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Cerebral small vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452984/quantitative-cerebrovascular-pathology-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-older-adults
#1
Swati Rane, Natalie Koh, Peter Boord, Tara Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Suman Jayadev, Brenna Cholerton, Eric Larson, Thomas J Grabowski
Cerebrovascular disease, especially small vessel pathology, is the leading comorbidity in degenerative disorders. We applied arterial spin labeling and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) imaging to quantify small vessel disease and study its effect on cognitive symptoms in nondemented older adults from a community-based cohort. We evaluated baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling and percent signal change as a marker of CVR using blood-oxygen level-dependent imaging following a breath-hold stimulus...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#2
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439160/co-occurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-dysfunction-after-stroke-associations-with-brain-pathology-and-prognosis
#3
Elles Douven, Pauline Aalten, Julie Staals, Syenna H J Schievink, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Sebastian Köhler
OBJECTIVE: To examine, first, whether the co-occurrence of executive dysfunction (ED) and poststroke depression (PSD) shows different associations with neuroimaging markers and the course of depression and executive function, and second, whether it is associated with a different course on other cognitive domains and quality of life. METHODS: The present study included 245 stroke patients (35.9% female, mean age 67.5 years (SD=11.9). All patients completed neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months poststroke, which were repeated at 6-month and 12-month follow-up...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438074/lacunar-infarcts-but-not-perivascular-spaces-are-predictors-of-cognitive-decline-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#4
Philip Benjamin, Sarah Trippier, Andrew J Lawrence, Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen A Williams, Bhavini Patel, Robin G Morris, Thomas R Barrick, Andrew D MacKinnon, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small-vessel disease is a major cause of cognitive impairment. Perivascular spaces (PvS) occur in small-vessel disease, but their relationship to cognitive impairment remains uncertain. One reason may be difficulty in distinguishing between lacunes and PvS. We determined the relationship between baseline PvS score and PvS volume with change in cognition over a 5-year follow-up. We compared this to the relationship between baseline lacune count and total lacune volume with cognition...
February 2, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430730/cerebral-ischemia-during-hemodialysis-finding-the-signal-in-the-noise
#5
EDITORIAL
Clare MacEwen, Peter Watkinson, Lionel Tarassenko, Christopher Pugh
Hemodialysis patients have multiple risk factors for small vessel cerebrovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction. Hemodialysis itself may cause clinically significant neurological injury through repetitive cerebral ischemia. However, supporting evidence to date consists of epidemiological associations, expert opinion, and small, single-centre studies of variable methodological quality. Isolating the impact of intra-dialytic hemodynamic instability from underlying renal and vascular disease on clinically relevant functional outcomes would require very large, controlled studies, given the heterogeneity and confounding comorbidities of the population, and the complex relationship between blood pressure and cerebral oxygen delivery...
February 11, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425278/carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-silent-brain-infarctions-in-a-biracial-cohort-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#6
Melissa C Caughey, Ye Qiao, B Gwen Windham, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley, Bruce A Wasserman
Background: Both hypertensive and atherosclerotic processes contribute to common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Elevated CCA-IMT may be indicative of subclinical cerebrovascular disease; however, its role in the absence of concomitant carotid artery plaque is uncertain, and few studies have examined associations in black populations. Materials and Methods: At cohort visit 3 (1993-1995) a subset of stroke-free participants (641 blacks and 702 whites, mean age 63) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was imaged by brain MRI and carotid ultrasound...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422904/emerging-role-of-immunity-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Ying Fu, Yaping Yan
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the main causes of vascular dementia in older individuals. Apart from risk containment, efforts to prevent or treat CSVD are ineffective due to the unknown pathogenesis of the disease. CSVD, a subtype of stroke, is characterized by recurrent strokes and neurodegeneration. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, chronic inflammatory responses, and leukocyte infiltration are classical pathological features of CSVD. Understanding how BBB disruption instigates inflammatory and degenerative processes may be informative for CSVD therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406252/osteoarthritis-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-the-common-denominator-of-inflammation-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
B K Al-Khazraji, C T Appleton, F Beier, T B Birmingham, J K Shoemaker
OBJECTIVE: Population-based cohort studies suggest an association between osteoarthritis (OA) and cerebrovascular disease, yet the mechanisms underlying vascular comorbidities in OA remain unclear. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the literature examining inflammation in OA with a focus on physiological mechanisms, and whether overlapping mechanisms exist in cerebrovascular dysfunction. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed using combinations of search terms: osteoarthritis, cerebrovascular (disease/dysfunction/risk), cardiovascular (disease/dysfunction/risk), aging/ageing, inflammation, inflammatory mediators, cytokine, c-reactive protein, interleukin, advanced glycation end-products, metabolic syndrome, reactive oxidative species, cognitive impairment, (vascular-related) dementia, small cerebral vessel disease, endothelial function, blood-brain barrier, gender/sex, hypertension, peripheral vascular health, and physical activity...
January 31, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393465/puerarin-inhibits-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-growth-via-the-induction-of-apoptosis
#9
Yefang Hu, Xi Li, Ling Lin, Siting Liang, Jian Yan
Puerarin, an isoflavone isolated from Kudzu roots, has been demonstrated to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases. Recently research has revealed that puerarin exerts an anticancer role in many different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of puerarin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment of puerarin significantly inhibited the growth of NSCLC cell lines as determined by CCK-8 kit in vitro. Flow cytometry results indicated that puerarin treatments promoted NSCLC cell apoptosis...
January 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382936/white-matter-hyperintensity-shape-and-location-feature-analysis-on-brain-mri-proof-of-principle-study-in-patients-with-diabetes
#10
Jeroen de Bresser, Hugo J Kuijf, Karlijn Zaanen, Max A Viergever, Jeroen Hendrikse, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral small vessel disease is a heterogeneous disease in which various underlying etiologies can lead to different types of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). WMH shape features might aid in distinguishing these different types. In this proof of principle study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we present a novel approach to assess WMH using shape features. Our algorithm determines WMH volume and different WMH shape and location features on 3T MRI scans. These features were compared between patients with T2DM (n = 60) and a matched control group (n = 54)...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380913/vascular-dementia-clinicopathologic-and-genetic-considerations
#11
Harry V Vinters, Chris Zarow, Ewa Borys, Jeffrey D Whitman, Spencer Tung, William G Ellis, Ling Zheng, Helena C Chui
The incidence and severity of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) increase with advancing age, as does the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Not surprisingly, heterogeneous forms of CVD may coexist with AD changes in the 'aging brain'. These include angiopathies (affecting both large and small arteries) that result from 'classical' risk factors (hypertension, smoking, diabetes) and others (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that are biochemically closely linked to AD. The morphologic consequences of these various vascular diseases are infarcts and/or haemorrhages of varying sizes within the brain, which lead to neurocognitive decline that may mimic AD-though the vascular abnormalities are usually detectable by neuroimaging...
January 30, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377234/lncrna-snhg1-regulates-cerebrovascular-pathologies-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-through-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-signaling-in-ischemic-stroke
#12
Lin Zhang, Xianliang Luo, Feng Chen, Wei Yuan, Xinli Xiao, Xiaohua Zhang, Yaru Dong, Yuanxiao Zhang, Yong Liu
Studies have shown that long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) play critical roles in multiple biologic processes. However, the Small Nucleolar RNA Host Gene 1 (SNHG1) function and underlying molecular mechanisms in ischemic stroke have not yet been reported. In the present study, we found that SNHG1 expression was remarkably increased both in isolated cerebral micro-vessels of a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice model, and in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-cultured mice brain micro-vascular endothelial cells (BMECs), meanwhile, the SNHG1 level was negatively correlated with miR-18a in MCAO mice...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376753/cardiovascular-diseases-in-patients-receiving-small-molecules-with-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-activity-a-meta-analysis-of-approximately-29-000-cancer-patients
#13
Matthias Totzeck, Raluca-Ileana Mincu, Simone Mrotzek, Dirk Schadendorf, Tienush Rassaf
Background Targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor activity improves survival of cancer patients. Cardiovascular complications are critical and it is unknown whether these require specific treatment strategies. We aimed to clarify the associated risk of cardiovascular adverse events in patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Design The design of this study was a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for randomised controlled trials published until January 2017 that assessed patients with different types of cancer treated with or without tyrosine kinase inhibitors in addition to standard chemotherapy...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373479/orthostatic-hypotension-in-older-persons-is-not-associated-with-cognitive-functioning-features-of-cerebral-damage-or-cerebral-blood-flow
#14
Jessica C Foster-Dingley, Justine E F Moonen, Wouter de Ruijter, Roos C van der Mast, Jeroen van der Grond
OBJECTIVE: Particularly in old age, orthostatic hypotension has been related to worse cognitive functioning, possibly caused by reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigates whether orthostatic hypotension in older people is associated with cognitive dysfunction and, if so, whether this association is mediated by cerebral vascular damage and/or decreased CBF. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty participants of the Discontinuation of ANtihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden (mean age 81 years, all using antihypertensive medication and with mild cognitive deficits), and MRI data from 214 participants of the nested DANTE MRI sub-study...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357202/framingham-stroke-risk-profile-is-related-to-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-lower-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-hypertension
#15
Renske Uiterwijk, Julie Staals, Marjolein Huijts, Peter W de Leeuw, Abraham A Kroon, Robert J van Oostenbrugge
The Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) was developed to predict clinical stroke. We investigated if FSRP is associated with more "silent" effects of cerebrovascular disease, namely progression of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD)-related brain damage and cognitive performance in hypertensive patients. Ninety patients with essential hypertension underwent a brain MRI scan and FSRP assessment at baseline, and a second brain MRI scan and neuropsychological assessment at 9-year follow-up. We visually rated progression of cSVD-related MRI markers...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357120/magnetic-resonance-perfusion-for-differentiating-low-grade-from-high-grade-gliomas-at-first-presentation
#16
REVIEW
Jill M Abrigo, Daniel M Fountain, James M Provenzale, Eric K Law, Joey Sw Kwong, Michael G Hart, Wilson Wai San Tam
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354215/the-role-of-biopsies-and-autopsies-in-the-diagnosis-of-cognitive-impairment-with-emphasis-on-small-vessel-diseases-a-critical-appraisal-enriched-by-personal-experience
#17
Leila Chimelli
Acquired and hereditary microangiopathies cause cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD) that impair cognition. The most frequent is primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS), whose diagnosis remains challenging, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Secondary vasculitis, CADASIL, miscellaneous microangiopathies and lymphomas, also cause cognitive impairment. Despite the fact that the need for biopsy has decreased in the era of new neuroimaging methods, biopsies that include small leptomeningeal and parenchymal arterial vessels still remain the gold standard to diagnose PACNS and other CSVD, and to exclude mimics such as infections and malignancies...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354213/neuroimaging-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-update-and-new-concepts
#18
Mika Shibuya, Claudia da Costa Leite, Leandro Tavares Lucato
In recent years, small vessel disease (SVD) has been recognized for its major impact on cognitive impairment in elderly people, where it is often difficult to separate its effects from those of neurodegenerative diseases individually. SVD is a systemic disease, probably related to diffuse endothelial dysfunction, which affects the perforating arterioles, capillaries and venules in the brain. Although often asymptomatic, it is responsible for almost half of all dementia cases and a significant proportion of stroke cases...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350576/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-on-high-salt-diet
#19
Fanny Herisson, Iris Zhou, Jerome Mawet, E Du, Arnavaz H Barfejani, Tao Qin, Marilyn J Cipolla, Philip Z Sun, Natalia S Rost, Cenk Ayata
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) on high-salt diet are characterized by extremely high arterial pressures, and have been endorsed as a model for hypertensive small vessel disease and vascular cognitive impairment. However, rapidly developing malignant hypertension is a well-known cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in humans, associated with acute neurological deficits, seizures, vasogenic cerebral edema and microhemorrhages. In this study, we aimed to examine the overlap between human PRES and SHRSP on high-salt diet...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323198/paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-pnh-brain-mri-ischemic-lesions-in-neurologically-asymtomatic-patients
#20
Wilma Barcellini, Elisa Scola, Silvia Lanfranconi, Marika Grottaroli, Francesca Binda, Bruno Fattizzo, Anna Zaninoni, Gloria Valcamonica, Claudia Maria Cinnante, Carla Boschetti, Massimiliano Buoli, Carlo Alfredo Altamura, Nereo Bresolin, Fabio Triulzi, Alberto Zanella, Agostino Cortelezzi
This study investigated for the first time brain ischemic involvement in 19 consecutive neurologically asymptomatic PNH patients by non-enhanced cerebral MRI, and by intracranial arterial and venous angio-MRI. Eleven cases (58%, 7 aged <65) showed pathological findings: 9 white matter (WM) abnormalities related to chronic ischemic small vessel disease, 2 a focal abnormality >5 mm, and 5 cases a score >4 by the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale. Compared with age and sex-matched controls (1:2 ratio), patients showed an increased frequency of periventricular WM vascular degeneration (32% versus 5...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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