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Stress and food security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314795/unique-physiological-and-transcriptional-shifts-under-combinations-of-salinity-drought-and-heat
#1
Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Eduardo Blumwald, Zvi Peleg
Climate change-driven stresses such as extreme temperatures, water deficit, and ion imbalance are projected to exacerbate and jeopardize global food security. Under field conditions, these stresses usually occur simultaneously and cause damages that exceed single stresses. Here, we investigated the transcriptional patterns and morpho-physiological acclimations, of Brachypodium dystachion, to single salinity, drought and heat stresses as well as their double and triple stress combinations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of morpho-physiological acclimations showed that several traits exhibited a gradually aggravating effect as plants were exposed to combined stresses...
March 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303148/differentiating-wheat-genotypes-by-bayesian-hierarchical-nonlinear-mixed-modeling-of-wheat-root-density
#2
Anton P Wasson, Grace S Chiu, Alexander B Zwart, Timothy R Binns
Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288794/stress-mediated-allee-effects-can-cause-the-sudden-collapse-of-honey-bee-colonies
#3
Ross D Booton, Yoh Iwasa, James A R Marshall, Dylan Z Childs
The recent rapid decline in global honey bee populations could have significant implications for ecological systems, economics and food security. No single cause of honey bee collapse has yet to be identified, although pesticides, mites and other pathogens have all been shown to have a sublethal effect. We present a model of a functioning bee hive and introduce external stress to investigate the impact on the regulatory processes of recruitment to the forager class, social inhibition and the laying rate of the queen...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248236/identification-of-abiotic-stress-protein-biomarkers-by-proteomic-screening-of-crop-cultivar-diversity
#4
REVIEW
Bronwyn J Barkla
Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may contribute to tolerance mechanisms by directly comparing protein abundance under stress conditions between genotypes differing in their stress responses...
September 8, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#5
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
February 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167339/poverty-and-perceived-stress-evidence-from-two-unconditional-cash-transfer-programs-in-zambia
#6
Lisa Hjelm, Sudhanshu Handa, Jacobus de Hoop, Tia Palermo
INTRODUCTION: Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. METHOD: Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months...
January 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163353/can-we-be-certain-about-future-land-use-change-in-europe-a-multi-scenario-integrated-assessment-analysis
#7
I P Holman, C Brown, V Janes, D Sandars
The global land system is facing unprecedented pressures from growing human populations and climatic change. Understanding the effects these pressures may have is necessary to designing land management strategies that ensure food security, ecosystem service provision and successful climate mitigation and adaptation. However, the number of complex, interacting effects involved makes any complete understanding very difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, the recent development of integrated modelling frameworks allows for the exploration of the co-development of human and natural systems under scenarios of global change, potentially illuminating the main drivers and processes in future land system change...
February 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159664/young-adults-use-of-emotional-food-memories-to-build-resilience
#8
Elisabeth von Essen, Fredrika Mårtensson
The overall aim of this study is to specifically investigate how young adults make use of emotional-relational food memories related to "significant others" during childhood when trying to build resilience and solve developmental tasks in this period of life. A theoretical sample of three semi-structured interviews drawn from a larger sample of 30 interviews with young adults in Sweden formed the basis for analysis, guided by the steps of a phenomenologically oriented critical narrative analysis. The results illustrate three different overall directions in how the relationship to food can evolve throughout life among young adults: a relationship dominated by 1) positive emotional food memories associated with the use of food as a secure base and 2) negative emotional food memories associated with either a) being emotionally preoccupied with food or b) dismissing food...
January 31, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117534/climate-trends-account-for-stalled-wheat-yields-in-australia-since-1990
#9
Zvi Hochman, David L Gobbett, Heidi Horan
Global food security requires that grain yields continue to increase to 2050, yet yields have stalled in many developed countries. This disturbing trend has so far been only partially explained. Here, we show that wheat yields in Australia have stalled since 1990 and investigate the extent to which climate trends account for this observation. Based on simulation of 50 sites with quality weather data, that are representative of the agro-ecological zones and of soil types in the grain zone, we show that water-limited yield potential declined by 27% over a 26 year period from 1990 to 2015...
January 24, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081062/prevalence-of-perceived-food-and-housing-security-15-states-2013
#10
Rashid Njai, Paul Siegel, Shaoman Yin, Youlian Liao
Recent global (1) and national (2,3) health equity initiatives conclude that the elimination of health disparities requires improved understanding of social context (4,5) and ability to measure social determinants of health, including food and housing security (3). Food and housing security reflect the availability of and access to essential resources needed to lead a healthy life. The 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included two questions to assess perceived food and housing security in 15 states...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080990/food-system-consequences-of-a-fungal-disease-epidemic-in-a-major-crop
#11
H Charles J Godfray, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson
Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080987/ploidy-dynamics-and-evolvability-in-fungi
#12
REVIEW
Noa Blutraich Wertheimer, Neil Stone, Judith Berman
Rapid responses to acute stresses are essential for stress survival and are critical to the ability of fungal pathogens to adapt to new environments or hosts. The rapid emergence of drug resistance is used as a model for how fungi adapt and survive stress conditions that inhibit the growth of progenitor cells. Aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which are large-scale genome shifts involving whole chromosomes or chromosome arms, occur at higher frequency than point mutations and have the potential to mediate stress survival...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011717/hormonal-regulation-of-reproductive-growth-under-normal-and-heat-stress-conditions-in-legume-and-other-model-crop-species
#13
REVIEW
Jocelyn A Ozga, Harleen Kaur, Raghavendra P Savada, Dennis M Reinecke
Legume crops are grown throughout the world and provide an excellent food source of digestible protein and starch, as well as dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, and flavonoids. Fruit and seeds from legumes are also an important source of vegetables for a well-balanced diet. A trend in elevated temperature as a result of climate change increases the risk of a heat stress-induced reduction in legume crop yield. High temperatures during the crop reproductive development phase are particularly detrimental to fruit/seed production because the growth and development of the reproductive tissues are sensitive to small changes in temperature...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004823/paclobutrazol-induces-tolerance-in-tomato-to-deficit-irrigation-through-diversified-effects-on-plant-morphology-physiology-and-metabolism
#14
Sikander Pal, Jiangsan Zhao, Asif Khan, Narendra Singh Yadav, Albert Batushansky, Simon Barak, Boris Rewald, Aaron Fait, Naftali Lazarovitch, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Dwindling water resources combined with meeting the demands for food security require maximizing water use efficiency (WUE) both in rainfed and irrigated agriculture. In this regard, deficit irrigation (DI), defined as the administration of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is a valuable practice to contain irrigation water use. In this study, the mechanism of paclobutrazol (Pbz)-mediated improvement in tolerance to water deficit in tomato was thoroughly investigated. Tomato plants were subjected to normal irrigated and deficit irrigated conditions plus Pbz application (0...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003311/unlocking-the-potential-of-orphan-legumes
#15
REVIEW
Christopher Cullis, Karl J Kunert
Orphan, or underutilized, legumes are domesticated legumes with useful properties, but with less importance than major world crops due to use and supply constraints. However, they play a significant role in many developing countries, providing food security and nutrition to consumers, as well as income to resource-poor farmers. They have been largely neglected by both researchers and industry due to their limited economic importance in the global market. Orphan legumes are better adapted than the major legume crops to extreme soil and climatic conditions, with high tolerance to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999277/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-adverse-mental-health-indicators-and-lower-quality-of-life-among-koreans-results-from-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2012-2013
#16
Hye-Kyung Chung, Oh Yoen Kim, So Young Kwak, Yoonsu Cho, Kyong Won Lee, Min-Jeong Shin
Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20-64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012-2013). Household food security status was categorized as "food-secure household", "food-insecure household without hunger", and "food-insecure household with hunger"...
December 16, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990290/tropical-fish-in-a-warming-world-thermal-tolerance-of-nile-perch-lates-niloticus-l-in-lake-nabugabo-uganda
#17
Emmanuelle Chrétien, Lauren J Chapman
Key to predicting the response of fishes to climate change is quantifying how close fish are to their critical thermal limits in nature and their ability to adjust their thermal sensitivity to maintain performance. Here, we evaluated the effects of body size and habitat on aerobic scope (AS) and thermal tolerance of Nile perch Lates niloticus (L.), a fish of great economic and food security importance in East Africa, using respirometry and critical thermal maximum (CTmax) trials. Juvenile Nile perch from distinct habitats (high or low dissolved oxygen concentrations) of Lake Nabugabo, Uganda were exposed for 4...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987327/translating-knowledge-about-abiotic-stress-tolerance-to-breeding-programmes
#18
Matthew Gilliham, Jason A Able, Stuart J Roy
Plant breeding and improvements in agronomic practice are making a consistent contribution to increasing global crop production year upon year. However, the rate of yield improvement currently lags behind the targets set to produce enough food to meet the demands of the predicted global population in 2050. Furthermore, crops that are exposed to harmful abiotic environmental factors (abiotic stresses, e.g. water limitation, salinity, extreme temperature) are prone to reduced yields. Here, we briefly describe the processes undertaken in conventional breeding programmes, which are usually designed to improve yields in near-optimal conditions rather than specifically breeding for improved crop yield stability under stressed conditions...
December 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965692/new-insights-on-plant-salt-tolerance-mechanisms-and-their-potential-use-for-breeding
#19
REVIEW
Moez Hanin, Chantal Ebel, Mariama Ngom, Laurent Laplaze, Khaled Masmoudi
Soil salinization is a major threat to agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, where water scarcity and inadequate drainage of irrigated lands severely reduce crop yield. Salt accumulation inhibits plant growth and reduces the ability to uptake water and nutrients, leading to osmotic or water-deficit stress. Salt is also causing injury of the young photosynthetic leaves and acceleration of their senescence, as the Na(+) cation is toxic when accumulating in cell cytosol resulting in ionic imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957885/changing-ploidy-as-a-strategy-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen-shifts-ploidy-in-relation-to-its-sexuality
#20
Ying Li, He Shen, Qian Zhou, Kun Qian, Theo van der Lee, Sanwen Huang
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans was the causal agent of the Irish Great Famine and is a recurring threat to global food security. The pathogen can reproduce both sexually and asexually, with high potential to adapt to various environments and great risk to break disease resistance genes in potato. As are other oomycetes, P. infestans is regarded to be diploid during the vegetative phase of its life cycle, although some studies reported trisomy and polyploidy. Using microsatellite fingerprinting, genome-wide assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms, nuclear DNA quantification, and microscopic counting of chromosome numbers, we assessed the ploidy level of a comprehensive selection of isolates...
January 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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