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Stress and food security

Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Naoki Yamamoto, Richard Garcia, Tomohiro Suzuki, Celymar Angela Solis, Yuichi Tada, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Ajay Kohli
BACKGROUND: Increasing rice demand is one of the consequences of the steadily improving socio-economic status of the African countries. New Rice for Africa (NERICA), which are interspecific hybrids between Asian and African rice varieties, are one of successful breeding products utilizing biodiversity across the two different rice crop species. Upland NERICA varieties (NU) exhibit agronomic traits of value for the harsh eco-geography, including shorter duration, higher yield and stress tolerance, compared to local African varieties...
May 15, 2018: Rice
Meiling Liu, Tiejun Wang, Andrew K Skidmore, Xiangnan Liu
Regional-level information on heavy metal pollution in agro-ecosystems is essential for food security because excessive levels of heavy metals in crops may pose risks to humans. However, collecting this information over large areas is inherently costly. This paper investigates the possibility of applying multi-temporal Sentinel-2 satellite images to detect heavy metal-induced stress (i.e., Cd stress) in rice crops in four study areas in Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China. For this purpose, we compared seven Sentinel-2 images acquired in 2016 and 2017 with in situ measured hyper-spectral data, chlorophyll content, rice leaf area index, and heavy metal concentrations in soil collected from 2014 to 2017...
May 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Thirunavukkarsau Nepolean, Jyoti Kaul, Ganapati Mukri, Shikha Mittal
Breeding science has immensely contributed to the global food security. Several varieties and hybrids in different food crops including maize have been released through conventional breeding. The ever growing population, decreasing agricultural land, lowering water table, changing climate, and other variables pose tremendous challenge to the researchers to improve the production and productivity of food crops. Drought is one of the major problems to sustain and improve the productivity of food crops including maize in tropical and subtropical production systems...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jinmeng Zhang, Shiqiao Zhang, Min Cheng, Hong Jiang, Xiuying Zhang, Changhui Peng, Xuehe Lu, Minxia Zhang, Jiaxin Jin
Drought has been one of the most important limiting factors for crop production, which deleteriously affects food security worldwide. The main objective of the present study was to quantitatively assess the effect of drought on the agronomic traits (e.g., plant height, biomass, yield, and yield components) of rice and wheat in combination with several moderators (e.g., drought stress intensity, rooting environment, and growth stage) using a meta-analysis study. The database was created from 55 published studies on rice and 60 published studies on wheat...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
William Edward Dyer
Herbicide-resistant weeds, especially those with resistance to multiple herbicides, represent a growing worldwide threat to agriculture and food security. Natural selection for resistant genotypes may act on standing genetic variation, or on a genetic and physiological background that is fundamentally altered because of stress responses to sublethal herbicide exposure. Stress-induced changes include DNA mutations, epigenetic alterations, transcriptional remodeling, and protein modifications, all of which can lead to herbicide resistance and a wide range of pleiotropic effects...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
Changhu Wang, Weili Guo, Xingzhe Cai, Ruyu Li, David W Ow
Cadmium (Cd) as a carcinogen poses a great threat to food security and public health through plant-derived foods such as rice, the staple for nearly half of the world's population. We have previously reported that overexpression of truncated gene fragments derived from the rice genes OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 could reduce Cd accumulation in transgenic rice. However, we did not test the full length genes due to prior work in Arabidopsis where overexpression of these genes caused seedling lethality. Here, we report on limiting the overexpression of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 through the use of the stress- inducible promoter RD29B...
April 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
Lovely Mae F Lawas, Ellen Zuther, Sv Krishna Jagadish, Dirk K Hincha
Global climate change leads to increased temperatures and decreased precipitation in many parts of the world. The simultaneous occurrence of high temperature and water deficit results in heat stress damage in plants. Cereals provide the majority of calories for human consumption, making this stress scenario particularly threatening for global food security. Several studies in both dicots and cereals indicate that the molecular reactions of plants to combined stresses cannot be predicted from reactions to single stresses...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Shuang Zhao, Xu Qian, Xiangnan Liu, Zhao Xu
Accurately monitoring heavy metal stress in crops is vital for food security and agricultural production. The assimilation of remote sensing images into the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model provides an efficient way to solve this problem. In this study, we aimed at investigating the key periods of the assimilation framework for continuous monitoring of heavy metal stress in rice. The Harris algorithm was used for the leaf area index (LAI) curves to select the key period for an optimized assimilation. To obtain accurate LAI values, the measured dry weight of rice roots (WRT), which have been proven to be the most stress-sensitive indicator of heavy metal stress, were incorporated into the improved WOFOST model...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Om Parkash Dhankher, Christine H Foyer
Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products...
May 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Christoph-Martin Geilfus
In salinized soils in which chloride (Cl-) is the dominant salt anion, growth of plants that tolerate only low concentrations of salt (glycophytes) is disturbed by Cl--toxicity. Chlorotic discolorations precede necrotic lesions causing yield reductions. Little is known about the effects of Cl--toxicity in these dysfunctions. A lack of understanding exists regarding (i) the molecular and physiological mechanisms that lead to Cl--induced damage and (ii) the adaptive aspects of induced tolerance to Cl--salinity...
April 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chao Li, Guangping Zhang, Shangquan Wu, Qingchuan Zhang
Profenofos, a highly poisonous organophosphorus pesticide, has been widely used in agricultural production. These pesticide residues have seriously influenced food security and threatened human health, and new methods with high sensitivity are greatly needed to detect profenofos. Here, we developed an aptamer-based microcantilever-array sensor operated in stress mode to detect profenofos, with advantages of being a label-free, highly sensitive, one-step immobilization method capable of quantitative and real-time detection...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Alireza Pour-Aboughadareh, David J Burritt, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Developing more crops able to sustainably produce high yields when grown under biotic/abiotic stresses is an important goal, if crop production and food security are to be guaranteed in the face of ever-increasing human population and unpredictable global climatic conditions. However, conventional crop improvement, through random mutagenesis or genetic recombination, is time-consuming and cannot keep pace with increasing food demands. Targeted genome editing (GE) technologies, especially clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/(CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9), have great potential to aid in the breeding of crops that are able to produce high yields under conditions of biotic/abiotic stress...
March 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zerihun Tadele
A changing climate, a growing world population, and a reduction in arable land devoted to food production are all problems facing the world food security. The development of crops that can yield under uncertain and extreme climatic and soil growing conditions can play a key role in mitigating these problems. Major crops such as maize, rice, and wheat are responsible for a large proportion of global food production but many understudied crops (commonly known as "orphan crops") including millets, cassava, and cowpea feed millions of people in Asia, Africa, and South America and are already adapted to the local environments in which they are grown...
2018: Scientifica
Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat, David M Modise, Junaid Gemeildien, Bongani K Ndimba, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations. METHODS: In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species...
2018: PloS One
Jian Zhou, Miao Hao, Yonghong Liu, Guoyong Huang, Qingling Fu, Jun Zhu, Hongqing Hu
Soil pollution with heavy metals has many adverse effects on ecosystem health as well as food security. A pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of different valence states of exogenous sulfur (S) on the uptake of cadmium (Cd) in Chinese cabbage in Cd-contaminated soil. The results showed that S significantly promoted plant growth in Chinese cabbage, with the following order of magnitude for the different S treatments: sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) > sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 ) > powdered sulfur (S0 )...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
María Reguera, Carlos Manuel Conesa, Alejandro Gil-Gómez, Claudia Mónika Haros, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Casas, Vilbett Briones-Labarca, Luis Bolaños, Ildefonso Bonilla, Rodrigo Álvarez, Katherine Pinto, Ángel Mujica, Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy
Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food's quality...
2018: PeerJ
Pauline Gulliver, Janet Fanslow, Theresa Fleming, Mathijs Lucassen, Robyn Dixon
OBJECTIVE: To explore trends, and identify risk factors, that may explain changes in adolescent exposure to family violence over time. METHODS: Data for this study was drawn from the Youth 2000 series of cross-sectional surveys, carried out with New Zealand high school students in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Latent class analysis was used to understand different patterns of exposure to multiple risks for witnessing violence at home among adolescents. RESULTS: Across all time periods, there was no change in witnessing emotional violence and a slight decline in witnessing physical violence at home...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Andrew Spriggs, Steven T Henderson, Melanie L Hand, Susan D Johnson, Jennifer M Taylor, Anna Koltunow
Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1...
February 9, 2018: Gates open research
Heng Ye, Manish Roorkiwal, Babu Valliyodan, Lijuan Zhou, Pengyin Chen, Rajeev Varshney, Henry T Nguyen
Climate changes increase the occurrence of extreme weather patterns globally, cause significant reduction in crop production and hence threatening the food security. In order to meet the food demand of growing world population, faster rate of genetic gains leading to productivity enhancement for major crops is required. Grain legumes are an essential commodity in optimal human diets and animal feed because of their unique nutritional composition. Currently, limited water is a major constraint in grain legume production...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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