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Riyo Komatsu, Tatsuma Okazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Makoto Kobayashi, Yoko Tsukita, Mayumi Nihei, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Kaijun Niu, Takae Ebihara, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Anna V Chetaikina, Helen Ye Sklyarova, Iryna V Shalko, Roman Ya Dutka
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a one of the main reasons of disability and mortality in the world. The essential attention is dedicated to the combination of COPD and erosive/ulcer defects with the haemorrhage risk factor. The aim was to compare gastric acidity and mucoid secretion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of gastropathy development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 94 patients with gastroduodenal erosive and ulcerous defects combined with COPD were examined...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Philip Woodland, Maartje Mj Singendonk, Joanne Ooi, Kornilia Nikaki, Terry Wong, Chung Lee, Esteban Glasinovic, Romy Koning, Rene Lutter, Marc A Benninga, Michiel P van Wijk, Daniel Sifrim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
G Schares, M Koethe, B Bangoura, A-C Geuthner, F Randau, M Ludewig, P Maksimov, M Sens, A Bärwald, F J Conraths, I Villena, D Aubert, M Opsteegh, J Van der Giessen
Chickens, especially if free-range, are frequently exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, and may represent an important reservoir for T. gondii. Poultry products may pose a risk to humans, when consumed undercooked. In addition, chickens are regarded as sensitive indicators for environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts and have been used as sentinels. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of commonly used antibody detection methods, i.e. the modified agglutination test (MAT), IFAT and ELISA to detect T...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Nikki Johnston, Peter W Dettmar, Frank G Ondrey, Rahul Nanchal, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Jonathan M Bock
Extra-esophageal reflux is suspected to cause a wide range of clinical symptoms in the upper airways. Diagnosis and treatment has focused on acid, but realization of the role of nonacid reflux has resulted in research investigating the use of pepsin as a biomarker for gastric reflux and aspiration. Pepsin analysis can complement the use of questionnaires and office-based diagnosis and lessen the dependency on invasive and expensive diagnostic tests. Furthermore, pepsin as a first-line diagnostic biomarker has been shown to improve the accuracy of reflux diagnosis...
May 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yue Yu, Fengjiao Fan, Di Wu, Cuiping Yu, Zhenyu Wang, Ming Du
Ruditapes philippinarum proteins were hydrolyzed by trypsin, neutrase, and pepsin. The antioxidant activities and ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates were analyzed and the antioxidant activities were related to their molecular weight distribution and amino acid compositions. Results indicated the hydrolysis of proteins led to an increase in small peptides and free amino acids. The antioxidant activities of Ruditapes philippinarum hydrolysates against DPPH radical scavenging, inhibition on linoleic acid peroxidation, and reducing power showed that the neutrase hydrolysate exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Z W Qi, H L Lu, J Zhang, S J Zhang
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of omeprazole in the treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Method: One hundred and sixty patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux in our hospital from March 2015 to January 2017 (diagnosis treatment for 8 weeks) were selected and randomly divided into group A, B, C, D, with 40 cases in each group. Each group of patients were treated with omeprazole enteric-coated capsules (20mg, Bid) for 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively. The reflux symptom index(RSI), reflux finding score(RFS) score, and 24h intraesophageal pH-metry , pepsin detection were compared between the four groups before treatment, at the end of treatment, at 1 month and 2 months after treatment...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Safaa Shafik Imam, Dina Mohamed Shinkar, Nevine Ahmed Mohamed, Hebatallah Elhamy Mansour
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of right lateral positioning in comparison with supine positioning on tracheal aspirate pepsin levels as a marker of aspiration of gastric contents in ventilated preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 ventilated preterm neonates <35 weeks; 30 neonates were nursed in right lateral position for 6 hours while the other 30 neonates were nursed in supine position for 6 hours. Tracheal aspirate sample was obtained from each neonate in both the groups just after the end of 6 hours and pepsin level was measured...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hamdi Tasli, Burcu Eser, Mehmet Burak Asik, Hakan Birkent
OBJECTIVES: Vocal fold nodules (VFNs) are benign disorders affecting the superficial lamina propria of the true vocal folds. The etiology of VFNs still remains unclear but laryngeal trauma caused by vocal abuse, tobacco, alcohol, and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) plays a crucial role on the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of pepsin in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FEPE) specimens of VFNs to evaluate the role of LPR as a risk factor for VFNs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 28 pathology specimens of patients suffering from VFNs who had undergone laser microsurgery under general anesthesia were evaluated...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Wen-Hao Zhao, Chang-Feng Chi, Yu-Qin Zhao, Bin Wang
Collagen is one of the most useful biomaterials and widely applied in functional food and cosmetics. However, some consumers have paid close attention to the safety of mammalian collagens because of the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and other prion diseases. Therefore, there is a strong demand for developing alternative sources of collagen, with one promising source being from the process by-products of commercial fisheries. In this report, acid-soluble collagen (ASC-SB) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC-SB) from swim bladders of miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy ) were isolated with yields of 1...
May 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Katarzyna Wołczuk, Maciej Ostrowski, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Teresa Napiórkowska
The alimentary tract of oxudercine gobies is characterized by a lack of an anatomically distinct stomach, owing to which they are classified as stomachless. Since the environment, food requirements, and feeding habits have a significant impact on the anatomy of the alimentary tract of fish, it was assumed that predominantly carnivorous, semi-terrestrial mudskippers would have a stomach. In order to verify this hypothesis, anatomical, histological, histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the alimentary tract of the Atlantic mudskipper Periophthalmus barbarus was performed...
April 26, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
R M Sarimov, T A Matveyeva, V N Binhi
Using an original laser interferometer of enhanced sensitivity, an increase in the refractive index of a protein solution was observed during the reaction of proteolysis catalyzed by pepsin. The increase in the refractive index of the protein solution at a concentration of 4 mg/ml was [Formula: see text] for bovine serum albumin and [Formula: see text] for lysozyme. The observed effect disproves the existing idea that the refractive index of protein solutions is determined only by their amino acid composition and concentration...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
Yasumi Horimoto, Regina Tan, Loong-Tak Lim
The typical intervention for iron-deficiency anaemia is through oral supplementation with iron salts, which have unpleasant side effects. Therefore, there is a need for the development of supplements which will be absorbed more effectively and may have fewer side effects. This study investigated the effects of partially hydrolysed pork proteins on the bioavailability of non-haem iron. The peptides were derived using either pepsin or a combination of bacterial and fungal proteases, and their ability to deliver iron was evaluated in a rat intestine epithelial tissue model...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Qiyi Li, Wang Liao, Hongbing Fan, Jianping Wu
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulation of blood pressure as it converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor). Food protein-derived ACE inhibitory peptides have been considered as a safer alternative to antihypertensive drugs. In our previous study, three ACE inhibitory peptides were characterized from egg white ovotransferrin and their antihypertensive activity has been validated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, it is too costly to prepare these peptides from purified egg white ovotransferrin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Jie Xu, Binghui Jin, Yingzheng Zhao
The chemical extraction method was used to prepare the rat uterine decellularized scaffolds, and to investigate the feasibility of preparing the extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel. The rat uterus were collected and extracted by 1%sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 3% TritonX-100 and 4% sodium deoxycholate (SDC) in sequence. Scanning electron microscopy, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry was used to assess the degree of decellularization of rat uterine scaffold. The prepared decellularized scaffold was digested with pepsin to obtain a uterine ECM hydrogel, and the protein content of ECM was determined by specific ELISA kit...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Mei Xiang Chen, Chen Jie Hou, Ting Chen, Yan Ping Li, Yan Ling Zeng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the content of pepsin in salivary, and to assess the laryngophargeal lesions based on the reflux founding score (RFS) scale in asymptomatic volunteers, in order to provide a reference for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux. METHODS: A total of 91 asymptomatic subjects were recruited in this study. Participants provided a fasting saliva specimen for pepsin measurement using enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, completed the reflux symptom index (RSI) assessment and underwent laryngostroboscopic examination using a rigid endoscope...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Ya-Fei Liu, Indrawati Oey, Phil Bremer, Pat Silcock, Alan Carne
Protein susceptibility to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of ovomucin-depleted egg white (OdEW) adjusted to pH 4, 5, 7 and 9 and processed by heat (60 and 80 °C for 10 min) or pulsed electric fields (PEF) (1.4-1.8 kV/cm, 259-695 kJ/kg) was studied by assessing peptide production, proteolytic pattern, and the final peptide profile. Ovotransferrin was more susceptible to pepsin hydrolysis than lysozyme, with ovalbumin showing the highest proteolytic resistance. Ovalbumin was, however, hydrolyzed by pancreatin to produce a stable fragment...
June 2018: Food Research International
Rui Yang, Yuqian Liu, Yunjing Gao, Zhiying Yang, Siqi Zhao, Yongjin Wang, Chris Blanchard, Zhongkai Zhou
In this work, a double shell material chitosan (CS)-recombinant soybean seed H-2 ferritin (H-2F) was fabricated to encapsulate epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) molecules. EGCG-loaded H-2F complex (EHF) was firstly prepared by taking advantages of the reversible self-assembly of the ferritin, and the EHF-CS composite (EHFC) was fabricated by electrostatic interactions with binding number n of (4.1 ± 0.11) and binding constant K of ((5.3 ± 0.2) × 105  M-1 ), respectively. It was calculated that about 12...
June 2018: Food Research International
Kyle W Anderson, Elyssia S Gallagher, Jeffrey W Hudgens
Membrane proteins are currently the most common targets for pharmaceuticals. However, characterization of their structural dynamics by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is sparse due to insufficient automated methods to handle full-length membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Additionally, membrane lipids used to mimic the membrane environment and to solubilize membrane proteins can impair chromatography performance and cause ion suppression in the mass spectrometer. The workflow discussed herein advances HDX-MS capabilities and other MS applications for membrane proteins by providing a fully automated method for HDX-MS analysis based on a phospholipid removal scheme compatible with robotic handling...
May 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Masayuki Ikeda, Hiroshi Iijima, Ichizo Shinoda, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yasuhiro Takeda
Bioactive natural products, habitually ingested with milk or its derivative nutrients, have been studied for their bioavailability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the co-administration of bovine milk-derived lactoferrin (bLF) and bioactive products, with a focus on catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme in the catechol metabolism. bLF showed inhibitory activity on COMT in vitro, and acidic pretreatment of bLF enhanced its inhibitory activity. Moreover, partially digested products of bLF by pepsin retained inhibitory activity...
April 30, 2018: Food & Function
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