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Stress and food security

Pauline Gulliver, Janet Fanslow, Theresa Fleming, Mathijs Lucassen, Robyn Dixon
OBJECTIVE: To explore trends, and identify risk factors, that may explain changes in adolescent exposure to family violence over time. METHODS: Data for this study was drawn from the Youth 2000 series of cross-sectional surveys, carried out with New Zealand high school students in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Latent class analysis was used to understand different patterns of exposure to multiple risks for witnessing violence at home among adolescents. RESULTS: Across all time periods, there was no change in witnessing emotional violence and a slight decline in witnessing physical violence at home...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Andrew Spriggs, Steven T Henderson, Melanie L Hand, Susan D Johnson, Jennifer M Taylor, Anna Koltunow
Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1...
February 9, 2018: Gates Open Res
Heng Ye, Manish Roorkiwal, Babu Valliyodan, Lijuan Zhou, Pengyin Chen, Rajeev Varshney, Henry T Nguyen
Climate changes increase the occurrence of extreme weather patterns globally, cause significant reduction in crop production and hence threatening the food security. In order to meet the food demand of growing world population, faster rate of genetic gains leading to productivity enhancement for major crops is required. Grain legumes are an essential commodity in optimal human diets and animal feed because of their unique nutritional composition. Currently, limited water is a major constraint in grain legume production...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mouna Lamaoui, Martin Jemo, Raju Datla, Faouzi Bekkaoui
Drought and heat are major abiotic stresses that reduce crop productivity and weaken global food security, especially given the current and growing impacts of climate change and increases in the occurrence and severity of both stress factors. Plants have developed dynamic responses at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels allowing them to escape and/or adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions. Nevertheless, even the mildest heat and drought stress negatively affects crop yield. Further, several independent studies have shown that increased temperature and drought can reduce crop yields by as much as 50%...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jang Rak Kim, Baekgeun Jeong, Ki Soo Park, Yune Sik Kang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether generalized trust and/or social participation at an individual level have negative associations with unmet healthcare needs. METHODS: Door-to-door interviews were conducted by trained interviewers to collect information. The 8,800 study participants included 220 adults sampled systematically using the resident registration database from 40 sub-municipal-level administrative units in Korea. Unmet healthcare needs were measured subjectively by the following question: "During the past 12 months, was there ever a time when you felt that you needed healthcare (excluding dental care) but did not receive it?" The responses were classified as either "yes" or "no...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Priyanka Khati, Parul, Pankaj Bhatt, Nisha, Rajeew Kumar, Anita Sharma
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are key to soil and plant health maintenance. In the present study, two PGPR strains which were identified as Bacillus spp. (accession number KX650178 and KX650179) with nanozeolite (50 ppm) were applied to the seeds in different combinations and tested on growth profile of maize crop. Various growth related parameters, including plant height, leaf area, number of leaves chlorophyll and total protein were positively increased up to twofold by the nanocompound treatment...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Akhilesh Kumar, Jay Prakash Verma
The biotic and abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop yield, food quality and global food security. A number of parameters such as physiological, biochemical, molecular of plants are affected under stress condition. Since the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture practices cause degradation of soil fertility and environmental pollutions. Hence it is necessary to develop safer and sustainable means for agriculture production. The application of plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth, under such conditions...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Amelie A Hecht, Erin Biehl, Sarah Buzogany, Roni A Neff
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is associated with toxic stress and adverse long-term physical and mental health outcomes. It can be experienced chronically and also triggered or exacerbated by natural and human-made hazards that destabilize the food system. The Baltimore Food System Resilience Advisory Report was created to strengthen the resilience of the city's food system and improve short- and long-term food security. Recognizing food insecurity as a form of trauma, the report was developed using the principles of trauma-informed social policy...
February 20, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Kenneth Maes, Svea Closser, Yihenew Tesfaye, Yasmine Gilbert, Roza Abesha
BACKGROUND: Many Community Health Workers (CHWs) experience the same socioeconomic and health needs as their neighbors, given that they are by definition part of their communities. Yet very few studies aim to measure and characterize experiences of deprivation, poverty, and wellbeing among community health workers. This study quantitatively examines deprivation and wellbeing in Ethiopia's Women's Development Army (WDA), a massive unpaid community health workforce intended to improve population health and modernize the country...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Peter O Fayemi, Voster Muchenje, Hasan Yetim, Abdulatef Ahhmed
Living with pain is one of the distressing effects of food insecurity and malnutrition among millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) worldwide. Vulnerability to emotional pain, metabolic imbalance, chronic illnesses and non-communicable diseases by IDPs are associated with stressed livelihood and restricted access to balanced diets in their camps. Tackling the complexity of issues related to internal displacement is challenging as 45% are globally trapped in protracted conditions. In this review, a diet-based intervention is proposed considering the potential benefits of nutrient synergy and analgesic constituents in organ meat...
February 2018: Food Research International
A N M Rubaiyath Bin Rahman, Jianhua Zhang
Crop productivity and stability of the food system are threatened by climate change, mainly through the effects of predicted abiotic stresses. Despite extensive research on abiotic stress tolerance in the past decades, the successful translation of these research to fields/farmers is scarce. The impelling demand of climate resilient varieties, and the poor translation of research into the field despite the availability of high throughput technologies lead us to critically analyse a neglected aspect of current abiotic stress tolerance research...
February 8, 2018: Rice
E O Deedi Sogbohossou, Enoch G Achigan-Dako, Patrick Maundu, Svein Solberg, Edgar M S Deguenon, Rita H Mumm, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, M Eric Schranz
Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops...
2018: Horticulture Research
Caihong Li, Yanjie Song, Liyue Guo, Xian Gu, Mahmud A Muminov, Tianzuo Wang
Accelerated industrialization has been increasing releases of chemical precursors of ozone. Ozone concentration has risen nowadays, and it's predicted that this trend will continue in the next few decades. The yield of many ozone-sensitive crops suffers seriously from ozone pollution, and there are abundant reports exploring the damage mechanisms of ozone to these crops, such as winter wheat. However, little is known on how to alleviate these negative impacts to increase grain production under elevated ozone...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi
Because of its wide geographical adaptation and importance in human nutrition, wheat is one of the most important crops in the world. However, wheat yield has reduced due to drought stress posing threat to sustainability and world food security in agricultural production. The first stage of drought tolerant variety breeding occurs on the molecular and biochemical characterization and classification of wheat genotypes. The aim of the present study is characterization of widely grown bread wheat cultivars and breeding lines for drought tolerance so as to be adapted to different regions in Turkey...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Naghmeh Nejat, Abirami Ramalingam, Nitin Mantri
The current global population of 7.3 billion is estimated to reach 9.7 billion in the year 2050. Rapid population growth is driving up global food demand. Additionally, global climate change, environmental degradation, drought, emerging diseases, and salty soils are the current threats to global food security. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of these diverse agricultural productivity constraints and enhance crop yield and stress-tolerance in plants, we need to go beyond traditional and molecular plant breeding...
February 2, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Jordana Moura Caetano, Geiziane Tessarolo, Guilherme de Oliveira, Kelly da Silva E Souza, José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho, João Carlos Nabout
The impacts of global climate change have been a worldwide concern for several research areas, including those dealing with resources essential to human well being, such as agriculture, which directly impact economic activities and food security. Here we evaluate the relative effect of climate (as indicated by the Ecological Niche Model-ENM) and agricultural technology on actual soybean productivity in Brazilian municipalities and estimate the future geographic distribution of soybeans using a novel statistical approach allowing the evaluation of partial coefficients in a non-stationary (Geographically Weighted Regression; GWR) model...
2018: PloS One
Ishan Ajmera, Jing Shi, Jitender Giri, Ping Wu, Dov J Stekel, Chungui Lu, T Charlie Hodgman
Phosphorus is a growth-limiting nutrient for plants. The growing scarcity of phosphate stocks threatens global food security. Phosphate-uptake regulation is so complex and incompletely known that attempts to improve phosphorus use efficiency have had extremely limited success. This study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate uptake by investigating the transcriptional dynamics of two regulators: the Ubiquitin ligase PHO2 and the long non-coding RNA IPS1. Temporal measurements of RNA levels have been integrated into mechanistic mathematical models using advanced statistical techniques...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Wanju Shi, Xiang Li, Ralf C Schmidt, Paul C Struik, Xinyou Yin, S V Krishna Jagadish
High temperature during flowering in rice causes spikelet sterility and is a major threat to rice productivity in tropical and subtropical regions, where hybrid rice development is increasingly contributing to sustain food security. However, the sensitivity of hybrids to increasing temperature and physiological responses in terms of dynamic fertilization processes are unknown. To address these questions, several promising hybrids and inbreds were exposed to control and high day-time temperature (HDT) in Experiment 1 and hybrids having contrasting heat tolerance were selected for Experiment 2 for further physiological investigation under high day and night temperature treatments...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Salme Timmusk, Gulaim Seisenbaeva, Lawrence Behers
A novel use of nanotitania (TNs) as agents in the nanointerface interaction between plants and colonization of growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is presented. The effectiveness of PGPRs is related to the effectiveness of the technology used for their formulation. TNs produced by the Captigel patented SolGel approach, characterized by the transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used for formulation of the harsh environment PGPR strains. Changes in the biomass of wheat seedlings and in the density of single and double inoculants with and without TNs were monitored during two weeks of stress induced by drought salt and by the pathogen Fusarium culmorum...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laila Khaleda, Hee Jin Park, Dae-Jin Yun, Jong-Rok Jeon, Min Gab Kim, Joon-Yung Cha, Woe-Yeon Kim
Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1)...
December 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
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