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S M Hayen, A M Ehlers, C F den Hartog Jager, J Garssen, E F Knol, A C Knulst, W Suer, L E M Willemsen, H G Otten
BACKGROUND: Screening for specific IgE against 2S albumin proteins Ara h 2 and 6 has good positive predictive value in diagnosing peanut allergy. From the third 2S member Ara h 7, three isoforms have been identified. Their allergenicity has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the allergenicity of Ara h 7 isoforms compared to Ara h 2 and 6. METHODS: Sensitization of 15 DBPCFC confirmed peanut allergic patients to recombinant Ara h 2...
March 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
L Wang, W Wu, G Wang
Objective: To investigate the significance of the detection of pepsin in saliva and the pharyngeal pH monitoring in the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease(LPRD). Methods: A total of 176 patients (140 patients with simple pharyngitis and 36 patients with space-occupying lesions of larynx) who were suspected to have laryngopharyngeal reflux between February and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients were evaluated with reflux symptom index (RSI), reflux finding score (RFS) and 24-hour pharyngeal pH monitoring(Dx-pH)...
February 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
O Azdad, N Mejrhit, L Aarab
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of cow's milk α-lactalbumin (α-LA) in a Moroccan population. A total of 557 patients were recruited from the University Hospital Complex and the Ibn El Khatib Hospital of Fez city. This population consented to realize a dosage of IgE levels to raw cow milk and then to α-LA native and treated with the studied treatments. The results revealed that 54.4% of the studied subjects presented positive values of serial IgE to raw cow milk...
March 1, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Xiangrong Li, Kaiwei Wang, Yanru Peng
The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is a topic of high relevance for the medical application of nanomaterials. In the study, a comprehensive investigation was performed for the binding properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to pepsin. The results indicate that the binding of AgNPs to pepsin may be a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that AgNPs binds to pepsin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions...
March 9, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Marit Reitsma, Shanna Bastiaan-Net, Lutske Sijbrandij, Evelien de Weert, Stefano Sforza, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Huub F J Savelkoul, Nicolette W de Jong, Harry J Wichers
The protein content and allergen composition was studied of cashews from 8 different origins (Benin, Brazil, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam), subjected to different in-shell heat treatments (steamed, fried, drum-roasted). On 2D electrophoresis, 9 isoforms of Ana o 1, 29 isoforms of Ana o 2 (11 of the acidic subunit, 18 of the basic subunit), and 8 isoforms of the large subunit of Ana o 3 were tentatively identified. Based on 1D and 2D electrophoresis, no difference in allergen content (Ana o 1, 2, 3) was detected between the cashews of different origins (P > 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
March 8, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Simona Arena, Andrea Scaloni
Hen egg is a raw material widely used for preparation of food, pharmaceutical and cosmetoceutical products. Dedicated proteomic studies on egg fractions identified most abundant proteins. No similar studies have been performed at the peptidomic level so far. This study fills this gap and provides a comprehensive picture of the peptides present in the yolk plasma of different hen egg types after 24 and 264 h of laying, using a two-step fractionation followed by combined MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS and nanoLC-ESI-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Natashya Anak Evaristus, Wan Nadiah Wan Abdullah, Chee-Yuen Gan
The potential of N. lappacheum and N. mutabile seed as a source of α-amylase inhibitor peptides was explored based on the local traditional practice of using the seed. Different gastro-digestive enzymes (i.e. pepsin or chymotrypsin) or a sequential digestion were used to extract the peptides. The effects of digestion time and enzyme to substrate (E:S) ratio on the α-amylase inhibitory activity were investigated. Results showed that chymotrypsin was effective in producing the inhibitor peptides from rambutan seed protein at E:S ratio 1:20 for 1 h, whereas pepsin was more effective for pulasan seed protein under the same condition...
March 3, 2018: Peptides
Edyta Andrulewicz-Botulińska, Róża Wiśniewska, Malgorzata M Brzóska, Joanna Rogalska, Anna Galicka
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that damages bone tissue by affecting its mineral and organic components. The organic matrix is mainly (90%) composed of collagen, which determines the biomechanical strength of bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation (30 or 60 mg l-1 ) under moderate and relatively high exposure to Cd (5 and 50 mg l-1 ) on collagen in the rat tibia proximal epiphysis and diaphysis (regions abundant in trabecular and cortical bone, respectively). Significant decrease in collagen type I biosynthesis was found in both regions of the tibia in Cd-treated rats, whereas the supplementation with Zn provided significant protection against this effect...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Raman Pachaiappan, Ekant Tamboli, Aurovind Acharya, Chia-Hung Su, Subash C B Gopinath, Yeng Chen, Palaniyandi Velusamy
Enzyme hydrolysates (trypsin, papain, pepsin, α-chymotrypsin, and pepsin-pancreatin) of Tinospora cordifolia stem proteins were analyzed for antioxidant efficacy by measuring (1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging activity, (2) 2,20-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) radical scavenging capacity, and (3) Fe2+ chelation. Trypsin hydrolysate showed the strongest DPPH• scavenging, while α-chymotrypsin hydrolysate exhibited the highest ABTS+ scavenging and Fe2+ chelation...
2018: PloS One
K Mounika, Sreedevi Chennuru, Venu Ravipati, Srinivasa Rao Tumati, Sudhakar Krovvidi
The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine sarcocystosis and identify the different species of Sarcocystis cysts in cattle in different regions of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 150 slaughtered cattle over a period of 1 year were examined both macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of Sarcocystis infection. Out of 150 slaughtered cattle examined, macroscopic sarcocysts were observed in nine cattle and were exclusively found in oesophagus. Examination of tissue samples collected from different predilection sites from each of 150 cattle by pepsin-HCl digestion method revealed presence of live banana shaped bradyzoites under light microscopy in 134 cattle...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Naomi A L O'Brart, David P S O'Brart, Nada H Aldahlawi, Sally Hayes, Keith M Meek
Purpose: To investigate riboflavin concentration on enzymatic resistance following corneal cross-linking (CXL). Methods: Ninety-six porcine eyes were divided into five groups in two treatment runs. Group 1 remained untreated. Group 2 received riboflavin 0.05%, group 3 riboflavin 0.1%, group 4 riboflavin 0.2%, and group 5 riboflavin 0.3%. Treated eyes underwent CXL with ultraviolet A at 9 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes. Eight-millimeter discs from each cornea were submerged in pepsin digest solution...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Fang Qian, Ying Wang, Zi-Jian Wen, Shu-Juan Jiang, Yan-Feng Tuo, Guang-Qing Mu
Plastein reaction is a modification reaction that can improve the functional properties of protein hydrolysate. The product of the reaction is a thixotropic aggregation of peptides. This study investigated the formation condition of soybean-whey plastein and bile acid binding capacity of plastein. Soy protein and whey protein were hydrolyzed by pepsin. The mixture (1:1, w/w) of two hydrolysates was modified by pepsin again. After the reaction, the decrease in free amino groups and the turbidity of the modified hydrolysate were measured to obtain appropriate reaction condition...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Chinnamaruthu Jayachitra, Senguttuvan Jamuna, Mohammad Ajmal Ali, Subramaniam Paulsamy, Fahad M A Al-Hemaid
Cissus setosa is an indigenous medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of gastro ulcers. In the current investigation the aerial methanolic extract of C. setosa was investigated for their antiulcer activity using pylorus ligation and ethanol in experimental rats. The extract was administered at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 3 days. However, higher dose of the extract subsequently reduced gastric ulcer induced aberrations by pylorus ligation (70.05%) and ethanol (78.16%) as judged by their altered biochemical parameters such as free acidity, total acidity, total carbohydrate, total protein and pepsin activity...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Longyan Zhao, Yujing Qin, Ruowei Guan, Wenqi Zheng, Jikai Liu, Jinhua Zhao
The digestibility of fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) and its effects on digestive enzymes were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. Results showed that the molecular weight and the reducing sugar content of FG were not significantly changed, and no free monosaccharides released from FG were detected after the salivary, gastric and intestinal digestion, indicating that both the backbone and the sulfated fucose branches of FG are resistant to be cleaved in the saliva and gastrointestinal tract environments...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiao-Yin Wang, Jun-Yi Yin, Ming-Ming Zhao, Shi-Yu Liu, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ya Hao, Na Yang, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ruoyu Mao, Jianhua Wang
Lactoferricin (Lfcin), a multifunction short peptide with a length of 25 residues, is derived from the whey protein lactoferrin by acidic pepsin hydrolysis. It has potent nutritional enhancement, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review describes the research advantages of the above biological functions, with attention to the molecular design and modification of Lfcin. In this examination of design and modification studies, research on the identification of Lfcin active derivatives and crucial amino acid residues is also reviewed...
February 17, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Cuiqin Shi, Siwei Liang, Xianghuai Xu, Qiang Chen, Lan Wang, Li Yu, Hanjing Lv, Zhongmin Qiu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate cough hypersensitivity and its potential mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). METHODS: Fifteen OSAHS patients, 12 simple snoring patients, and 15 healthy volunteers received cough sensitivity test and induced sputum cytology. Cough thresholds C2 and C5 (the minimum of capsaicin inducing ≥ 2 and ≥ 5 coughs, respectively), total cell count, cell differentials and the levels of bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E 2 , substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, pepsin, and interleukin-2 in the induced sputum detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared...
February 16, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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