgans, Hugh S Markus, Matthew Traylor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Structural integrity of the white matter is a marker of cerebral small vessel disease, which is the major cause of vascular dementia and a quarter of all strokes. Genetic studies provide a way to obtain novel insights in the disease mechanism underlying cerebral small vessel disease. The aim was to identify common variants associated with microstructural integrity of the white matter and to elucidate the relationships of white matter structural integrity with stroke, major depressive disorder, and Alzheimer disease...
May 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Mario Mascalchi, Emilia Salvadori, Nicola Toschi, Marco Giannelli, Stefano Orsolini, Stefano Ciulli, Andrea Ginestroni, Anna Poggesi, Antonio Giorgio, Francesca Lorenzini, Marco Pasi, Nicola De Stefano, Leonardo Pantoni, Domenico Inzitari, Stefano Diciotti
Indexes derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are sensitive to changes of both T2-hyperintense and normal-appearing brain white matter (WM) in elderly subjects with variable cognitive status. We investigated correlations between global cognitive performance and DTI-derived indexes along the WM tracts in the brain of patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and small vessel disease (SVD). Seventy-six patients with vascular MCI and SVD were assessed through Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and underwent DTI examination on a 1...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Rosalind Brown, Helene Benveniste, Sandra E Black, Serge Charpak, Martin Dichgans, Anne Joutel, Maiken Nedergaard, Kenneth J Smith, Berislav V Zlokovic, Joanna M Wardlaw
Small vessel diseases are a group of disorders that result from pathological alteration of the small blood vessels in the brain, including the small arteries, capillaries and veins. Of the 35-36 million people that are estimated to suffer from dementia worldwide, up to 65% have an SVD component. Furthermore, SVD causes 20-25% of strokes, worsens outcome after stroke and is a leading cause of disability, cognitive impairment and poor mobility. Yet the underlying cause(s) of SVD are not fully understood.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has confirmed enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) as a hallmark feature of SVD...
May 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Karen Horsburgh, Joanna M Wardlaw, Tom van Agtmael, Stuart M Allan, Mike L J Ashford, Philip M Bath, Rosalind Brown, Jason Berwick, M Zameel Cader, Roxana O Carare, John B Davis, Jessica Duncombe, Tracy D Farr, Jill H Fowler, Jozien Goense, Alessandra Granata, Catherine N Hall, Atticus H Hainsworth, Adam Harvey, Cheryl A Hawkes, Anne Joutel, Rajesh N Kalaria, Patrick G Kehoe, Catherine B Lawrence, Andy Lockhart, Seth Love, Malcolm R Macleod, I Mhairi Macrae, Hugh S Markus, Chris McCabe, Barry W McColl, Paul J Meakin, Alyson Miller, Maiken Nedergaard, Michael O'Sullivan, Terry J Quinn, Rikesh Rajani, Lisa M Saksida, Colin Smith, Kenneth J Smith, Rhian M Touyz, Rebecca C Trueman, Tao Wang, Anna Williams, Steven C R Williams, Lorraine M Work
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major contributor to stroke, cognitive impairment and dementia with limited therapeutic interventions. There is a critical need to provide mechanistic insight and improve translation between pre-clinical research and the clinic. A 2-day workshop was held which brought together experts from several disciplines in cerebrovascular disease, dementia and cardiovascular biology, to highlight current advances in these fields, explore synergies and scope for development. These proceedings provide a summary of key talks at the workshop with a particular focus on animal models of cerebral vascular disease and dementia, mechanisms and approaches to improve translation...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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