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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623343/data-driven-nanomechanical-sensing-specific-information-extraction-from-a-complex-system
#1
Kota Shiba, Ryo Tamura, Gaku Imamura, Genki Yoshikawa
Smells are known to be composed of thousands of chemicals with various concentrations, and thus, the extraction of specific information from such a complex system is still challenging. Herein, we report for the first time that the nanomechanical sensing combined with machine learning realizes the specific information extraction, e.g. alcohol content quantification as a proof-of-concept, from the smells of liquors. A newly developed nanomechanical sensor platform, a Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS), was utilized...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579670/modeling-preference-and-willingness-to-pay-for-drought-tolerance-dt-in-maize-in-rural-zimbabwe
#2
Girma T Kassie, Awudu Abdulai, William H Greene, Bekele Shiferaw, Tsedeke Abate, Amsal Tarekegne, Chloe Sutcliffe
Maize plays a leading role in the food security of millions in southern Africa, yet it is highly vulnerable to the moisture stress brought about by the erratic rainfall patterns that characterize weather systems in the area. Developing and making drought-tolerant maize varieties available to farmers in the region has thus long been a key goal on the regional development agenda. Farm-level adoption of these varieties, however, depends on local perceptions of the value they add, along with willingness to pay (WTP) for it...
June 2017: World Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578401/rnaseq-analysis-reveals-pathways-and-candidate-genes-associated-with-salinity-tolerance-in-a-spaceflight-induced-wheat-mutant
#3
Hongchun Xiong, Huijun Guo, Yongdun Xie, Linshu Zhao, Jiayu Gu, Shirong Zhao, Junhui Li, Luxiang Liu
Salinity stress has become an increasing threat to food security worldwide and elucidation of the mechanism for salinity tolerance is of great significance. Induced mutation, especially spaceflight mutagenesis, is one important method for crop breeding. In this study, we show that a spaceflight-induced wheat mutant, named salinity tolerance 1 (st1), is a salinity-tolerant line. We report the characteristics of transcriptomic sequence variation induced by spaceflight, and show that mutations in genes associated with sodium ion transport may directly contribute to salinity tolerance in st1...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573536/exploring-the-heat-responsive-chaperones-and-microsatellite-markers-associated-with-terminal-heat-stress-tolerance-in-developing-wheat
#4
Ranjeet R Kumar, Suneha Goswami, Mohammad Shamim, Kavita Dubey, Khushboo Singh, Shweta Singh, Yugal K Kala, Ravi R K Niraj, Akshay Sakhrey, Gyanendra P Singh, Monendra Grover, Bhupinder Singh, Gyanendra K Rai, Anil K Rai, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Shelly Praveen
Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food security, and in many cases the negative impacts are already apparent. Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops and is highly sensitive to the heat stress (HS) during reproductive and grain-filling stages. Here, whole transcriptome analysis of thermotolerant wheat cv. HD2985 was carried out at the post-anthesis stage under control (22 ± 3 °C) and HS-treated (42 °C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina Hiseq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms...
June 1, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556819/extraction-of-rice-phenological-differences-under-heavy-metal-stress-using-evi-time-series-from-hj-1a-b-data
#5
Shuyuan Liu, Xiangnan Liu, Meiling Liu, Ling Wu, Chao Ding, Zhi Huang
An effective method to monitor heavy metal stress in crops is of critical importance to assure agricultural production and food security. Phenology, as a sensitive indicator of environmental change, can respond to heavy metal stress in crops and remote sensing is an effective method to detect plant phenological changes. This study focused on identifying the rice phenological differences under varied heavy metal stress using EVI (enhanced vegetation index) time-series, which was obtained from HJ-1A/B CCD images and fitted with asymmetric Gaussian model functions...
May 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538869/potential-mechanisms-linking-probiotics-to-diabetes-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#6
Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh, Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Sima Sabihi, Reza Ghiasvand
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested a wide range of possible mechanisms through which probiotics may play a role in diabetes prevention and treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted this study to review the potential mechanisms suggested for the effect of probiotics in diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan. METHODS: A search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google scholar was performed up to October 2016...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#7
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490967/comparative-study-of-fatty-acid-composition-of-table-eggs-from-the-jeddah-food-market-and-effect-of-value-addition-in-omega-3-bio-fortified-eggs
#8
Shahida Aziz Khan, Aziz Khan, Sarah A Khan, Mohd Amin Beg, Ashraf Ali, Ghazi Damanhouri
Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005), diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011), and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004) in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008)...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487720/finger-millet-a-certain-crop-for-an-uncertain-future-and-a-solution-to-food-insecurity-and-hidden-hunger-under-stressful-environments
#9
REVIEW
Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Sandeep Arora, Neelofar Mirza, Anjali Pande, Charu Lata, Swati Puranik, J Kumar, Anil Kumar
Crop growth and productivity has largely been vulnerable to various abiotic and biotic stresses that are only set to be compounded due to global climate change. Therefore developing improved varieties and designing newer approaches for crop improvement against stress tolerance have become a priority now-a-days. However, most of the crop improvement strategies are directed toward staple cereals such as rice, wheat, maize etc., whereas attention on minor cereals such as finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484792/the-stay-green-trait-and-phytohormone-signaling-networks-in-plants-under-heat-stress
#10
REVIEW
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi El-Sayed, Sudisha Jogaiah, David J Burritt, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The increasing demand for food and the heavy yield losses in primary crops due to global warming mean that there is an urgent need to improve food security. Therefore, understanding how plants respond to heat stress and its consequences, such as drought and increased soil salinity, has received much attention in plant science community. Plants exhibit stress tolerance, escape or avoidance via adaptation and acclimatization mechanisms. These mechanisms rely on a high degree of plasticity in their cellular metabolism, in which phytohormones play an important role...
July 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484474/transcriptomics-analyses-reveal-wheat-responses-to-drought-stress-during-reproductive-stages-under-field-conditions
#11
Jun Ma, Ruiqi Li, Hongguang Wang, Dongxiao Li, Xingyi Wang, Yuechen Zhang, Wenchao Zhen, Huijun Duan, Guijun Yan, Yanming Li
Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits wheat production worldwide. To ensure food security for the rapidly increasing world population, improving wheat yield under drought stress is urgent and relevant. In this study, an RNA-seq analysis was conducted to study the effect of drought on wheat transcriptome changes during reproductive stages under field conditions. Our results indicated that drought stress during early reproductive periods had a more severe impact on wheat development, gene expression and yield than drought stress during flowering...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455953/biotechnology-for-bioenergy-dedicated-trees-meeting-future-energy-demands
#12
Hani Al-Ahmad
With the increase in human demands for energy, purpose-grown woody crops could be part of the global renewable energy solution, especially in geographical regions where plantation forestry is feasible and economically important. In addition, efficient utilization of woody feedstocks would engage in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, decreasing the challenge of food and energy security, and resolving the conflict between land use for food or biofuel production. This review compiles existing knowledge on biotechnological and genomics-aided improvements of biomass performance of purpose-grown poplar, willow, eucalyptus and pine species, and their relative hybrids, for efficient and sustainable bioenergy applications...
April 29, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439286/snp-discovery-and-genetic-variation-of-candidate-genes-relevant-to-heat-tolerance-and-agronomic-traits-in-natural-populations-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum
#13
Pengshan Zhao, Jiwei Zhang, Chaoju Qian, Qin Zhou, Xin Zhao, Guoxiong Chen, Xiao-Fei Ma
The extreme stress tolerance and high nutritional value of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) make it attractive for use as an alternative crop in response to concerns about ongoing climate change and future food security. However, a lack of genetic information hinders understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the morphological and physiological adaptations of sand rice. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two individuals representing semi-arid [Naiman (NM)] and arid [Shapotou (SPT)] sand rice genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420201/a-transcriptomic-comparison-of-two-bambara-groundnut-landraces-under-dehydration-stress
#14
Faraz Khan, Hui Hui Chai, Ishan Ajmera, Charlie Hodgman, Sean Mayes, Chungui Lu
The ability to grow crops under low-water conditions is a significant advantage in relation to global food security. Bambara groundnut is an underutilised crop grown by subsistence farmers in Africa and is known to survive in regions of water deficit. This study focuses on the analysis of the transcriptomic changes in two bambara groundnut landraces in response to dehydration stress. A cross-species hybridisation approach based on the Soybean Affymetrix GeneChip array has been employed. The differential gene expression analysis of a water-limited treatment, however, showed that the two landraces responded with almost completely different sets of genes...
April 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418728/prevalence-and-predictors-of-food-insecurity-among-people-living-with-hiv-enrolled-in-antiretroviral-therapy-and-livelihood-programs-in-two-rural-zambian-hospitals
#15
Rainier Masa, Gina Chowa, Victor Nyirenda
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in Zambia. A cross-sectional sample of 101 PLHIV was surveyed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. In multivariable linear regression models, income, household possessions, and perceived coping strategies were significantly associated with decreased food insecurity. Debt and perceived mental distress were significantly associated with increased food insecurity...
May 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#16
Richard Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeffery Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Rob Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean T Greenberg, Linda Hanley-Bowdoin, Richard J Harrison, Jagger Harvey, Ping He, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D G Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan Leach, Wenbo Ma, John McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Christine Smart, Prasanta Subudhi, Lesley Torrance, Bret Tyler, Barbara Valent, John Walsh
Reader Comments | Submit a Comment The white paper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
July 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375427/plant-immunity-unravelling-the-complexity-of-plant-responses-to-biotic-stresses
#17
Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
Background: Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361244/condition-dependent-virulence-of-slow-bee-paralysis-virus-in-bombus-terrestris-are-the-impacts-of-honeybee-viruses-in-wild-pollinators-underestimated
#18
Robyn Manley, Mike Boots, Lena Wilfert
Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV)-previously considered an obligate honeybee disease-is now known to be prevalent in bumblebee species. SBPV is highly virulent in honeybees in association with Varroa mites, but has been considered relatively benign otherwise. However, condition-dependent pathogens can appear asymptomatic under good, resource abundant conditions, and negative impacts on host fitness may only become apparent when under stressful or resource-limited conditions. We tested whether SBPV expresses condition-dependent virulence in its bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, by orally inoculating bees with SBPV and recording longevity under satiated and starvation conditions...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314795/unique-physiological-and-transcriptional-shifts-under-combinations-of-salinity-drought-and-heat
#19
Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Eduardo Blumwald, Zvi Peleg
Climate-change-driven stresses such as extreme temperatures, water deficit, and ion imbalance are projected to exacerbate and jeopardize global food security. Under field conditions, these stresses usually occur simultaneously and cause damages that exceed single stresses. Here, we investigated the transcriptional patterns and morpho-physiological acclimations of Brachypodium dystachion to single salinity, drought, and heat stresses, as well as their double and triple stress combinations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of morpho-physiological acclimations showed that several traits exhibited a gradually aggravating effect as plants were exposed to combined stresses...
May 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303148/differentiating-wheat-genotypes-by-bayesian-hierarchical-nonlinear-mixed-modeling-of-wheat-root-density
#20
Anton P Wasson, Grace S Chiu, Alexander B Zwart, Timothy R Binns
Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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