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Katarzyna Kowalik, Antoni Krzeski
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common defect among laryngological and phoniatric patients. Although LPR is categorized as a superficial gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), differential diagnosis should treat these two diseases separately. LPR symptoms can be assessed in the interview using as a tool the reflux symptom index (RSI). In addition, changes in the larynx that occur during LPR might be seen during laryngoscopy and classified according to the reflux finding score (RFS). One of the main mucosal irritants in LPR is pepsin which digests proteins and impairs the functions of the upper respiratory tract cells by affecting carbonate anhydrase (CAIII) and the Sep 70 protein...
December 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
Xiangkun Yang, Sean X Naughton, Zhen Han, Maomao He, Y George Zheng, Alvin V Terry, Michael G Bartlett
Acetylation of α-tubulin at Lys-40 is a potential biomarker for cognitive deficits in various neurological disorders. However, this key PTM has not been previously studied with mass spectrometry, due to the inadequate distribution of tryptic cleavage sites. Following peptic digestion, a surrogate sequence containing this key PTM site was identified, and was found to be stable and quantitatively reproducible. A highly sensitive and specific SISCAPA-LC-MS method for quantitating rat brain tubulin acetylation was developed, validated and applied, and only required a small amount of tissue (2...
January 10, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Chang-Yu Zhou, Dao-Dong Pan, Yang-Ying Sun, Chun-Bao Li, Xing-Lian Xu, Jin-Xuan Cao, Guang-Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate the effect of cooking temperatures on the nutrition quality of dry-cured hams, 60 biceps femoris samples from 16 Jinhua hams were divided into four groups (the control, 70, 100 and 120 °C) and cooked for 30 min. Carbonyls content, sulfhydryl groups, surface hydrophobicity, microstructure, proteins aggregation and digestibility of myofibrillar proteins were investigated. RESULTS: Cooking promoted the carbonylation and decreased sulfhydryl groups in temperatures-dependent ways...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bei Zheng, Haina Zhang, Lei Wang, Yanfei Guo, Peng Chen
Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum, TB) is an important functional food containing proteins with balanced amino acid composition and more flavonoids than common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, CB). Buckwheat contains highly potent allergens that trigger an allergic reaction via an IgE mediated response. In this work, the full-length cDNA encoding Fag t 2 from tartary buckwheat seeds was cloned by screening the cDNA library of seed-filling period. The recombinant Fag t 2 (rFag t 2) expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H was purified by purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Haijiao Yan, Jianmin Yun, Duiyuan Ai, Wenwei Zhang, Jie Bai, Juan Guo
Public concern for food safety and environmental issues and the increase in fungicide-resistant pathogen have enhanced the interest in developing alternative methods to fungicides to control postharvest fruit decay. In this study, a bacterial strain isolated from stale potato vermicelli was identified as Bacillus pumilus HN-10 based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Furthermore, two novel cationic antifungal peptides named P-1 and P-2 were purified from B. pumilus HN-10 using macroporous adsorbent resin AB-8, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 4, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Joon-Kyung Lee, Sang-Hyuk Jung, Sang-Eun Lee, Joo-Hui Han, Eunji Jo, Hyun-Soo Park, Kyung-Sun Heo, Deasun Kim, Jeong-Sook Park, Chang-Seon Myung
Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Yoshitomo Hamuro, Stephen J Coales
The practice of HDX-MS remains somewhat difficult, not only for newcomers but also for veterans, despite its increasing popularity. While a typical HDX-MS project starts with a feasibility stage where the experimental conditions are optimized and the peptide map is generated prior to the HDX study stage, the literature usually reports only the HDX study stage. In this protocol, we describe a few considerations for the initial feasibility stage, more specifically, how to optimize quench conditions, how to tackle the carryover issue, and how to apply the pepsin specificity rule...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Matthias Becker, Janita A Maring, Barbara Oberwallner, Benjamin Kappler, Oliver Klein, Volkmar Falk, Christof Stamm
Acellular extracellular matrix preparations are useful for studying cell-matrix interactions and facilitate regenerative cell therapy applications. Several commercial extracellular matrix products are available as hydrogels or membranes, but these do not possess tissue-specific biological activity. Because perfusion decellularization is usually not possible with human heart tissue, we developed a 3-step immersion decellularization process. Human myocardial slices procured during surgery are first treated with detergent-free hyperosmolar lysis buffer, followed by incubation with the ionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and the process is completed by exploiting the intrinsic DNase activity of fetal bovine serum...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani Herath, Jeong Ha Lee, Jinhee Cho, Areum Kim, Su Min Shin, Bohyung Kim, You-Jin Jeon, Youngheun Jee
BACKGROUND: Porphyra yezoensis is a red algae consumed mainly in Korea, Japan, and China for food. In the present study, we studied the immunological effect of pepsin extract of P. yezoensis (PPEE) on murine splenocytes. RESULTS: PPEE was not toxic on murine splenocytes and dramatically increased the proliferation of splenocytes compared to untreated control. Flow cytometry assay performed to sum up the effect of PPEE (31.3 and 62.5 μg/ml) on major immune cells revealed that PPEE had no effect on the function of CD3e+ CD4+ T-helper cells, CD3e+ CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells, CD44+ CD62L- effector T cells in splenocytes compared to untreated control...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Elena Yagudaeva, Dmitry Zybin, Alexander Vikhrov, Anna Prostyakova, Anatoly Ischenko, Vitaly Zubov, Dmitry Kapustin
Polyaniline (PANI) and polyaramides deposited on the surfaces of glass slides and particulate silica were studied as adsorbents of nucleic acids and proteins by flow-through spectral correlation interferometry and solid-state extraction using spin-cartridges. Double stranded DNA from E. coli as well as pepsin, bovine serum albumin and lysozyme were the analytes studied in contact with the polymer nanolayers in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.2. None of the coated glass slides could bind the DNA, which passed them practically without adsorption...
December 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Shuang Li, Shaobo Zhou, Wei Yang, Dali Meng
PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia argyi, a kind of ethnic drug, has a long-term use on gastric diseases and syndromes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to validate the traditional uses of A. argyi scientifically and to discover more efficient nature derived gastro-protective ethnomedicine and further elucidate the possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into control, model (ethanol-induced), reference (omeprazole-treated) and A...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
P Kumar, R Kaalia, A Srinivasan, I Ghosh
Health care systems have benefitted from rational drug discovery processes like vHTS, virtual high throughput screening pharmacophores and quantitative structure-activity relationships, and many challenges have been explored using such techniques: decisions on specificity and selectivity are made after screening millions of molecules for multiple targets. Recent challenges in drug research emphasize the design of drugs that bind with more than one target of interest (multi-target) and do not bind with undesirable targets...
December 15, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Kathryn M Huson, Charlotte Wild, Caroline Fenn, Mark W Robinson
Paramphistomosis, caused by Calicophoron daubneyi, is an emerging infection of ruminants throughout Western Europe. Despite its prevalence, many questions remain regarding the basic biology of this parasite and how it interacts with its host. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods to study C. daubneyi in vitro to improve our understanding of rumen fluke biology. Towards this, we aimed to identify a suitable protocol for in vitro excystment of C. daubneyi metacercariae. Six methods that have been used to excyst metacercariae from a number of trematode species were tested with C...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
Jing Wang, Yu Zhao, Jianjun Ren, Yang Xu
OBJECTIVE: Pepsin in saliva has been proposed as a biomarker for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), but the results remain controversial. We assessed the diagnostic value of pepsin in saliva for LPR. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies in English that evaluated the utility of pepsin in saliva in the diagnosis of LPR, published up to 15 March 2017. We used Stata 12.0 to summarize the diagnostic indexes for the meta-analysis...
December 13, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Roberta Prete, Rosanna Tofalo, Ermanno Federici, Aurora Ciarrocchi, Giovanni Cenci, Aldo Corsetti
Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, representing the prevailing microbiota associated with different foods generally consumed without any cooking, were identified and characterized in vitro for some functional properties, such as acid-bile tolerance and antigenotoxic activity. In particular, 22 Lactobacillus plantarum strains and 14 yeasts were studied. The gastro-intestinal tract tolerance of all the strains was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37°C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0), containing pepsin (0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alberto Berardi, David J Evans, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, George P Lomonossoff
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant virus which is being extensively investigated as a drug delivery and vaccine nanocarrier for parenteral administration. However, to date little is known about the suitability of plant-based nanocarriers for oral delivery. In this study, the colloidal (i.e. aggregation), physical (i.e. denaturation) and chemical (i.e. digestion of the polypeptides) stability of CPMV and its empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) in conditions resembling the gastrointestinal fluids were evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Takafumi Mizushige, Masaki Komiya, Moe Onda, Kenji Uchida, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yukihito Kabuyama
Fish protein is a source of animal protein that is consumed worldwide. Although it has been reported that the intake of Alaska pollack protein (APP) reduces body fat accumulation and increases muscle weight in rats, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. As a possibility, peptides released from APP in the gastrointestinal tract are important to the functions of APP. In the present study, we examined the effects of APP hydrolysate digested artificially with pepsin and pancreatin on white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
Fátima Arrutia, Rebeca Fernández, Carlos Menéndez, Ulises A González, Francisco A Riera
In order to exploit industrial discards, protein enzymatic hydrolysis is a currently popular methodology for obtaining bioactive peptides. However, once released, most promising peptides have to be selected from the mixture. In this work, the suitability of pepsin (EC to hydrolyse serum albumin in order to obtain bioactive peptides was assessed. Then, a suitable process to obtain best separation of bioactive peptides was evaluated, using polyethersulfone membranes at different pH values. Serum albumin was easily hydrolysed by pepsin, reaching a DH value of the 65...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaojing Du, Yangying Sun, Daodong Pan, Ying Wang, Changrong Ou, Jinxuan Cao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the change of bioavailability and structure of myofibrillar proteins during Nanjing dry-cured duck processing, carbonyl content, sulfhydryl (SH) group, disulfide (S-S) group, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures and in vitro digestibility were determined. RESULTS: During processing, carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased; SH turned into S-S group; α-helix turned into β-sheet and random coil fractions...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jinjin Pei, Hai Jiang, Xinsheng Li, Wengang Jin, Yanduo Tao
Yak butter is one of the most important foods for the Tibetan people. Of note, its production yields waste yak milk as a by-product. In this work, waste yak milk protein hydrolysates made via Pepsin hydrolysis were shown to have antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, an innovative method of magnetic liposome adsorption combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed to screen for and purify the antimicrobial peptides. Two antimicrobial peptides were obtained and their amino acid sequences were determined by N-sequencing, namely Arg-Val-Met-Phe-Lys-Trp-Ala and Lys-Val-Ile-Ser-Met-Ile...
December 6, 2017: AMB Express
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