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Stress and food security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931629/selinene-volatiles-are-essential-precursors-for-maize-defense-promoting-fungal-pathogen-resistance
#1
Yezhang Ding, Alisa Huffaker, Tobias G Köllner, Philipp Weckwerth, Christelle A M Robert, Joseph L Spencer, Alexander E Lipka, Eric A Schmelz
To ensure food security, maize (Zea mays) is a model crop for understanding useful traits underlying stress resistance. In contrast to foliar biochemicals, root defenses limiting the spread of disease remain poorly described. To better understand below-ground defenses in the field, we performed root metabolomic profiling and uncovered unexpectedly high levels of the sesquiterpene volatile β-selinene and the corresponding non-volatile antibiotic derivative, β-costic acid. The application of metabolite-based quantitative trait loci (mQTL) mapping using bi-parental populations, genome wide association studies, and near-isogenic lines (NILs) enabled the identification of terpene synthase 21 (ZmTps21) on chromosome 9 as a β-costic acid pathway candidate gene...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918764/fragile-environment-seasonality-and-maternal-and-childhood-undernutrition-in-bangladesh
#2
Masuda Mohsena, Mahabub Hossain, Barnali Chakraborty, Abdul Bayes, A N Mahfuzur Rahman
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913794/wheat-improvement-in-india-present-and-future
#3
Sonia Goel, Kalpana Singh, N K Singh
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contributes substantially to global food and nutritional security. With the growing demands under the constraints of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation, and increased risk of epidemic outbreaks, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly, and there is an immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain the same at a higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#4
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878796/autophagy-is-rapidly-induced-by-salt-stress-and-is-required-for-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#5
Liming Luo, Pingping Zhang, Ruihai Zhu, Jing Fu, Jing Su, Jing Zheng, Ziyue Wang, Dan Wang, Qingqiu Gong
Salinity stress challenges agriculture and food security globally. Upon salt stress, plant growth slows down, nutrients are recycled, osmolytes are produced, and reallocation of Na(+) takes place. Since autophagy is a high-throughput degradation pathway that contributes to nutrient remobilization in plants, we explored the involvement of autophagic flux in salt stress response of Arabidopsis with various approaches. Confocal microscopy of GFP-ATG8a in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that autophagosome formation is induced shortly after salt treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878147/extraction-of-rice-heavy-metal-stress-signal-features-based-on-long-time-series-leaf-area-index-data-using-ensemble-empirical-mode-decomposition
#6
Lingwen Tian, Xiangnan Liu, Biyao Zhang, Ming Liu, Ling Wu
The use of remote sensing technology to diagnose heavy metal stress in crops is of great significance for environmental protection and food security. However, in the natural farmland ecosystem, various stressors could have a similar influence on crop growth, therefore making heavy metal stress difficult to identify accurately, so this is still not a well resolved scientific problem and a hot topic in the field of agricultural remote sensing. This study proposes a method that uses Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to obtain the heavy metal stress signal features on a long time scale...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876911/interaction-of-engineered-nanoparticles-with-the-agri-environment
#7
Saheli Pradhan, Damodhara Rao Mailapalli
Nanoparticles with their unique surface properties can modulate the physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical pathways, such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, and solute transport. In this context, researchers have developed a wide range of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for the improvement of growth and productivity by modulating the metabolic pathways in plants. This class of tailor-made materials can potentially lead to the development of a new group of agrochemical nanofertilizers...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871516/stability-and-change-in-in-group-mate-preferences-among-young-people-in-ethiopia-are-predicted-by-food-security-and-gender-attitudes-but-not-by-expected-pathogen-exposures
#8
Craig Hadley, Daniel Hruschka
There is broad anthropological interest in understanding how people define "insiders" and "outsiders" and how this shapes their attitudes and behaviors toward others. As such, a suite of hypotheses has been proposed to account for the varying degrees of in-group preference between individuals and societies. We test three hypotheses related to material insecurity, pathogen stress, and views of gender equality among cross-sectional (n = 1896) and longitudinal (n = 1002) samples of young people in Ethiopia (aged 13-17 years at baseline) to explore stability and change in their preferences for coethnic spouses...
September 4, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840959/tiny-microbes-big-yields-enhancing-food-crop-production-with-biological-solutions
#9
Pankaj Trivedi, Peer M Schenk, Matthew D Wallenstein, Brajesh K Singh
Plant-associated microbiomes have tremendous potential to improve plant resilience and yields in farming systems. There is increasing evidence that biological technologies that use microbes or their metabolites can enhance nutrient uptake and yield, control pests and mitigate plant stress responses. However, to fully realize the potential of microbial technology, their efficacy and consistency under the broad range of real-world conditions need to be improved. While the optimization of microbial biofertilizers and biopesticides is advancing rapidly to enable use in various soils, crop varieties and environments, crop breeding programmes have yet to incorporate the selection of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to breed 'microbe-optimized plants'...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838128/hypoxia-sensing-in-plants-on-a-quest-for-ion-channels-as-putative-oxygen-sensors
#10
Feifei Wang, Zhong-Hua Chen, Sergey Shabala
Over 17 million km2 of land is affected by soil flooding every year, resulting in substantial yield losses and jeopardizing food security across the globe. A key step in resolving this problem and creating stress-tolerant cultivars is an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants sense low-oxygen stress. In this work, we review the current knowledge about the oxygen-sensing and signaling pathway in mammalian and plant systems and postulate the potential role of ion channels as putative oxygen sensors in plant roots...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822768/functional-dissection-and-transport-mechanism-of-magnesium-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Zhi Chang Chen, Wen Ting Peng, Jian Li, Hong Liao
Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant cation in plants, and, as such, is involved in numerous physiological and biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, enzyme activation, and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Due to its relatively small ionic radius and large hydrated radius, Mg binds weakly to soil and root surfaces, and thereby is easily leached from soil. Mg deficiency not only affects crop productivity and quality, but also contributes to numerous chronic human diseases. Therefore, Mg nutrition in plants is an important issue in nutrition and food security...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803694/shaping-an-optimal-soil-by-root-soil-interaction
#12
REVIEW
Kemo Jin, Philip J White, William R Whalley, Jianbo Shen, Lei Shi
Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776104/heat-or-cold-priming-induced-cross-tolerance-to-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-key-regulators-and-possible-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Zhong-Guang Li, Tahsina Sharmin Hoque, David J Burritt, Masayuki Fujita, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Plants growing under field conditions are constantly exposed, either simultaneously or sequentially, to more than one abiotic stress factor. Plants have evolved sophisticated sensory systems to perceive a number of stress signals that allow them to activate the most adequate response to grow and survive in a given environment. Recently, cross-stress tolerance (i.e. tolerance to a second, strong stress after a different type of mild primary stress) has gained attention as a potential means of producing stress-resistant crops to aid with global food security...
August 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766720/molecular-characterization-of-rice-arsenic-induced-ring-finger-e3-ligase-2-osair2-and-its-heterogeneous-overexpression-in-arabidopsis-thalaiana
#14
Sun-Goo Hwang, Sandeep Chapagain, A-Reum Han, Yong Chan Park, Hyeon Mi Park, Yong Hwan Kim, Cheol Seong Jang
Arsenic (As) accumulation adversely affects the growth and productivity of plants and poses a serious threat to human health and food security. In this study, we identified one As-responsive Really Interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ubiquitin ligase gene from rice root tissues during As stress. We named it Oryza sativa Arsenic-Induced RING E3 ligase 2 (OsAIR2). Expression of OsAIR2 was induced under various abiotic stress conditions, including heat, salt, drought, and As exposure. Results of an in vitro ubiquitination assay showed that OsAIR2 possesses an E3 ligase activity...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759768/identification-for-the-capability-of-cd-tolerance-accumulation-and-translocation-of-96-sorghum-genotypes
#15
Weitao Jia, Fangfang Miao, Sulian Lv, Juanjuan Feng, Shufeng Zhou, Xuan Zhang, Duoliya Wang, Shizhong Li, Yinxin Li
Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a worldwide environmental problem which heavily threatens human health and food security. Sorghum, as one of the most promising energy crop, has been considered to be the source of high-quality feedstock for ethanol fuel. Ninety-six sorghum genotypes were investigated under hydroponic conditions to compare their capabilities of Cd-tolerance, accumulation and translocation for their potential in remediation of Cd contamination. Different genotypes varied largely in the tolerance to Cd stress with tolerance indexes ranked from 0...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723187/wearable-flexible-and-stretchable-glove-biosensor-for-on-site-detection-of-organophosphorus-chemical-threats
#16
Rupesh K Mishra, Lee J Hubble, Aida Martín, Rajan Kumar, Abbas Barfidokht, Jayoung Kim, Mustafa M Musameh, Ilias L Kyratzis, Joseph Wang
A flexible glove-based electrochemical biosensor with highly stretchable printed electrode system has been developed as a wearable point-of-use screening tool for defense and food security applications. This disposable-mechanically robust "lab-on-a-glove" integrates a stretchable printable enzyme-based biosensing system and active surface for swipe sampling on different fingers, and is coupled with a compact electronic interface for electrochemical detection and real-time wireless data transmission to a smartphone device...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706531/crop-production-under-drought-and-heat-stress-plant-responses-and-management-options
#17
REVIEW
Shah Fahad, Ali A Bajwa, Usman Nazir, Shakeel A Anjum, Ayesha Farooq, Ali Zohaib, Sehrish Sadia, Wajid Nasim, Steve Adkins, Shah Saud, Muhammad Z Ihsan, Hesham Alharby, Chao Wu, Depeng Wang, Jianliang Huang
Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop production and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. Heat and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and productivity of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#18
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680434/unraveling-the-transcriptional-basis-of-temperature-dependent-pinoxaden-resistance-in-brachypodium-hybridum
#19
Maor Matzrafi, Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Baruch Rubin, Zvi Peleg
Climate change endangers food security and our ability to feed the ever-increasing human population. Weeds are the most important biotic stress, reducing crop-plant productivity worldwide. Chemical control, the main approach for weed management, can be strongly affected by temperature. Previously, we have shown that temperature-dependent non-target site (NTS) resistance of Brachypodium hybridum is due to enhanced detoxification of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Here, we explored the transcriptional basis of this phenomenon...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680429/identification-of-putative-transmembrane-proteins-involved-in-salinity-tolerance-in-chenopodium-quinoa-by-integrating-physiological-data-rnaseq-and-snp-analyses
#20
Sandra M Schmöckel, Damien J Lightfoot, Rozaimi Razali, Mark Tester, David E Jarvis
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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