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Cerebral small vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430290/frequency-and-topography-of-small-cerebrovascular-lesions-in-vascular-and-in-mixed-dementia-a-post-mortem-7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-with-neuropathological-correlates
#1
Jacques De Reuck, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#2
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424613/the-relationship-between-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-hippocampal-volume-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-copd-an-mri-study
#3
Fiona A H M Cleutjens, Rudolf W H M Ponds, Martijn A Spruit, Saartje Burgmans, Heidi I L Jacobs, Ed H B M Gronenschild, Julie Staals, Frits M E Franssen, Jeanette B Dijkstra, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Paul A Hofman, Emiel F M Wouters, Daisy J A Janssen
The neural correlates of cognitive impairment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not yet understood. Structural brain abnormalities could possibly be associated with the presence of cognitive impairment through cigarette smoke, inflammation, vascular disease, or hypoxemia in these patients. This study aimed to investigate whether macrostructural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and hippocampal volume (HCV) are related to cognitive performance in patients with COPD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424147/treatment-of-leukoencephalopathy-with-calcifications-and-cysts-with-bevacizumab
#4
Alex J Fay, Allison A King, Joshua S Shimony, Yanick J Crow, Jan E Brunstrom-Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts is a rare, autosomal recessive cerebral microangiopathy that causes progressive white matter disease, calcifications, and cysts within the brain. It is typically associated with slowly progressive psychomotor regression, seizures, and movement disorders. Although leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts affects only the central nervous system, it demonstrates remarkable neuropathologic and radiologic overlap with Coats plus, a disorder of small vessels of the brain, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and bone...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414666/just-a-puff-of-smoke
#5
A Leonard
CASE: A 44 year old woman with a history of stroke s/p aneurysm clipping, seizure, and substance abuse was brought to the hospital after a family member received a call from her friend saying she was acting unusual and may have had a seizure while hanging out on the street. At her baseline, she needed modest assistance in daily activities after her CVA and conversed without issue. Her mother died of a stroke. On exam the patient was afebrile, normotensive with mild tachycardia to 110...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386036/silent-brain-infarctions-and-leukoaraiosis-in-patients-with-retinal-ischemia-a-prospective-single-center-observational-study
#6
Amir Golsari, Diana Bittersohl, Bastian Cheng, Pia Griem, Christoph Beck, Andrea Hassenstein, Max Nedelmann, Tim Magnus, Jens Fiehler, Christian Gerloff, Götz Thomalla
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the incidence of co-occurring cerebral ischemia, extent of cerebral small vessel disease, and vascular risk profile of patients with acute retinal ischemia. METHODS: RETIS (Frequency of Acute Silent Brain Infarction and Systematic Evaluation of Stroke Risk in Retinal Ischemia) was a single-center, prospective, observational study comprising ophthalmologic examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive diagnostic work-up of vascular risk factors and stroke cause...
April 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378255/vitamin-d-levels-in-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy-cadasil
#7
Maria Alessandra Carluccio, Ilaria Di Donato, Francesca Pescini, Marco Battaglini, Silvia Bianchi, Raffaella Valenti, Serena Nannucci, Beatrice Franci, Maria Laura Stromillo, Nicola De Stefano, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni, Ranuccio Nuti, Antonio Federico, Stefano Gonnelli, Maria Teresa Dotti
Besides its well known function on bone metabolism, vitamin D role in cerebrovascular pathologies including cerebral small vessel disease has been confirmed by recent meta-analysis. In this study, we measured vitamin D levels in 56 Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) patients (mean age 49.9) with no or minimal disability (modified Ranking Score, mRS ≤2) and in 56 age, sex and seasonality matched healthy controls. History of ischemic events was recorded and cognitive functions were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination...
April 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356461/parental-family-history-of-dementia-in-relation-to-subclinical-brain-disease-and-dementia-risk
#8
Frank J Wolters, Sven J van der Lee, Peter J Koudstaal, Cornelia M van Duijn, Albert Hofman, M Kamran Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of parental family history with risk of dementia by age at onset and sex of affected parent in a population-based cohort. METHODS: From 2000 to 2002, we assessed parental history of dementia in participants without dementia of the Rotterdam Study. We investigated associations of parental history with risk of dementia until 2015, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and known genetic risk variants. Furthermore, we determined the association between parental history and markers of neurodegeneration and vascular disease on MRI...
March 29, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356272/choline-and-its-metabolites-are-differently-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mri-documented-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#9
Annie J Roe, Shucha Zhang, Rafeeque A Bhadelia, Elizabeth J Johnson, Alice H Lichtenstein, Gail T Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Caren E Smith, Steven H Zeisel, Tammy M Scott
Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism.Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology.Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain (n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348005/vascular-basement-membrane-alterations-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulations-in-an-animal-model-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#10
Friederike Held, Alan W J Morris, Daniel Pirici, Solveig Niklass, Matthew M G Sharp, Cornelia Garz, Anne Assmann, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Frank Schreiber, Roxana Octavia Carare, Stefanie Schreiber
Non-amyloid cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may be interrelated by the damaged basement membranes (BMs) and extracellular matrix changes of small vessels, resulting in a failure of β-amyloid (Aβ) transport and degradation. We analysed BM changes and the pattern of deposition of Aβ in the walls of blood vessels in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), a non-transgenic CSVD model. In 45 SHRSP and 38 Wistar rats aged 18 to 32 weeks 1) the percentage area immunostained for vascular collagen IV and laminin was quantified, 2) the capillary BM thickness as well as endothelial and pericyte pathological changes were analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 3) the presence of vascular Aβ was assessed...
March 27, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#11
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#12
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329254/periodic-limb-movements-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-first-ever-minor-stroke-or-high-risk-transient-ischemic-attack
#13
Mark I Boulos, Brian J Murray, Ryan T Muir, Fuqiang Gao, Gregory M Szilagyi, Menal Huroy, Alexander Kiss, Arthur S Walters, Sandra E Black, Andrew S Lim, Richard H Swartz
Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that periodic limb movements (PLMs) may contribute to the development of cerebrovascular disease. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a widely accepted biomarker for cerebral small vessel disease, are associated with incident stroke and death. We evaluated the association between increased PLM indices and WMH burden in patients presenting with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), while controlling for vascular risk factors and stroke severity...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#14
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302914/new-insights-into-mechanisms-of-small-vessel-disease-stroke-from-genetics
#15
REVIEW
Rhea Tan, Matthew Traylor, Loes Rutten-Jacobs, Hugh Markus
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282806/abnormalities-of-cerebral-deep-medullary-veins-on-7-tesla-mri-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#16
Willem H Bouvy, Hugo J Kuijf, Jaco J M Zwanenburg, Huiberdina L Koek, L Jaap Kappelle, Peter R Luijten, M Kamran Ikram, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) contributes to cognitive impairment and dementia. SVD may affect veins, but veins are difficult to detect with 1.5 and 3T MRI. We compared deep medullary veins (DMVs) visualized on 7T-MRI between patients with early Alzheimer's sisease (eAD; n = 17) or amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 12) and controls (n = 40). The number and density of DMVs was similar in patients and controls, but tortuosity was higher in eAD (Cohen's d = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.1-1.2, p = 0.02) and aMCI (Cohen's d = 0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281108/recognizing-cadasil-a-secondary-cause-of-migraine-with-aura
#17
REVIEW
John Glenn Burkett, Carrie Dougherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is an important disease to consider in the differential diagnosis of migraine with aura. This review examines current literature regarding migraine in CADASIL, as well as diagnostic and treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that smoking is a modifiable risk factor for progression of CADASIL (Chabriat et al. in Stroke 47:4-11, 2015)...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260527/genetics-of-vascular-dementia-review-from-the-icvd-working-group
#19
REVIEW
M Arfan Ikram, Anna Bersano, Raquel Manso-Calderón, Jian-Ping Jia, Helena Schmidt, Lefkos Middleton, Benedetta Nacmias, Saima Siddiqi, Hieab H H Adams
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia is a common disorder resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Determining the extent to which genes play a role in disease susceptibility and their pathophysiological mechanisms could improve our understanding of vascular dementia, leading to a potential translation of this knowledge to clinical practice. DISCUSSION: In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of vascular dementia. The identification of causal genes remains limited to monogenic forms of the disease, with findings for sporadic vascular dementia being less robust...
March 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#20
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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