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Cerebral small vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810566/correlation-analysis-between-the-ldl-c-in-serum-and-the-onset-of-transient-ischemic-attack-caused-by-csvd
#1
Yaqi Chen, Mei Hu, Hongying Gong
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum and the onset of transient ischemic attack caused by cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD). Between September 2012 and September 2015, 249 patients who were diagnosed as CSVD were randomly enrolled in this study. According to MRI results, patients were divided into the patient and control groups. In the patient group, the patients were further subdivided into the white matter lesion (WML) group (n=86) and lacunar infarction (LI) group (n=53)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810250/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-is-associated-with-dysregulation-in-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-other-major-cellular-pathways-in-specific-brain-regions
#2
Marie-Françoise Ritz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Felix Fluri, Manja Kloss, Markus Tolnay, Nils Peters, Stefan Engelter, Philippe Lyrer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by periventricular white matter (WM) changes and can lead to vascular dementia, the second most common form of age-dependent dementia. The pathogenesis of the disease remains poorly understood, and studies of its molecular basis are limited. By profiling gene expression of dissected postmortem brain tissue in SVD patients and comparisons with tissue of nonneurological controls, we aimed to identify genes and processes that are involved in the pathogenesis of SVD to gain new pathogenetic insights...
August 16, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782182/heterozygous-mutations-of-htra1-gene-in-patients-with-familial-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#3
Ilaria Di Donato, Silvia Bianchi, Gian Nicola Gallus, Alfonso Cerase, Ilaria Taglia, Francesca Pescini, Serena Nannucci, Carla Battisti, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni, Andrea Zini, Antonio Federico, Maria Teresa Dotti
AIMS: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the leading cause of vascular dementia. Although the most of cases are sporadic, familial monogenic causes have been identified in a growing minority of patients. CADASIL, due to mutations of NOTCH3 gene, is the most common genetic SVD, and CARASIL, linked to HTRA1 gene mutations, is a rare but well known autosomal recessive SVD. Recently, also heterozygous HTRA1 mutations have been described in patients with familial SVD. To detect a genetic cause of familial SVD, we performed mutational analysis of HTRA1 gene in a large cohort of Italian NOTCH3-negative patients...
August 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775055/in-vivo-imaging-of-venous-side-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-older-adults-an-mri-method-at-7t
#4
C E Shaaban, H J Aizenstein, D R Jorgensen, R L MacCloud, N A Meckes, K I Erickson, N W Glynn, J Mettenburg, J Guralnik, A B Newman, T S Ibrahim, P J Laurienti, A N Vallejo, C Rosano
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traditional neuroimaging markers of small-vessel disease focus on late-stage changes. We aimed to adapt a method of venular assessment at 7T for use in older adults. We hypothesized that poorer venular morphologic characteristics would be related to other small-vessel disease neuroimaging markers and a higher prevalence of small-vessel disease-Alzheimer disease risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Venules were identified in periventricular ROIs on SWI and defined as tortuous or straight...
August 3, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769872/intracranial-arterial-dolichoectasia
#5
REVIEW
Victor J Del Brutto, Jorge G Ortiz, José Biller
An increased diameter (ectasis) and/or long and tortuous course (dolichosis) of at least one cerebral artery define intracranial arterial dolichoectasia (IADE). IADE could be detected incidentally or may give rise to an array of neurological complications including ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or compression of surrounding neural structures. The basilar artery is preferentially affected and has been studied in more detail, mainly due to the presence of accepted diagnostic criteria proposed by Smoker and colleagues in 1986 (1)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756941/peripheral-lipid-oxidative-stress-markers-are-related-to-vascular-risk-factors-and-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#6
Walter Swardfager, Di Yu, Gustavo Scola, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Parco Chan, Yi Zou, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Joel Ramirez, Fuqiang Gao, Mario Masellis, Richard H Swartz, Demetrios J Sahlas, Pak Cheung Chan, Carmen Ojeda-Lopez, Angela Milan-Tomas, Jacqueline A Pettersen, Ana C Andreazza, Sandra E Black
Subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMH), presumed to indicate small vessel ischemic vascular disease, are found commonly in elderly individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress may instigate or accelerate the development of vascular disease, and oxidative stress markers are elevated in AD. Here, we assess independent relationships between three serum lipid peroxidation markers (lipid hydroperoxides [LPH], 8-isoprostane, and 4-hydroxynonenal) and the presence of extensive subcortical WMH and/or AD...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749838/bevacizumab-for-the-treatment-of-gammaknife-radiosurgery-induced-brain-radiation-necrosis
#7
Yifang Ma, Chutian Zheng, Yiping Feng, Qingsheng Xu
BACKGROUND: Radiation necrosis is one of the complications of Gammaknife radiosurgery. The traditional treatment of radiation necrosis carries a high risk of failure, Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, a known mediator of cerebral edema. It can be used to successfully treat brain radiation necrosis. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: Two patients with a history of small cell lung cancer presented with metastatic disease to the brain...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740770/versatility-of-the-latissimus-dorsi-free-flap-during-the-treatment-of-complex-postcraniotomy-surgical-site-infections
#8
Nobutaka Yoshioka
BACKGROUND: Some intractable cases of postcraniotomy infection, which can involve compromised skin, an open frontal air sinus, and residual epidural dead space, have been reported. In such cases, reconstructing the scalp and skull is challenging. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2016, the author treated 12 patients with recalcitrant postcraniotomy surgical site infections with latissimus dorsi (LD) free flaps. The patients' ages ranged from 37 to 79 years (mean, 63.5 years), and their underlying diseases included subarachnoid hemorrhaging (n = 5), brain tumors (n = 4), and cerebral arteriovenous malformations (n = 3)...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731570/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-and-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-of-the-cerebral-vasculature-using-ferumoxytol
#9
Saifeng Liu, Jean-Christophe Brisset, Jiani Hu, E Mark Haacke, Yulin Ge
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the potential of imaging cerebral arteries and veins with ferumoxytol using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationships between ferumoxytol concentration and the apparent susceptibility at 1.5T, 3T, and 7T were determined using phantom data; the ability of visualizing subvoxel vessels was evaluated using simulations; and the feasibility of using ferumoxytol to enhance the visibility of small vessels was confirmed in three healthy volunteers at 7T(with doses 1 mg/kg to 4 mg/kg)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#10
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708772/successful-laparoscopic-harvesting-of-omental-pedicle-flap-for-salvage-cerebral-revascularization-in-2-adults-with-moyamoya-disease-technique-and-lessons-learned
#11
Max Schumm, Kathleen Simon, Rapheal Sacho, Jon C Gould
Moyamoya is an idiopathic and progressive disease that leads to occlusion of intracranial arteries. When other methods of revascularization fail, omentum can be used as an indirect bypass to improve cerebral perfusion. Laparoscopic mobilization of a pedicled omental flap with subcutaneous tunneling to the brain has been described in small case series in children. We report our techniques and outcomes in 2 adults with Moyamoya to undergo such a procedure. An omental flap based on the right gastroepiploic artery was created and intraoperative fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green was used to assess the viability of the flap and to guide lengthening of the pedicle...
July 13, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704261/no-independent-association-between-pulse-wave-velocity-and-dementia-a-population-based-prospective-study
#12
Erik D Nilsson, Sölve Elmståhl, Lennart Minthon, Mats Pihlsgård, Peter M Nilsson, Oskar Hansson, Katarina Nägga
OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV), a marker of aortic stiffness, has been associated with cognitive test results and markers of cerebral small vessel disease, but its association with dementia has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to assess the association of CFPWV with prevalent and incident dementia in a large population-based study. METHODS: In total, CFPWV was measured in 3056 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study 2007-2012 (age range 61-85 years)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698285/therapeutic-antibody-targeting-of-notch3-signaling-prevents-mural-cell-loss-in-cadasil
#13
Arturo I Machuca-Parra, Alexander A Bigger-Allen, Angie V Sanchez, Anissa Boutabla, Jonathan Cardona-Vélez, Dhanesh Amarnani, Magali Saint-Geniez, Christian W Siebel, Leo A Kim, Patricia A D'Amore, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez
Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a neurological syndrome characterized by small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia caused by mutations in NOTCH3 No therapies are available for this condition. Loss of mural cells, which encompass pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, is a hallmark of CADASIL and other SVDs, including diabetic retinopathy, resulting in vascular instability. Here, we showed that Notch3 signaling is both necessary and sufficient to support mural cell coverage in arteries using genetic rescue in Notch3 knockout mice...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694612/cerebral-and-coronary-vasculature-in-disease-associations-and-dissociations-in-the-south-indian-population
#14
Krishnan Srinivasan, Srinivasan Ravikumar, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Selva Ganapathy, G S Ravi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute the most common cause of disability all over the world. In India prevalence rate is 545 per 100000 and mortality rate is around 7.5 per thousand. Therefore the authors undertook a study on patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). They were investigated for clinical and/or radiological evidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) with the aim to decide on early neurological intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 210 patients who had undergone CABG were evaluated with neck vessel Doppler using high resolution duplex scanner system and computed tomography (CT) scan as well as MR angiogram (MRA) in addition to assessment of co morbid risk factors...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664034/fully-automatic-acute-ischemic-lesion-segmentation-in-dwi-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#15
Liang Chen, Paul Bentley, Daniel Rueckert
Stroke is an acute cerebral vascular disease, which is likely to cause long-term disabilities and death. Acute ischemic lesions occur in most stroke patients. These lesions are treatable under accurate diagnosis and treatments. Although diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) is sensitive to these lesions, localizing and quantifying them manually is costly and challenging for clinicians. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to automatically segment stroke lesions in DWI. Our framework consists of two convolutional neural networks (CNNs): one is an ensemble of two DeconvNets (Noh et al...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#16
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633305/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-vascular-dementia-due-to-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#17
Puttachandra Prabhakar, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Rita Christopher
Background: the diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of vascular dementia (VaD), relies solely on neuroimaging studies. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as diagnostic biomarkers in various disorders. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed, circulating miRNAs in small vessel VaD which could serve as diagnostic biomarkers for this disease. Method: we performed plasma miRNA profiling by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array in small vessel VaD patients and age- and gender-matched, cognitively normal and healthy controls...
June 13, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620783/advanced-neuroimaging-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Gordon W Blair, Maria Valdez Hernandez, Michael J Thrippleton, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by damage to deep grey and white matter structures of the brain and is responsible for a diverse range of clinical problems that include stroke and dementia. In this review, we describe advances in neuroimaging published since January 2015, mainly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that, in general, are improving quantification, observation and investigation of SVD focussing on three areas: quantifying the total SVD burden, imaging brain microstructural integrity and imaging vascular malfunction...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619834/temporal-and-spatial-variances-in-arterial-spin-labeling-are-inversely-related-to-large-artery-blood-velocity
#19
A D Robertson, G Matta, V S Basile, S E Black, C K Macgowan, J A Detre, B J MacIntosh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relationship between extracranial large-artery characteristics and arterial spin-labeling MR imaging may influence the quality of arterial spin-labeling-CBF images for older adults with and without vascular pathology. We hypothesized that extracranial arterial blood velocity can explain between-person differences in arterial spin-labeling data systematically across clinical populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed consecutive pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling and phase-contrast MR imaging on 82 individuals (20 - 88 years of age, 50% women), including healthy young adults, healthy older adults, and older adults with cerebral small vessel disease or chronic stroke infarcts...
June 15, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608406/pregnancy-in-cadasil
#20
I Donnini, V Rinnoci, S Nannucci, R Valenti, F Pescini, G Mariani, S Bianchi, M T Dotti, A Federico, D Inzitari, L Pantoni
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebral small vessel disease caused by NOTCH3 gene mutations. CADASIL women are frequently considered at high risk of systemic vascular events during pregnancy and often prescribed with antithrombotic drugs. This decision is not evidence-based considering the lack of data about pregnancy outcome in CADASIL. We describe our experience on pregnancy in CADASIL patients...
June 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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