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Stress and food security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149723/residual-effects-of-biochar-on-growth-photosynthesis-and-cadmium-uptake-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-under-cd-stress-with-different-water-conditions
#1
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Rab Nawaz
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination and drought stress are among the main issues hindering global food security. Biochar has been used to reduce metal uptake by plants and water stress mitigation, but long-term residual effects of biochar under Cd stress at different moisture levels needs to be investigated. A following rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown after wheat on Cd-contaminated soil amended with different levels of biochar (0, 3.0, and 5.0%, w/w). Thirty five days old plants were irrigated with three moisture levels including zero drought as a control (1-2 cm water layer on soil), mild drought (MD, 50% of soil water holding capacity, WHC), and severe drought (SD, 35% of soil WHC) for an accompanying 35 days...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072939/the-need-for-climate-and-health-education
#2
Jeffrey Shaman, Kim Knowlton
With the increasing understanding that climate change is already affecting and will continue to affect human health,(1,2) health professionals, governments, businesses, and the general public must proactively address both climate change and its implications for public health. The observed and anticipated effects of climate change on human health are myriad and will affect both the vulnerable and the broader public. Examples of direct effects include overall elevated temperatures that generally exacerbate chronic disease morbidity and mortality and changing patterns and increased frequency of heat waves that lead to more acute heat stress-related morbidity and mortality...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045750/aging-and-hiv-related-caregiving-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-social-ecological-approach
#3
Jeon Small, Carolyn Aldwin, Paul Kowal, Somnath Chatterji, Rachel Pruchno
Background and Objectives: We reviewed the literature on older adults (OAs) who are caring for persons living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with the goal of adapting models of caregiver stress and coping to include culturally relevant and contextually appropriate factors specific to SSA, drawing on both life course and cultural capital theories. Research Design and Methods: A systematic literature search found 81 articles published between 1975 and 2016 which were reviewed using a narrative approach...
October 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044610/molecular-improvement-of-alfalfa-for-enhanced-productivity-and-adaptability-in-a-changing-environment
#4
REVIEW
Stacy D Singer, Abdelali Hannoufa, Surya Acharya
Due to an expanding world population and increased buying power, the demand for ruminant products such as meat and milk is expected to grow substantially in coming years and high levels of forage crop production will therefore be a necessity. Unfortunately, urbanization of agricultural land, intensive agricultural practices, and climate change are all predicted to limit crop production in the future, which means that the development of forage cultivars with improved productivity and adaptability will be essential...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994416/a-high-quality-genome-assembly-of-quinoa-provides-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-salt-bladder-based-salinity-tolerance-and-the-exceptional-nutritional-value
#5
Changsong Zou, Aojun Chen, Lihong Xiao, Heike M Muller, Peter Ache, Georg Haberer, Meiling Zhang, Wei Jia, Ping Deng, Ru Huang, Daniel Lang, Feng Li, Dongliang Zhan, Xiangyun Wu, Hui Zhang, Jennifer Bohm, Renyi Liu, Sergey Shabala, Rainer Hedrich, Jian-Kang Zhu, Heng Zhang
Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots...
November 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981769/increasing-crop-yield-and-resilience-with-trehalose-6-phosphate-targeting-a-feast-famine-mechanism-in-cereals-for-better-source-sink-optimization
#6
Matthew J Paul, Maria Oszvald, Claudia Jesus, Charukesi Rajulu, Cara A Griffiths, Christine Raines
Food security is a pressing global issue. New approaches are required to break through a yield ceiling that has developed in recent years for the major crops. As important as increasing yield potential is the protection of yield from abiotic stresses in an increasingly variable and unpredictable climate. Current strategies to improve yield include conventional breeding, marker-assisted breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), mutagenesis, creation of hybrids, genetic modification (GM), emerging genome-editing technologies, and chemical approaches...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970844/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-engineering-for-improvement-of-horticultural-crops
#7
REVIEW
Suhas G Karkute, Achuit K Singh, Om P Gupta, Prabhakar M Singh, Bijendra Singh
Horticultural crops are an important part of agriculture for food as well as nutritional security. However, several pests and diseases along with adverse abiotic environmental factors pose a severe threat to these crops by affecting their quality and productivity. This warrants the effective and accelerated breeding programs by utilizing innovative biotechnological tools that can tackle aforementioned issues. The recent technique of genome editing by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has greatly advanced the breeding for crop improvement due to its simplicity and high efficiency over other nucleases such as Zinc Finger Nucleases and Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969999/are-gm-crops-for-yield-and-resilience-possible
#8
REVIEW
Matthew J Paul, Michael L Nuccio, Shib Sankar Basu
Crop yield improvements need to accelerate to avoid future food insecurity. Outside Europe, genetically modified (GM) crops for herbicide- and insect-resistance have been transformative in agriculture; other traits have also come to market. However, GM of yield potential and stress resilience has yet to impact on food security. Genes have been identified for yield such as grain number, size, leaf growth, resource allocation, and signaling for drought tolerance, but there is only one commercialized drought-tolerant GM variety...
September 29, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931629/selinene-volatiles-are-essential-precursors-for-maize-defense-promoting-fungal-pathogen-resistance
#9
Yezhang Ding, Alisa Huffaker, Tobias G Köllner, Philipp Weckwerth, Christelle A M Robert, Joseph L Spencer, Alexander E Lipka, Eric A Schmelz
To ensure food security, maize (Zea mays) is a model crop for understanding useful traits underlying stress resistance. In contrast to foliar biochemicals, root defenses limiting the spread of disease remain poorly described. To better understand belowground defenses in the field, we performed root metabolomic profiling and uncovered unexpectedly high levels of the sesquiterpene volatile β-selinene and the corresponding nonvolatile antibiotic derivative β-costic acid. The application of metabolite-based quantitative trait locus mapping using biparental populations, genome-wide association studies, and near-isogenic lines enabled the identification of terpene synthase21 (ZmTps21) on chromosome 9 as a β-costic acid pathway candidate gene...
November 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918764/fragile-environment-seasonality-and-maternal-and-childhood-undernutrition-in-bangladesh
#10
Masuda Mohsena, Mahabub Hossain, Barnali Chakraborty, Abdul Bayes, A N Mahfuzur Rahman
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913794/wheat-improvement-in-india-present-and-future
#11
Sonia Goel, Kalpana Singh, N K Singh
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contributes substantially to global food and nutritional security. With the growing demands under the constraints of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation, and increased risk of epidemic outbreaks, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly, and there is an immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain the same at a higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#12
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878796/autophagy-is-rapidly-induced-by-salt-stress-and-is-required-for-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#13
Liming Luo, Pingping Zhang, Ruihai Zhu, Jing Fu, Jing Su, Jing Zheng, Ziyue Wang, Dan Wang, Qingqiu Gong
Salinity stress challenges agriculture and food security globally. Upon salt stress, plant growth slows down, nutrients are recycled, osmolytes are produced, and reallocation of Na(+) takes place. Since autophagy is a high-throughput degradation pathway that contributes to nutrient remobilization in plants, we explored the involvement of autophagic flux in salt stress response of Arabidopsis with various approaches. Confocal microscopy of GFP-ATG8a in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that autophagosome formation is induced shortly after salt treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878147/extraction-of-rice-heavy-metal-stress-signal-features-based-on-long-time-series-leaf-area-index-data-using-ensemble-empirical-mode-decomposition
#14
Lingwen Tian, Xiangnan Liu, Biyao Zhang, Ming Liu, Ling Wu
The use of remote sensing technology to diagnose heavy metal stress in crops is of great significance for environmental protection and food security. However, in the natural farmland ecosystem, various stressors could have a similar influence on crop growth, therefore making heavy metal stress difficult to identify accurately, so this is still not a well resolved scientific problem and a hot topic in the field of agricultural remote sensing. This study proposes a method that uses Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to obtain the heavy metal stress signal features on a long time scale...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876911/interaction-of-engineered-nanoparticles-with-the-agri-environment
#15
Saheli Pradhan, Damodhara Rao Mailapalli
Nanoparticles with their unique surface properties can modulate the physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical pathways, such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, and solute transport. In this context, researchers have developed a wide range of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for the improvement of growth and productivity by modulating the metabolic pathways in plants. This class of tailor-made materials can potentially lead to the development of a new group of agrochemical nanofertilizers...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871516/stability-and-change-in-in-group-mate-preferences-among-young-people-in-ethiopia-are-predicted-by-food-security-and-gender-attitudes-but-not-by-expected-pathogen-exposures
#16
Craig Hadley, Daniel Hruschka
There is broad anthropological interest in understanding how people define "insiders" and "outsiders" and how this shapes their attitudes and behaviors toward others. As such, a suite of hypotheses has been proposed to account for the varying degrees of in-group preference between individuals and societies. We test three hypotheses related to material insecurity, pathogen stress, and views of gender equality among cross-sectional (n = 1896) and longitudinal (n = 1002) samples of young people in Ethiopia (aged 13-17 years at baseline) to explore stability and change in their preferences for coethnic spouses...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840959/tiny-microbes-big-yields-enhancing-food-crop-production-with-biological-solutions
#17
Pankaj Trivedi, Peer M Schenk, Matthew D Wallenstein, Brajesh K Singh
Plant-associated microbiomes have tremendous potential to improve plant resilience and yields in farming systems. There is increasing evidence that biological technologies that use microbes or their metabolites can enhance nutrient uptake and yield, control pests and mitigate plant stress responses. However, to fully realize the potential of microbial technology, their efficacy and consistency under the broad range of real-world conditions need to be improved. While the optimization of microbial biofertilizers and biopesticides is advancing rapidly to enable use in various soils, crop varieties and environments, crop breeding programmes have yet to incorporate the selection of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to breed 'microbe-optimized plants'...
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838128/hypoxia-sensing-in-plants-on-a-quest-for-ion-channels-as-putative-oxygen-sensors
#18
Feifei Wang, Zhong-Hua Chen, Sergey Shabala
Over 17 million km2 of land is affected by soil flooding every year, resulting in substantial yield losses and jeopardizing food security across the globe. A key step in resolving this problem and creating stress-tolerant cultivars is an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants sense low-oxygen stress. In this work, we review the current knowledge about the oxygen-sensing and signaling pathway in mammalian and plant systems and postulate the potential role of ion channels as putative oxygen sensors in plant roots...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822768/functional-dissection-and-transport-mechanism-of-magnesium-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Zhi Chang Chen, Wen Ting Peng, Jian Li, Hong Liao
Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant cation in plants, and, as such, is involved in numerous physiological and biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, enzyme activation, and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Due to its relatively small ionic radius and large hydrated radius, Mg binds weakly to soil and root surfaces, and thereby is easily leached from soil. Mg deficiency not only affects crop productivity and quality, but also contributes to numerous chronic human diseases. Therefore, Mg nutrition in plants is an important issue in nutrition and food security...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803694/shaping-an-optimal-soil-by-root-soil-interaction
#20
REVIEW
Kemo Jin, Philip J White, William R Whalley, Jianbo Shen, Lei Shi
Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields...
October 2017: Trends in Plant Science
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