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Stress and food security

M Margaret Weigel, Rodrigo X Armijos, Marcia Racines, William Cevallos, Nancy P Castro
Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Asing, Md Eaqub Ali, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid, M A Motalib Hossain, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Md Abdul Kader, I S M Zaidul
The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing...
2016: PloS One
Jian-Kang Zhu
As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress-signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Naohiko Ohama, Hikaru Sato, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
Heat stress (HS) is becoming an increasingly significant problem for food security as global warming progresses. Recent studies have elucidated the complex transcriptional regulatory networks involved in HS. Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the transcriptional regulatory network and post-translational regulation of the transcription factors involved in the HS response. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation and small RNAs are important in heat-induced transcriptional responses and stress memory...
September 22, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Lorenzo Rossi, Weilan Zhang, Leonardo Lombardini, Xingmao Ma
Dwindling high quality water resources and growing population are forcing growers to irrigate crops with water of high salinity. It is well recognized that salinity negatively affects plant physiology and biochemistry, and represents one of the most serious threats to crop production and food security. Meanwhile, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in irrigation water and agricultural soils due to the rapid advancement of nanotechnology. Previous research has demonstrated that ENPs such as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) exert significant impact on plant growth and production...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Yonela Zifikile Njisane, Voster Muchenje
The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain...
September 9, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Sowmyalakshmi Subramanian, Emily Ricci, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
Salt stress is an important abiotic stressor affecting crop growth and productivity. Of the 20 percent of the terrestrial earth's surface available as agricultural land, 50 percent is estimated by the United Nations Environment Program to be salinized to the level that crops growing on it will be salt-stressed. Increased soil salinity has profound effects on seed germination and germinating seedlings as they are frequently confronted with much higher salinities than vigorously growing plants, because germination usually occurs in surface soils, the site of greatest soluble salt accumulation...
2016: PloS One
Yun Kang, Minguye Li, Senjuti Sinharoy, Jerome Verdier
In the current context of food security, increase of plant protein production in a sustainable manner represents one of the major challenges of agronomic research, which could be partially resolved by increased cultivation of legume crops. Medicago truncatula is now a well-established model for legume genomic and genetic studies. With the establishment of genomics tools and mutant populations in M. truncatula, it has become an important resource to answer some of the basic biological questions related to plant development and stress tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dilek Killi, Filippo Bussotti, Antonio Raschi, Matthew Haworth
Heat and drought stress frequently occur together, however their impact on plant growth and photosynthesis (PN ) is unclear. The frequency, duration and severity of heat and drought stress events are predicted to increase in the future, having severe implications for agricultural productivity and food security. To assess these impacts on plant gas exchange, physiology and morphology we grew drought tolerant and sensitive varieties of C3 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and C4 maize (Zea mays) under conditions of elevated temperature for four weeks prior to the imposition of water deficit...
August 18, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Haipeng Guo, Chuntao Hong, Mengzhu Xiao, Xiaomin Chen, Houming Chen, Bingsong Zheng, Dean Jiang
The molecular mechanism of low Cd influxes and accumulation in Miscanthus sacchariflorus is revealed by RNA sequencing technique. Soil cadmium (Cd) pollution has posed a serious threat to our soil quality and food security as well as to human health. Some wild plants exhibit high tolerance to heavy metals stress. However, mechanisms of Cd tolerance of wild plants remain to be fully clarified. In this study, we found that two Miscanthus species, Miscanthus (M.) sacchariflorus and M. floridulus, showed different Cd-tolerant mechanisms...
December 2016: Planta
Dessalegn Tamiru, Alemayehu Argaw, Mulusew Gerbaba, Girmay Ayana, Aderajew Nigussie, Tefera Belachew
BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity and lack of education are two of the most remarkable deprivations which developing countries are currently experiencing. Evidences from different studies showed that health and nutrition problems are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries which poses a serious challenge on effort towards the achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Evidence on the link between food security and school attendance is very important to address this challenge...
2016: BMC Public Health
Ros Gleadow, Amelia Pegg, Cecilia K Blomstedt
Rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production in coastal regions due to inundation and contamination of groundwater. The development of more salt-tolerant crops is essential. Cassava is an important staple, particularly among poor subsistence farmers. Its tolerance to drought and elevated temperatures make it highly suitable for meeting global food demands in the face of climate change, but its ability to tolerate salt is unknown. Cassava stores nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides and can cause cyanide poisoning unless correctly processed...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ranjeet Kaur, Ananta Kumar Ghosh, Rupam Kumar Bhunia
Global food security is threatened by the severe environmental conditions that have reduced the worldwide crop yield. Plants possess inherent mechanisms to cope with the initial stress phase but to ensure their survival through harsh climate, the intervention of genetic engineering is desirable. Elucidation of genetic loci and deciphering the underlying mechanisms that confer tolerance to plants against stressful conditions followed by its successful introgression into elite, high-yielding crop varieties can be an effective way to engineer the crops for increasing productivity...
August 5, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Ranjeet Kaur, Ananta Kumar Ghosh, Rupam Kumar Bhunia
Global food security is threatened by the severe environmental conditions that have reduced the worldwide crop yield. Plants possess inherent mechanisms to cope with the initial stress phase but to ensure their survival through harsh climate, the intervention of genetic engineering is desirable. Elucidation of genetic loci and deciphering the underlying mechanisms that confer tolerance to plants against stressful conditions followed by its successful introgression into elite, high-yielding crop varieties can be an effective way to engineer the crops for increasing productivity...
August 5, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Angela Bermúdez-Millán, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Sofia Segura-Pérez, Grace Damio, Jyoti Chhabra, Chandra Y Osborn, Julie Wagner
BACKGROUND: Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Yasuo Yasui, Hideki Hirakawa, Tetsuo Oikawa, Masami Toyoshima, Chiaki Matsuzaki, Mariko Ueno, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Yukari Nagatoshi, Tomohiro Imamura, Manami Miyago, Kojiro Tanaka, Kazuyuki Mise, Tsutomu Tanaka, Hiroharu Mizukoshi, Masashi Mori, Yasunari Fujita
Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy...
July 25, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Suchismita Mondal, Jessica E Rutkoski, Govindan Velu, Pawan K Singh, Leonardo A Crespo-Herrera, Carlos Guzmán, Sridhar Bhavani, Caixia Lan, Xinyao He, Ravi P Singh
Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Didier Bazile, Cataldo Pulvento, Alexis Verniau, Mohammad S Al-Nusairi, Djibi Ba, Joelle Breidy, Layth Hassan, Maarouf I Mohammed, Omurbek Mambetov, Munira Otambekova, Niaz Ali Sepahvand, Amr Shams, Djamel Souici, Khaled Miri, Stefano Padulosi
Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Melanie Carmody, Cezary Waszczak, Niina Idänheimo, Timo Saarinen, Jaakko Kangasjärvi
Climate change results in increased intensity and frequency of extreme abiotic and biotic stress events. In plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate in proportion to the level of stress and are major signalling and regulatory metabolites coordinating growth, defence, acclimation and cell death. Our knowledge of ROS homeostasis, sensing, and signalling is therefore key to understanding the impacts of climate change at the molecular level. Current research is uncovering new insights into temporal-spatial, cell-to-cell and systemic ROS signalling pathways, particularly how these affect plant growth, defence, and more recently acclimation mechanisms behind stress priming and long term stress memory...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Tiffany M Lowe-Power, Jonathan M Jacobs, Florent Ailloud, Brianna Fochs, Philippe Prior, Caitilyn Allen
UNLABELLED: Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses...
2016: MBio
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