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Stress and food security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538869/potential-mechanisms-linking-probiotics-to-diabetes-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#1
Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh, Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Sima Sabihi, Reza Ghiasvand
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested a wide range of possible mechanisms through which probiotics may play a role in diabetes prevention and treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted this study to review the potential mechanisms suggested for the effect of probiotics in diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan. METHODS: A search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google scholar was performed up to October 2016...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490967/comparative-study-of-fatty-acid-composition-of-table-eggs-from-the-jeddah-food-market-and-effect-of-value-addition-in-omega-3-bio-fortified-eggs
#3
Shahida Aziz Khan, Aziz Khan, Sarah A Khan, Mohd Amin Beg, Ashraf Ali, Ghazi Damanhouri
Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005), diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011), and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004) in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008)...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487720/finger-millet-a-certain-crop-for-an-uncertain-future-and-a-solution-to-food-insecurity-and-hidden-hunger-under-stressful-environments
#4
REVIEW
Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Sandeep Arora, Neelofar Mirza, Anjali Pande, Charu Lata, Swati Puranik, J Kumar, Anil Kumar
Crop growth and productivity has largely been vulnerable to various abiotic and biotic stresses that are only set to be compounded due to global climate change. Therefore developing improved varieties and designing newer approaches for crop improvement against stress tolerance have become a priority now-a-days. However, most of the crop improvement strategies are directed toward staple cereals such as rice, wheat, maize etc., whereas attention on minor cereals such as finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484792/the-stay-green-trait-and-phytohormone-signaling-networks-in-plants-under-heat-stress
#5
REVIEW
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi El-Sayed, Sudisha Jogaiah, David J Burritt, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The increasing demand for food and the heavy yield losses in primary crops due to global warming mean that there is an urgent need to improve food security. Therefore, understanding how plants respond to heat stress and its consequences, such as drought and increased soil salinity, has received much attention in plant science community. Plants exhibit stress tolerance, escape or avoidance via adaptation and acclimatization mechanisms. These mechanisms rely on a high degree of plasticity in their cellular metabolism, in which phytohormones play an important role...
May 8, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484474/transcriptomics-analyses-reveal-wheat-responses-to-drought-stress-during-reproductive-stages-under-field-conditions
#6
Jun Ma, Ruiqi Li, Hongguang Wang, Dongxiao Li, Xingyi Wang, Yuechen Zhang, Wenchao Zhen, Huijun Duan, Guijun Yan, Yanming Li
Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits wheat production worldwide. To ensure food security for the rapidly increasing world population, improving wheat yield under drought stress is urgent and relevant. In this study, an RNA-seq analysis was conducted to study the effect of drought on wheat transcriptome changes during reproductive stages under field conditions. Our results indicated that drought stress during early reproductive periods had a more severe impact on wheat development, gene expression and yield than drought stress during flowering...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455953/biotechnology-for-bioenergy-dedicated-trees-meeting-future-energy-demands
#7
Hani Al-Ahmad
With the increase in human demands for energy, purpose-grown woody crops could be part of the global renewable energy solution, especially in geographical regions where plantation forestry is feasible and economically important. In addition, efficient utilization of woody feedstocks would engage in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, decreasing the challenge of food and energy security, and resolving the conflict between land use for food or biofuel production. This review compiles existing knowledge on biotechnological and genomics-aided improvements of biomass performance of purpose-grown poplar, willow, eucalyptus and pine species, and their relative hybrids, for efficient and sustainable bioenergy applications...
April 29, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439286/snp-discovery-and-genetic-variation-of-candidate-genes-relevant-to-heat-tolerance-and-agronomic-traits-in-natural-populations-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum
#8
Pengshan Zhao, Jiwei Zhang, Chaoju Qian, Qin Zhou, Xin Zhao, Guoxiong Chen, Xiao-Fei Ma
The extreme stress tolerance and high nutritional value of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) make it attractive for use as an alternative crop in response to concerns about ongoing climate change and future food security. However, a lack of genetic information hinders understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the morphological and physiological adaptations of sand rice. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two individuals representing semi-arid [Naiman (NM)] and arid [Shapotou (SPT)] sand rice genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420201/a-transcriptomic-comparison-of-two-bambara-groundnut-landraces-under-dehydration-stress
#9
Faraz Khan, Hui Hui Chai, Ishan Ajmera, Charlie Hodgman, Sean Mayes, Chungui Lu
The ability to grow crops under low-water conditions is a significant advantage in relation to global food security. Bambara groundnut is an underutilised crop grown by subsistence farmers in Africa and is known to survive in regions of water deficit. This study focuses on the analysis of the transcriptomic changes in two bambara groundnut landraces in response to dehydration stress. A cross-species hybridisation approach based on the Soybean Affymetrix GeneChip array has been employed. The differential gene expression analysis of a water-limited treatment, however, showed that the two landraces responded with almost completely different sets of genes...
April 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418728/prevalence-and-predictors-of-food-insecurity-among-people-living-with-hiv-enrolled-in-antiretroviral-therapy-and-livelihood-programs-in-two-rural-zambian-hospitals
#10
Rainier Masa, Gina Chowa, Victor Nyirenda
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in Zambia. A cross-sectional sample of 101 PLHIV was surveyed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. In multivariable linear regression models, income, household possessions, and perceived coping strategies were significantly associated with decreased food insecurity. Debt and perceived mental distress were significantly associated with increased food insecurity...
April 18, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#11
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375427/plant-immunity-unravelling-the-complexity-of-plant-responses-to-biotic-stresses
#12
Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
Background: Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361244/condition-dependent-virulence-of-slow-bee-paralysis-virus-in-bombus-terrestris-are-the-impacts-of-honeybee-viruses-in-wild-pollinators-underestimated
#13
Robyn Manley, Mike Boots, Lena Wilfert
Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV)-previously considered an obligate honeybee disease-is now known to be prevalent in bumblebee species. SBPV is highly virulent in honeybees in association with Varroa mites, but has been considered relatively benign otherwise. However, condition-dependent pathogens can appear asymptomatic under good, resource abundant conditions, and negative impacts on host fitness may only become apparent when under stressful or resource-limited conditions. We tested whether SBPV expresses condition-dependent virulence in its bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, by orally inoculating bees with SBPV and recording longevity under satiated and starvation conditions...
March 30, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314795/unique-physiological-and-transcriptional-shifts-under-combinations-of-salinity-drought-and-heat
#14
Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Eduardo Blumwald, Zvi Peleg
Climate-change-driven stresses such as extreme temperatures, water deficit, and ion imbalance are projected to exacerbate and jeopardize global food security. Under field conditions, these stresses usually occur simultaneously and cause damages that exceed single stresses. Here, we investigated the transcriptional patterns and morpho-physiological acclimations of Brachypodium dystachion to single salinity, drought, and heat stresses, as well as their double and triple stress combinations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of morpho-physiological acclimations showed that several traits exhibited a gradually aggravating effect as plants were exposed to combined stresses...
May 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303148/differentiating-wheat-genotypes-by-bayesian-hierarchical-nonlinear-mixed-modeling-of-wheat-root-density
#15
Anton P Wasson, Grace S Chiu, Alexander B Zwart, Timothy R Binns
Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288794/stress-mediated-allee-effects-can-cause-the-sudden-collapse-of-honey-bee-colonies
#16
Ross D Booton, Yoh Iwasa, James A R Marshall, Dylan Z Childs
The recent rapid decline in global honey bee populations could have significant implications for ecological systems, economics and food security. No single cause of honey bee collapse has yet to be identified, although pesticides, mites and other pathogens have all been shown to have a sublethal effect. We present a model of a functioning bee hive and introduce external stress to investigate the impact on the regulatory processes of recruitment to the forager class, social inhibition and the laying rate of the queen...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248236/identification-of-abiotic-stress-protein-biomarkers-by-proteomic-screening-of-crop-cultivar-diversity
#17
REVIEW
Bronwyn J Barkla
Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may contribute to tolerance mechanisms by directly comparing protein abundance under stress conditions between genotypes differing in their stress responses...
September 8, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#18
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
February 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167339/poverty-and-perceived-stress-evidence-from-two-unconditional-cash-transfer-programs-in-zambia
#19
Lisa Hjelm, Sudhanshu Handa, Jacobus de Hoop, Tia Palermo
INTRODUCTION: Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. METHOD: Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months...
January 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163353/can-we-be-certain-about-future-land-use-change-in-europe-a-multi-scenario-integrated-assessment-analysis
#20
I P Holman, C Brown, V Janes, D Sandars
The global land system is facing unprecedented pressures from growing human populations and climatic change. Understanding the effects these pressures may have is necessary to designing land management strategies that ensure food security, ecosystem service provision and successful climate mitigation and adaptation. However, the number of complex, interacting effects involved makes any complete understanding very difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, the recent development of integrated modelling frameworks allows for the exploration of the co-development of human and natural systems under scenarios of global change, potentially illuminating the main drivers and processes in future land system change...
February 2017: Agricultural Systems
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