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Stress and food security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723187/wearable-flexible-and-stretchable-glove-biosensor-for-on-site-detection-of-organophosphorus-chemical-threats
#1
Rupesh K Mishra, Lee J Hubble, Aida Martín, Rajan Kumar, Abbas Barfidokht, Jayoung Kim, Mustafa M Musameh, Ilias L Kyratzis, Joseph Wang
A flexible glove-based electrochemical biosensor with highly stretchable printed electrode system has been developed as a wearable point-of-use screening tool for defense and food security applications. This disposable-mechanically robust "lab-on-a-glove" integrates a stretchable printable enzyme-based biosensing system and active surface for swipe sampling on different fingers, and is coupled with a compact electronic interface for electrochemical detection and real-time wireless data transmission to a smartphone device...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706531/crop-production-under-drought-and-heat-stress-plant-responses-and-management-options
#2
REVIEW
Shah Fahad, Ali A Bajwa, Usman Nazir, Shakeel A Anjum, Ayesha Farooq, Ali Zohaib, Sehrish Sadia, Wajid Nasim, Steve Adkins, Shah Saud, Muhammad Z Ihsan, Hesham Alharby, Chao Wu, Depeng Wang, Jianliang Huang
Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop production and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. Heat and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and productivity of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#3
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680434/unraveling-the-transcriptional-basis-of-temperature-dependent-pinoxaden-resistance-in-brachypodium-hybridum
#4
Maor Matzrafi, Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Baruch Rubin, Zvi Peleg
Climate change endangers food security and our ability to feed the ever-increasing human population. Weeds are the most important biotic stress, reducing crop-plant productivity worldwide. Chemical control, the main approach for weed management, can be strongly affected by temperature. Previously, we have shown that temperature-dependent non-target site (NTS) resistance of Brachypodium hybridum is due to enhanced detoxification of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Here, we explored the transcriptional basis of this phenomenon...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680429/identification-of-putative-transmembrane-proteins-involved-in-salinity-tolerance-in-chenopodium-quinoa-by-integrating-physiological-data-rnaseq-and-snp-analyses
#5
Sandra M Schmöckel, Damien J Lightfoot, Rozaimi Razali, Mark Tester, David E Jarvis
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668659/morbidity-and-mortality-amongst-indian-hajj-pilgrims-a-3-year-experience-of-indian-hajj-medical-mission-in-mass-gathering-medicine
#6
Inam D Khan, Shahbaz A Khan, Bushra Asima, Syed B Hussaini, M Zakiuddin, F A Faisal
The Hajj, a mass-gathering of over 3.5-million pilgrims, faces challenges to global health-security, housing, food, water, transportation, communication, sanitation, crowd-control and security. The Indian Medical Mission extended health-security to approximately 140,000 pilgrims, through outreach medical teams, primary-care clinics, tent-clinics, secondary-care hospitals and evacuation capabilities. Data on medical attendance, bed-occupancy, investigations, referrals, medication usage and deaths was compared...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668595/diagnosing-ozone-stress-and-differential-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-with-ethylenediurea-edu
#7
Md Ashrafuzzaman, Farzana Afrose Lubna, Felix Holtkamp, William J Manning, Thorsten Kraska, Michael Frei
Rising tropospheric ozone concentrations in Asia necessitate the breeding of adapted rice varieties to ensure food security. However, breeding requires field-based evaluation of ample plant material, which can be technically challenging or very costly when using ozone fumigation facilities. The chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) has been proposed for estimating the effects of ozone in large-scale field applications, but controlled experiments investigating constitutive effects on rice or its suitability to detect genotypic differences in ozone tolerance are missing...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623343/data-driven-nanomechanical-sensing-specific-information-extraction-from-a-complex-system
#8
Kota Shiba, Ryo Tamura, Gaku Imamura, Genki Yoshikawa
Smells are known to be composed of thousands of chemicals with various concentrations, and thus, the extraction of specific information from such a complex system is still challenging. Herein, we report for the first time that the nanomechanical sensing combined with machine learning realizes the specific information extraction, e.g. alcohol content quantification as a proof-of-concept, from the smells of liquors. A newly developed nanomechanical sensor platform, a Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS), was utilized...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579670/modeling-preference-and-willingness-to-pay-for-drought-tolerance-dt-in-maize-in-rural-zimbabwe
#9
Girma T Kassie, Awudu Abdulai, William H Greene, Bekele Shiferaw, Tsedeke Abate, Amsal Tarekegne, Chloe Sutcliffe
Maize plays a leading role in the food security of millions in southern Africa, yet it is highly vulnerable to the moisture stress brought about by the erratic rainfall patterns that characterize weather systems in the area. Developing and making drought-tolerant maize varieties available to farmers in the region has thus long been a key goal on the regional development agenda. Farm-level adoption of these varieties, however, depends on local perceptions of the value they add, along with willingness to pay (WTP) for it...
June 2017: World Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578401/rnaseq-analysis-reveals-pathways-and-candidate-genes-associated-with-salinity-tolerance-in-a-spaceflight-induced-wheat-mutant
#10
Hongchun Xiong, Huijun Guo, Yongdun Xie, Linshu Zhao, Jiayu Gu, Shirong Zhao, Junhui Li, Luxiang Liu
Salinity stress has become an increasing threat to food security worldwide and elucidation of the mechanism for salinity tolerance is of great significance. Induced mutation, especially spaceflight mutagenesis, is one important method for crop breeding. In this study, we show that a spaceflight-induced wheat mutant, named salinity tolerance 1 (st1), is a salinity-tolerant line. We report the characteristics of transcriptomic sequence variation induced by spaceflight, and show that mutations in genes associated with sodium ion transport may directly contribute to salinity tolerance in st1...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573536/exploring-the-heat-responsive-chaperones-and-microsatellite-markers-associated-with-terminal-heat-stress-tolerance-in-developing-wheat
#11
Ranjeet R Kumar, Suneha Goswami, Mohammad Shamim, Kavita Dubey, Khushboo Singh, Shweta Singh, Yugal K Kala, Ravi R K Niraj, Akshay Sakhrey, Gyanendra P Singh, Monendra Grover, Bhupinder Singh, Gyanendra K Rai, Anil K Rai, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Shelly Praveen
Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food security, and in many cases the negative impacts are already apparent. Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops and is highly sensitive to the heat stress (HS) during reproductive and grain-filling stages. Here, whole transcriptome analysis of thermotolerant wheat cv. HD2985 was carried out at the post-anthesis stage under control (22 ± 3 °C) and HS-treated (42 °C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina Hiseq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms...
June 1, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556819/extraction-of-rice-phenological-differences-under-heavy-metal-stress-using-evi-time-series-from-hj-1a-b-data
#12
Shuyuan Liu, Xiangnan Liu, Meiling Liu, Ling Wu, Chao Ding, Zhi Huang
An effective method to monitor heavy metal stress in crops is of critical importance to assure agricultural production and food security. Phenology, as a sensitive indicator of environmental change, can respond to heavy metal stress in crops and remote sensing is an effective method to detect plant phenological changes. This study focused on identifying the rice phenological differences under varied heavy metal stress using EVI (enhanced vegetation index) time-series, which was obtained from HJ-1A/B CCD images and fitted with asymmetric Gaussian model functions...
May 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538869/potential-mechanisms-linking-probiotics-to-diabetes-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#13
Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh, Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Sima Sabihi, Reza Ghiasvand
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested a wide range of possible mechanisms through which probiotics may play a role in diabetes prevention and treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted this study to review the potential mechanisms suggested for the effect of probiotics in diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan. METHODS: A search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google scholar was performed up to October 2016...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#14
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490967/comparative-study-of-fatty-acid-composition-of-table-eggs-from-the-jeddah-food-market-and-effect-of-value-addition-in-omega-3-bio-fortified-eggs
#15
Shahida Aziz Khan, Aziz Khan, Sarah A Khan, Mohd Amin Beg, Ashraf Ali, Ghazi Damanhouri
Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005), diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011), and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004) in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008)...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487720/finger-millet-a-certain-crop-for-an-uncertain-future-and-a-solution-to-food-insecurity-and-hidden-hunger-under-stressful-environments
#16
REVIEW
Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Sandeep Arora, Neelofar Mirza, Anjali Pande, Charu Lata, Swati Puranik, J Kumar, Anil Kumar
Crop growth and productivity has largely been vulnerable to various abiotic and biotic stresses that are only set to be compounded due to global climate change. Therefore developing improved varieties and designing newer approaches for crop improvement against stress tolerance have become a priority now-a-days. However, most of the crop improvement strategies are directed toward staple cereals such as rice, wheat, maize etc., whereas attention on minor cereals such as finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484792/the-stay-green-trait-and-phytohormone-signaling-networks-in-plants-under-heat-stress
#17
REVIEW
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi El-Sayed, Sudisha Jogaiah, David J Burritt, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The increasing demand for food and the heavy yield losses in primary crops due to global warming mean that there is an urgent need to improve food security. Therefore, understanding how plants respond to heat stress and its consequences, such as drought and increased soil salinity, has received much attention in plant science community. Plants exhibit stress tolerance, escape or avoidance via adaptation and acclimatization mechanisms. These mechanisms rely on a high degree of plasticity in their cellular metabolism, in which phytohormones play an important role...
July 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484474/transcriptomics-analyses-reveal-wheat-responses-to-drought-stress-during-reproductive-stages-under-field-conditions
#18
Jun Ma, Ruiqi Li, Hongguang Wang, Dongxiao Li, Xingyi Wang, Yuechen Zhang, Wenchao Zhen, Huijun Duan, Guijun Yan, Yanming Li
Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits wheat production worldwide. To ensure food security for the rapidly increasing world population, improving wheat yield under drought stress is urgent and relevant. In this study, an RNA-seq analysis was conducted to study the effect of drought on wheat transcriptome changes during reproductive stages under field conditions. Our results indicated that drought stress during early reproductive periods had a more severe impact on wheat development, gene expression and yield than drought stress during flowering...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455953/biotechnology-for-bioenergy-dedicated-trees-meeting-future-energy-demands
#19
Hani Al-Ahmad
With the increase in human demands for energy, purpose-grown woody crops could be part of the global renewable energy solution, especially in geographical regions where plantation forestry is feasible and economically important. In addition, efficient utilization of woody feedstocks would engage in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, decreasing the challenge of food and energy security, and resolving the conflict between land use for food or biofuel production. This review compiles existing knowledge on biotechnological and genomics-aided improvements of biomass performance of purpose-grown poplar, willow, eucalyptus and pine species, and their relative hybrids, for efficient and sustainable bioenergy applications...
April 29, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439286/snp-discovery-and-genetic-variation-of-candidate-genes-relevant-to-heat-tolerance-and-agronomic-traits-in-natural-populations-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum
#20
Pengshan Zhao, Jiwei Zhang, Chaoju Qian, Qin Zhou, Xin Zhao, Guoxiong Chen, Xiao-Fei Ma
The extreme stress tolerance and high nutritional value of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) make it attractive for use as an alternative crop in response to concerns about ongoing climate change and future food security. However, a lack of genetic information hinders understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the morphological and physiological adaptations of sand rice. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two individuals representing semi-arid [Naiman (NM)] and arid [Shapotou (SPT)] sand rice genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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